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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2251 matches for " Antoine Mumba Djamba "
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Analysis of Adaptive Response of Maize (Zea mays) Varieties from DR-Congo to Water Stress  [PDF]
Jean Pierre Kabongo Tshiabukole, Amand Mbuya Kankolongo, Gertrude Pongi Khonde, Antoine Mumba Djamba, Roger Kizungu Vumilia, Kabwe Nkongolo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.89153
Abstract: Maize production in tropical Africa is often negatively affected by drought. The main objectives of the present study were to 1) analyze the impact of water stress on the agro-morphological performance of two varieties of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) compared to two normal maize varieties and 2) assess their adaptive response in contrasting water environments. Agro-morphological responses to water deficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) were assessed in controlled experiments using four maize varieties, two normal maize (Zm725 and Mus1) and two quality protein maize (Mudishi1 and Mudishi3) varieties. They were subjected to three water regimes (100%, 60%, 30% water retention capacity) at the beginning of the bloom stage, using a Fischer block design with four replications. Significant differences (p < 0.05) among varieties, water regimes and their interactions for plant growth and production parameters were observed. Reduction of water supply to plants caused changes in aerial and underground plant growth. Plant stem height, foliar expansion, and root system development characterizing vegetative growth showed variation in varietal response to water regimes. Mus1 (normal maize variety) was the best adapted to variations in water regimes because they developed an important root volume to adapt to the effects of water deficit while maintaining their morphological and productive characteristics.
Simulation of Growth and Leaf Area Index of Quality Protein Maize Varieties in the Southwestern Savannah Region of the DR-Congo  [PDF]
Jean Pierre Kabongo Tshiabukole, Roger Kizungu Vumilia, Gertrude Pongi Khonde, Jean Claude Lukombo Lukeba, Amand Mbuya Kankolongo, Antoine Mumba Djamba, Kabwe K. C. Nkongolo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.106070
Abstract: Logistic and exponential approaches have been used to simulate plant growth and leaf area index (LAI) in different growing conditions. The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate an approach to simulate maize LAI that expresses key physiological and phonological processes using a minimum entry requirement for Quality Protein maize (QPM) varieties grown in the southwestern region of the DR-Congo. Data for the development and testing of the model were collected manually in experimental plots using a non-destructive method. Simulation results revealed measurable variations between crop seasons (long season A and short season B) and between the two varieties (Mudishi-1 and Mudishi-3) for height, number of visible leaves, and LAI. For both seasons, Mudishi-3, a short stature variety was associated with expected stable yield based on simulation data. In general, the model simulated reliably all the parameters including the LAI. The LAI value for mudishi-1 was higher than that of Mudishi-3. There were significant differences among the model parameters (K, Ti, a, b, Tf) and between the two varieties. In all crop conditions studied and for the two varieties, the senescence rate (a) was higher, while the growth rate (b) was lower compared to the estimates based on the STICS model.
Evaluation of Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Eight Maize Varieties, Soybean and Cowpea in the Zone of Savanna of South-West RD Congo  [PDF]
Pongi Khonde, Kabongo Tshiabukole, Mbuya Kankolongo, Stefan Hauser, Mumba Djamba, Kizungu Vumilia, Kabwe Nkongolo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103746
Abstract:
In order to enhance the legumes potential advantages on the cereal yield in intercropping system by nitrogen direct transfer from legume to cereal, an intercropping experiment was conducted between eight maize varieties (07SADVE, 08SADVE 1, 09SADVE F2, Mudishi 1, Mudishi 3, VP0523, ZM538 and Samaru), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var. H4) and soybean (Glycine max var. Vuangi) during November 2011-February 2012 season at INERA/Mvuazi in the south-western country of DR Congo. The experimental design was a Split plot with four replications, twenty six treatments were applied between maize varieties monocrops (40.000 plant·ha﹣1) and legumes in monoculture (360.000 plant·ha﹣1) and both of sole planting were combined. Evaluation of these soles planting was performed on basis of several intercropping indices (MYE, LER, ATER, RCC, A and CR), the monetary advantage index (MAI), Actual Yield Loss index (AYL) and intercropping index (IA). After data analysis, competitivity indices indicated the higher yields advantages of maize varieties in intercropping, especially Mudishi 3-soybean (MYE = 2836.300 kg·ha﹣1). The equivalent land ratio (LER) varied with 08SADVE 1variety between 0.70 and 1.66 in cowpea and soybean intercrops respectively, the Relative crowding coefficient (RCC) showed yield advantage of all intercrops except with 09SADVE F2, Mudishi 1 and 07SADVE. Aggressivity (A) showed dominance of maize in all intercrops, against the Competitive ratio (CR) showed that the competitivity was stronger on cowpea (from 16.42 to 98.63) than soybean (from 16.12 to 25.70). Actual yield loss (AYL) was negative in all intercrops with cowpea and soybean. Thus, the index of association (IA) informed that the negative values of the different intercrops were due to the maize price (1000 CDF·kg﹣1) and legumes price (1500 CDF·kg﹣1). Finally, the monetary advantage index (MAI = 922.92) and PCA had determined that intercrop with Mudishi 3-soybean as an economic efficiency intercrop than others mixtures.
