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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32233 matches for " Antonio Apicella "
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The Basic Elements of Life's
Raffaella Aversa, Victoria Petrescu, Antonio Apicella and Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2016, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2016.1189.1197
Abstract: The four basic elements of life are: Oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus. These four elements are found in abundance in both the human body and in animals. There are other elements that compose the human body, but the four we've highlighted participate in all life processes. Besides, these four elements make up ATP chains (molecule), which governs and controls the body entirely energy processes and physiological and pathological processes of the human body. Oxygen is the pivot, which produces water and air and it is indispensable to the life. Hydrogen participates with oxygen to produce water, without which life would not be possible. Nitrogen with oxygen constitutes basic elements of air that compose the Earth's atmosphere. Phosphorus is the last element of human energy chain. It is the fire and light. In other words, human energy chain consists of four basic elements, or three compounds: Water, air and fire (light). In genetics, all cellular energy processes are driven and controlled by ATP molecule type. If we consider the chain of human genes, account must also be taken of the element carbon. In this mode, the four elements of life become the five elements of life: Oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon.
Microwave Heating of Liquid Foods  [PDF]
Vittorio Romano, Rino Apicella
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.76026
Abstract: A mathematical model has been formulated to describe the heat transfer in liquid foods flowing in circular ducts, subjected to microwave irradiations. Three types of liquids with different rheological behavior are considered: skim milk (Newtonian), apple sauce and tomato sauce as non-New-tonian fluids. Each one can flow with different velocities but always in laminar way. The temperature profiles have been obtained solving the transient momentum and heat equations by numerical resolution using the Finite Element Method. The generation term due to the microwave heating has been evaluated according to Lambert’s law. Dielectric properties are considered to be temperature dependent.
Comparison between Lambert and Maxwell Approaches in the Modelling of Microwave Heating of Liquid Foods  [PDF]
Rino Apicella, Vittorio Romano
Engineering (ENG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2019.111001
Abstract: Microwave heating of liquid foods in laminar flow through a circular tube has been modeled. In particular, skim milk as a Newtonian fluid and apple sauce and tomato sauce as non-Newtonian fluids have been considered. The temperature profiles have been obtained solving the motion and energy equations in transient regime and Maxwell’s equations in the frequency domain. Numerical resolution of Finite Element Method has been implemented in Comsol Multiphysics. The generation term due to the microwave heating has been evaluated according both to Lambert’s law and Poynting theorem. Finally, a comparison between the two methods has been made in order to check to what extent the results obtained with the simpler Lambert’s law approximation are comparable with those deriving from the exact solution of Maxwell equations. Dielectric properties are considered to be temperature dependent.
A Dynamic Model for Gears
Aversa Raffaella, Relly Victoria V. Petrescu, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion T. Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2017.484.490
Abstract: Nearly all models studying the dynamic of gearing with parallel axes are based on classical mechanical models and known which are studying the spinning vibration of shafts gears and determine their own beats and strains of shafts spinning. These classical dynamic models are very useful, but they didn't take in consideration the dynamic events formed between the two teeth in contact (or more pairs of teeth in contact). It's not seen the physiology of the mechanism itself with toothed gears. In this study we do not only account for the impact of teeth (collisions between teeth) but we also consider all the principal dynamic events that are occurring in top gear plane. This article will present an original model that explores the dynamic events originated and taking place in the plane geared couple of the parallel axes geared transmissions. The first measure to be taken for the protection of the environment of pollution of the over a billion motor vehicles with heat engines already in circulation, is to improve the motors and their drives.
Deuteron Dimensions
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu, Aversa Raffaella, Samuel Kozaitis, Apicella Antonio and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2017.649.654
Abstract: The exact sizes of a Deuteron are extremely important today because deuterons are proposed for use as a raw material for the completion of the merger in the nuclear power station. The work proposes a study in the kinematic and dynamic design of a particle deuteron in motion. Mechanical equations of movement introduced are original and have been already determined for the study of a basic particle located in motion, such as for example the electron. The paper presents all the dimensions of a deuteron in motion, determined with an ultra-high precision depending on its speed of travel. The equation of motion has been deducted and using the theory of the mechanisms and of the classic mechanics because they have been used and moments of mechanical inertia mass of a body when it is in motion.
Transportation Engineering
Relly Victoria V. Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion T. Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2017.685.702
Abstract: The shipments were absolutely necessary at all times, but still have polluted and damaged the environment. The technique of transport or the engineering of transport is the application of the principles of technology and scientific findings to the planning, design check, operation and plan management for any mode of transport, in order to ensure that the conditions of safety, efficiency, quick, comfortable and convenient, economic and environmentally compatible movement of persons and goods (transport). It is a sub-discipline for civil engineering. The importance of the transport engineering in the framework of the profession of civil engineering can be evaluated by the number of divisions of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), which are directly related to the transport. There are six such divisions (Aerospace; Air Transport, motorways, pipes, watercourses, port, of coastal and ocean and urban transport), which represents one third of the total 18 technical divisions of the ASCE (1987). Humanity is struggling between technological tests of deployment of new types of mild transport for the environment and the need to maintain still in the operation the machines already polluting products in large quantity, cheaper, more convenient economically, that customers have already been accustomed. Transport is at the heart of major cross-cutting issues that are inseparable from issues related to the development and sustainable management of the mobility of goods and people. The automotive sector must meet several challenges to reduce the emission of particulate and gaseous pollutants while limiting the increase in the cost of vehicles. The development of "clean" or "sustainable" vehicles requires the integration of innovative technologies to meet all these requirements. Those all problems need to be addressed by the discipline named Transportation (Transport) Engineering, in view of the constantly improving the quality of transport carried out.
