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We prepared the Nano-sized bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) powders, through a high-energy ball milling process from their oxides Bi2O3 and TiO2. This BIT phase can be formed after a milling process for 40 min. With an increasing milling time, this particle size of mixture is gradually reduced, thus, we have mostly an amorphous phase. The BIT ceramics were duly obtained by sintering the synthesized powders at temperatures ranging from 850°C to 1000°C. The BIT ceramics sintered at 1020°C for 1 h, exhibiting a density with 7.52 g/cm3 of a crystaline phase and a dielectric of K = 288.11 (100 Hz), as well as a dielectric loss of 0.05 (100 kHz). The High-energy ball milling process is a promising way to prepare BIT ceramics. After the preparation of the BIT, we doped it with the Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes which are properly obtained by a chemical vapour deposition (CVD), using nickel as a catalyst, as well as using acetilene at 720°C, and then proceeded with the dielectric and optical measurements.
A numerical simulation study of
the performance of encoding and decoding of short optical pulse in OCDMA (Optical
Code Division Multiple Access) systems under non-linear optical effects is presented. The performance of encoding and decoding short pulses
is obtained through use of device FBG (fiber Bragg grating) where the codes are
inserted through discrete jumps in the optical phase (±π). The multiuser interference is also the object of the
present study, where a figure of merit (interference figure) is used to quantify
the interference in multiuser auto and cross correlation. We evaluate the dependence
of the multiuser interference for the coupling constant of FBG. Finally, the interference
inserted in the autocorrelation due to nonlinear effects generated in the nonlinear
switching of the coded pulse in a dual core nonlinear directional coupler is examined,
where temporal broadening
of pulses decoded is observed.