Challenges Associated with Serving the Diverse Needs of American Indian Families through Current Provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act  [PDF]
Sonya Smith, Yanyi K. Djamba
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.51003
Abstract: Historical reviews of American Indian Culture reveal an indigenous population rooted in the dichotomy of societal misunderstanding and victimization. This dichotomy illustrates repeated occurrence of incidents involving the removal, assimilation or extinction of American Indian children. This analysis of the Indian Child Welfare Act focuses on the heart of American Indian culture which is the well-being of American Indian children. Information used in this paper comes from the review of literature, census data and oral narratives obtained through a convenience sample of American Indian people interviewed in Alabama. The results of this study reveal the diversity of American Indian people seen throughout the United States, as well as in the state of Alabama. Unfortunately, the provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act are only intended for American Indian children from federally recognized tribes and exclude American Indian children from state recognized tribes. This study concludes with a discussion of the contributions and limitations of the Indian Child Welfare Act and calls for expanded services to serve all American Indian populations in the United States.
Migration, Sexual Behavior and Perceptions of Risk: Is the Place of Origin a Factor in HIV Infection?  [PDF]
Sitawa R. Kimuna, Yanyi K. Djamba
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.23023
Abstract: Migration is an important process of change, especially for populations in developing countries. Just by moving to new places, migrants are different from those who do not migrate in terms of socio-demographic characteristics. This study focuses on migration in Kenya and its interaction with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk. Two main research questions are addressed: To what extend does the sexual behavior of migrants differ from non-migrants? Do migrants know more about HIV risk than non- migrants? The analysis is based on the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data. The results show that migrants are significantly more likely to report fear of HIV infection than non-migrants. The perception of risky sexual behavior is significantly correlated with non-use of condoms for migrants than for non-migrants. Migrants who perceive themselves as being at risk of HIV infection are less likely to use a condom at their last non-marital sexual encounter. Also, migration is significantly correlated with multiple sexual partners. There is a remarkable difference in the mean age of migrants and non-migrants; migrants on average are significantly older and more likely to be married than non-migrants.
The State of Sexual Health in the US South: Opportunities and Challenges  [PDF]
Yanyi K. Djamba, Theresa C. Davidson, Mosisa G. Aga
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.24039
Abstract: This paper examines the socio-demographic characteristics and the state of sexual health in the US South, a region comprised of 10 states: Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The results show that the region is home to 18 percent of the US population, but its residents are statistically significantly more likely to have lower educational attainment and to live in poverty than other US residents. In addition, residents of the US South have poor sexual health compared to their counterparts living in other regions. Teenagers who live in the US South are more likely to get pregnant and have babies than teenagers in other regions. Likewise, the rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea among females age 15 - 19 were higher in the US South than elsewhere in the US. This poor sexual health cost the 10 US South states an estimated $2.3 billion in 2008. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sexual health challenges and opportunities in the US South in light of new federal funding streams that allow for the use of evidence-based approaches in sexual health programs.