Some Proposed Solutions to Achieve Nuclear Fusion
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu, Aversa Raffaella, Samuel Kozaitis, Apicella Antonio and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2017.703.708
Abstract: Despite research carried out around the world since the 1950s, no industrial application of fusion to energy production has yet succeeded, apart from nuclear weapons with the H-bomb, since this application does not aims at containing and controlling the reaction produced. There are, however, some other less mediated uses, such as neutron generators. The fusion of light nuclei releases enormous amounts of energy from the attraction between the nucleons due to the strong interaction (nuclear binding energy). Fusion it is with nuclear fission one of the two main types of nuclear reactions applied. The mass of the new atom obtained by the fusion is less than the sum of the masses of the two light atoms. In the process of fusion, part of the mass is transformed into energy in its simplest form: Heat. This loss is explained by the Einstein known formula E = mc2. Unlike nuclear fission, the fusion products themselves (mainly helium 4) are not radioactive, but when the reaction is used to emit fast neutrons, they can transform the nuclei that capture them into isotopes that some of them can be radioactive. In order to be able to start and to be maintained with the success the nuclear fusion reactions, it is first necessary to know all this reactions very well. This means that it is necessary to know both the main reactions that may take place in a nuclear reactor and their sense and effects. The main aim is to choose and coupling the most convenient reactions, forcing by technical means for their production in the reactor. Taking into account that there are a multitude of possible variants, it is necessary to consider in advance the solutions that we consider them optimal. The paper takes into account both variants of nuclear fusion and cold and hot. For each variant will be mentioned the minimum necessary specifications.
Some Basic Reactions in Nuclear Fusion
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu, Aversa Raffaella, Samuel Kozaitis, Apicella Antonio and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2017.709.716
Abstract: Over time it has advanced the idea that the achievement of a hot nuclear reaction can require tens or hundreds of millions of degrees. Precise calculations clearly indicate a much higher temperature. At least 10 million degrees are necessary for 1 keV in thermonuclear reaction. At 400 keV it needs a temperature of 4000 million degrees to occur the hot fusion reaction. Hot fusion needs a temperature of about 4000 million degrees, or 4 billion degrees if we believe in the calculations the radius of deuterium static. If we believe in the calculations the radius of the real, dynamic deuterium, in movement, the temperature required to achieve the warm fusion reaction increases still 10000 times, reaching a value of 40 trillions degrees. Unfortunately, this clarification does not bring us closer to the realization of the hot fusion reaction, but on the contrary, us away from the day when we will be able to achieve it. Today we have only made 150 million degrees. A huge problem is even the achievement of such temperatures. For these reasons we are entitled to think up next following, namely achieving the cold fusion. Authors propose to bomb the fuel with accelerated Deuterium nuclei.
The Quality of Transport and Environmental Protection, Part I
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu, Aversa Raffaella, Samuel Kozaitis, Apicella Antonio and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2017.738.755
Abstract: The today main challenge to protect the environment through the development of new and more efficient transportation systems is presented. The absolutely necessary goods distribution and human transfers are polluting and damaging the environment and new solution should be envisaged; the conflicting strategies to adopt new types of environment friendly transportation while maintaining operative the more economically convenient, but largely polluting, already existing machines are discussed and compared. Shipment is an activity that is occurring since the existence of man who felt the need to find ways for him and his goods transportation. Physical human body limits have led to the discovery of a variety of systems for a continuous transportation evolution. This work analyzes the new environment friendly technologies that have been recently developed or that could be further implemented in the next near future. In view of the constantly improvement of the quality of transportation to be carried out, the transportation sector has various aspects that need to be investigated. Passenger comfort, flexible design, maximum interior space, safety and greater range are main features that improve transportation efficiency while making these technologies more familiar and accepted by consumers. Avoiding any excessive generalization, the three major transportation interacting branches, namely, infrastructures, vehicles and management have been reviewed. Such a complex system needed the application of an evolutionary design approach considering renewable energy sources for Hydrogen production as well as electric or internal combustion engines. The overall transportation network and related terminals have been involved as infrastructures, while all aspects of design, construction, operation diagnostics and traffic interactions have been considered for the vehicles. Finally, the management of the engineering responsibilities chain to ensure quality, safety and environmental impact of the transportation systems has been assessed.
Physiologic Human Fluids and Swelling Behavior of Hydrophilic Biocompatible Hybrid Ceramo-Polymeric Materials
Aversa Raffaella, Relly Victoria V. Petrescu, Apicella Antonio and Florian Ion T. Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2016, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2016.962.972
Abstract: All synthetic and natural materials to be used in biomedical applications that involve the contact with human body need to be investigated for their physical and chemical modification induced by the human physiological fluids contact and sorption. The development and testing in human physiological equivalent fluids of new hybrid biomaterials are presented. The role of water and its equilibrium modification in the human physiology is discussed and the swelling and sorption behavior in the physiological environment of a nanostructured and osteoconductive biomaterials based on Poly-Hydroxyl-Ethyl-Meth Acrylate matrix (pHEMA) filled with fumed amorphous nanosilica particles is presented. This material differently swells in presence of aqueous physiological solution fluid. Biological hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration and growth made using synthetic materials able to correctly interact with the physiological fluids while inducing the growth of biological tissues may favor the birth in the medical field of a new class of hybrid materials. Our multidisciplinary approach explores in the this paper, novel ideas in modeling, design and fabrication of new nanostructured scaffolding biomaterials with enhanced functionality and improved interaction with OB cells.
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