Incidence of Rotavirus Infection among Under-Five Children Attending Health Centres in Selected Communities of Ndola, Copperbelt Province, Zambia  [PDF]
Julia Shachakanza, Joseph Mumba Zulu, Margaret Maimbolwa
Health (Health) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/health.2019.113026
Abstract: Rotavirus infection is a highly infectious public health concern among under-five children characterized mainly by diarrhoea, vomiting and fever spread through oral fecal route from contaminated water, food and objects. Diarrhoea ranks third among the common causes of mortality in Zambia among under-fives which accounts for about 9%. Statistics obtained at Ndola District Health Management Office revealed that in spite of high coverage of rotavirus vaccine, diarrhoea incidence had risen over the years from 2011 to 2015 by 32.9/1000. Currently stool is not routinely tested for rotavirus infection, making it difficult to determine its incidence and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine (RotarixTM), an intervention that was put in place on 27th November 2013 to mitigate diarrhoea disease. The objective of this study is to determine incidence of rotavirus infection among under-fives attending health centres in selected communities of Ndola. Purposive sampling was used to select 380 under-fives aged 3 months - 36 months who presented at health facilities with diarrhoea, vomiting and fever. Stool specimen was tested for rotavirus infection using Combi-Strip Rapid Diagnostic Test. The study was conducted at specified period in time from 1st March 2017 to 28th September 2017 to determine relationships and associations among suspected variables using cross-sectional analytic community based study design. Statistical Package for Social Science software was used for data analysis. Tests used included Pearson’s Chi-square and logistic regression. Results have revealed 11% incidence rate of rotavirus infection and significant statistical association among severity categories of rotavirus infection with uptake of rotavirus vaccine (p ≤ 0.001). Children who took two recommended doses of the vaccine 185 (59.5%) were more likely to have mild category (<7 score) of rotavirus infection. In conclusion, results clearly indicate that rotavirus vaccine reduces incidence and if a child has diarrhoea it is less severe which yields good outcomes.
Uptake of Rotavirus Vaccine and Factors That Contributed to Its Adoption and Acceptability by Parents/Guardians in Selected Communities of Ndola, Copperbelt Province, Zambia  [PDF]
Julia Shachakanza, Joseph Mumba Zulu, Margaret Maimbolwa
Health (Health) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/health.2019.114037
Abstract: Rotavirus infection is recognized as a major cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis infection affecting the stomach and intestinal tract in infants and young children worldwide leading to diarrhoea and vomiting. Most of the children would have had rotavirus infection by the time they are five years old. The disease is highly contagious and unpredictable as it can lead to dehydration due to severe loss of body fluid and consequently to death. World Health Organization recommended the use of two vaccines, RotaTeqR and RotarixTM to be used in countries with high diarrhoea related mortality in under-five children. In Zambia rotavirus vaccine (RotarixTM) was rolled out to other parts of the country in its immunization program on 27th November 2013 after a successful pilot study in Lusaka in 2012 to reduce on diarrhoea caused by rotavirus infection among under-five children which had caused 9% of deaths. The objectives for this study were to establish uptake of rotavirus vaccine among under-fives and factors that shaped its adoption and acceptability at community level in Ndola, Zambia. Study design was cross sectional analytic community based which was conducted from 1st March 2017 to 28th September 2017 to compare factors that contributed to its uptake. Sample size consisted of 380 respondents who were parents/guardians to under-five children aged 3 - 36 months residing in two homogenous selected communities. Purposive sampling was used to select study sites and respondents. This paper used triangulation method of data collection which included checklist, structured interview schedule and discussion guide tools. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used for quantitative data analysis and Atlas.ti for qualitative data obtained from Focus Group Discussions (FGD) using hermeneutics theoretical frames to identify linkages and associations of variables. Results have shown that majority (85.3%) of under-fives received two recommended rotavirus vaccine (high uptake). Under-fives aged between 13 - 18 months were 11.32 times more likely to receive high uptake of rotavirus vaccine than other age groups. Availability of rotavirus vaccine at health facilities (p = 0.035) contributed to its adoption and acceptability. In conclusion, availability of rotavirus vaccine at health facilities had an impact on its uptake and adoption.
Bridging Departmental Communication Gaps in Quasi-Institutions: A Case Study of ZESCO Limited  [PDF]
Joan Mumba, Jackson Phiri
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.74138
Abstract: Communication is seen as the key factor in the success of any organization but when it comes to effective communication, there are certain barriers that every organization faces. Large organisations have deficiencies in their decentralized departments especially when dealing with large volume of clientele whose needs are divided amongst their personal and organizational obligations. Hence communication gaps leading to conflicts and information breakdown among employees in the organization. The ramifications of these conflicts and broken information flow has been poor performance of team members, negative impact on general productivity, inefficiencies in responding to clients’ demands, bad publicity for the company and lose of million in service delay. It is against this background that the aim of this study was to identify the major factors leading to intra and inter departmental communication gaps in Quasi-Institutions and come up with a model in order to address these communication gaps. The study used a quantitative study approach based on a sample space of 150 self-administered survey questionnaires with 83% response from Quasi-Government Institutions. Quantitative data was analysed using Chi-square and P-value statistical analysis with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software tool. The study found that there are existing communication gaps due to conflicts within and between departments. This was validated by the results from chi-square test which yielded a chi-square value of 4.419 and the p-value of 0.036. The difference was statistically significant at 4.419, because p-value (0.036) was less than alpha level (α = 0.05). Hence, the results suggested that respondents deal with conflict at their place of work. Further results revealed that, personal conflicts are not always sorted out quickly by supervisors and managers, poor inter-personal communication, and poor inter-departmental communications are the causes of the existing communication gaps. The study therefore recommended that management should provide conflict
Screening for Resistance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes on Alectra vogelii  [PDF]
C. K. Phiri, V. H. Kabambe, J. Bokosi, P. Mumba
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.96099
Abstract: Parasitic angiosperm Alectra vogelii Benth is a growing problem in Malawi, particularly with current emphasis on legumes. Therefore, two studies were set in order to understand the possible mechanisms of resistance in cowpea genotypes on their reaction to the parasitic weed. In the first experiment, Mkanakaufiti, IT99K-7-21-2-2XIT82E-16, Sudan 1 and IT82E-16 were grown in Alectra infested and non-infested pots. The experiment (2*4 factorial treatment combination) was arranged in an RCBD and replicated eight times. The second experiment, involved Petri-dish techniques where 4 genotype roots were assessed on their ability to stimulate the germination of A. vogelii as a proxy for germination stimulant production. The experiment was arranged in an RCBD and replicated five times. In the first experiment, data was collected on; the number of days to first Alectra emergence, Alectra shoot counts at 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after planting (WAP), Alectra attachment at 5 and 12 WAP, Alectra biomass at 12 WAP, cowpea biomass parameters at 5 and 12 WAP, yield and yield components per pot. While in the second experiment, number of germinated Alectra seeds per Petri dishes was recorded. The results indicated that IT82E-16 (33.25 days) and Sudan 1 (34.25 days) were earlier infested whilst late on IT99K-7-21-2-2XIT82E-16 (38 days) which correlated to the number of Alectra attachments. There were significant differences (p = 0.05) in weekly Alectra counts between cowpea varieties from 6 up to 10 WAP. Mkanakaufiti and IT99K-7-21-2-2XIT82E-16 were observed with no and few Alectra shoots infestation respectively which was an indicator of resistance mechanism in the study. Number of pods, grain weight (g) and harvest index per pot were significantly affected by inoculation protocol with lower yield on infested cowpea genotypes. The same trend was observed on cowpea varieties where Mkanakaufiti (21.9 g/pot) shown higher yield followed by IT82E-16 (12.5 g/pot) which is susceptible but with tolerance ability to the parasitic weed. The study has shown that resistance mechanisms can be categorized as no or few Alectra shoots, death of Alectra shoots and late infestation. In the Petri dishes, only 3 WAP grown Mkanakaufiti root media failed to induce the germination of Alectra seeds while the opposite occurred on IT82E-16, Sudan 1 and IT99K-7-21-2-2XIT82E-16. On the contrary, 4 WAP grown root media of the four genotypes stimulated Alectra
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