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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17203 matches for " Anti-HIV agents/economics "
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Sustentabilidade da política de acesso a medicamentos anti-retrovirais no Brasil
Grangeiro,Alexandre; Teixeira,Luciana; Bastos,Francisco I.; Teixeira,Paulo;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102006000800009
Abstract: objective: the expense of acquiring antiretroviral drugs in brazil has given rise to debate about the sustainability of the policy of universal access to aids medications, despite the evident benefits. the objective of this study was to analyze the evolution of the ministry of health's spending on acquiring antiretroviral drugs from 1998 to 2005, the determining factors and the medium-term sustainability of this policy (2006-2008). methods: the study on the evolution of spending on antiretrovirals included analysis of their prices, the year-by-year expenditure, the number of patients utilizing the medication, the mean expenditure per patient and the strategies for reducing the prices maintained during this period. to analyze the sustainability of the policy for access to antiretrovirals, the cost of acquiring the drugs over the period from 2006 to 2008 was estimated, along with the proportion of gross domestic product and federal health expenditure represented by this spending. the data were collected from the ministry of health, the brazilian institute for geography and statistics (ibge) and the ministry of planning. results: the expenditure on antiretrovirals increased by 66% in 2005, breaking the declining trend observed over the period from 2000 to 2004. the main factors associated with this increase were the weakening of the national generics industry and the unsatisfactory results from the process of negotiating with pharmaceutical companies. conclusions: the brazilian policy for universal access is unsustainable at the present growth rates of the gross domestic product, unless the country compromises its investments in other fields.
International response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic: planning for success
Piot,Peter; Coll Seck,Awa Marie;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001001200006
Abstract: more assertive political leadership in the global response to aids in both poor and rich countries culminated in june 2001 at the un general assembly special session on aids. delegates made important commitments there, and endorsed a global strategy framework for shifting the dynamics of the epidemic by simultaneously reducing risk, vulnerability and impact. this points the way to achievable progress in the fight against hiv/aids. evidence of success in tackling the spread of aids comes from diverse programme areas, including work with sex workers and clients, injecting drug users, and young people. it also comes from diverse countries, including india, the russian federation, senegal, thailand, the united republic of tanzania, and zambia. their common feature is the combination of focused approaches with attention to the societywide context within which risk occurs. similarly, building synergies between prevention and care has underpinned success in brazil and holds great potential for sub-saharan africa, where 90% reductions have been achieved in the prices at which antiretroviral drugs are available. success also involves overcoming stigma, which undermines community action and blocks access to services. work against stigma and discrimination has been effectively carried out in both health sector and occupational settings. accompanying attention to the conditions for success against hiv/aids is global consensus on the need for additional resources. the detailed estimate of required aids spending in low- and middle-income countries is us$ 9.2 billion annually, compared to the $ 2 billion currently spent. additional spending should be mobilized by the new global fund to fight aids, tuberculosis and malaria, but needs to be joined by additional government and private efforts within countries, including from debt relief. commitment and capacity to scale up hiv prevention and care have never been stronger. the moment must be seized to prevent a global catastrophe.
International response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic: planning for success
Piot Peter,Coll Seck Awa Marie
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: More assertive political leadership in the global response to AIDS in both poor and rich countries culminated in June 2001 at the UN General Assembly Special Session on AIDS. Delegates made important commitments there, and endorsed a global strategy framework for shifting the dynamics of the epidemic by simultaneously reducing risk, vulnerability and impact. This points the way to achievable progress in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Evidence of success in tackling the spread of AIDS comes from diverse programme areas, including work with sex workers and clients, injecting drug users, and young people. It also comes from diverse countries, including India, the Russian Federation, Senegal, Thailand, the United Republic of Tanzania, and Zambia. Their common feature is the combination of focused approaches with attention to the societywide context within which risk occurs. Similarly, building synergies between prevention and care has underpinned success in Brazil and holds great potential for sub-Saharan Africa, where 90% reductions have been achieved in the prices at which antiretroviral drugs are available. Success also involves overcoming stigma, which undermines community action and blocks access to services. Work against stigma and discrimination has been effectively carried out in both health sector and occupational settings. Accompanying attention to the conditions for success against HIV/AIDS is global consensus on the need for additional resources. The detailed estimate of required AIDS spending in low- and middle-income countries is US$ 9.2 billion annually, compared to the $ 2 billion currently spent. Additional spending should be mobilized by the new global fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, but needs to be joined by additional government and private efforts within countries, including from debt relief. Commitment and capacity to scale up HIV prevention and care have never been stronger. The moment must be seized to prevent a global catastrophe.
Avalia??o das metas de recursos previstos na declara??o sobre HIV/Aids das Na??es Unidas
Teixeira,Luciana;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102006000800008
Abstract: this study evaluates the targets of the united nations declaration on hiv/aids resource targets, the attainment of which are premised on promoting three fronts: reduction of material and services costs, increased efficiency in access to and management of funds, and the channeling of new funds. data were derived from studies of national accounts of hiv/aids in latin america and the caribbean and from the recent available literature on the global dynamics of hiv/aids resources. the economic concept of global public good occurs throughout the text. the article discusses factors that constrain funding, and thus compel the adoption of new strategies in brazil. the issues addressed include: difficulties in maintaining the downward tendency in the cost of items related to the hiv/aids epidemic, the incorporation each year of thousands of persons needing antiviral therapy, the rise in patient survival and increased diagnosis for the control of hiv/aids transmission. it is concluded that, in order to guarantee additional resources to combat the epidemic, the discussion on funding must necessarily focus on both the share of aids support for the brazilian ministry of health, and, more importantly, on an increase in health funding as a whole. the recognition that hiv/aids control contributes to the global public good should facilitate increases in development assistance from international funding sources.
The Anti-HIV Actions of 7- and 10-Substituted Camptothecins
Yu-Ye Li,Shi-Wu Chen,Liu-Meng Yang,Rui-Rui Wang,Wei Pang,Yong-Tang Zheng
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15010138
Abstract: Camptothecin (CPT), a traditional anti-tumor drug, has been shown to possess anti-HIV-1 activity. To increase the antiviral potency, the anti-HIV activities of two CPT derivatives, 10-hydroxy-CPT and 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT, were evaluated in vitro. The therapy index (TI) of CPT, 10-hydroxy-CPT and 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT against HIV-1IIIB in C8166 were 24.2, 4.2 and 198.1, and against clinical isolated strain HIV-1KM018 in PBMC were 10.3, 3.5 and 66.0, respectively. While the TI of CPT, 10-hydroxy-CPT and 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT against HIV-2CBL-20 were 34.5, 10.7 and 317.0, respectively, and the TI of the three compounds against HIV-2ROD showed the similar values. However, when the antiviral mechanisms were considered, we found there was no inhibition of 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT on viral cell-to-cell transmission, and was no inhibition on reverse transcriptase, protease or integrase in cell-free systems. 7-Hydroxymethyl-CPT showed no selective killing of chronically infected cells after 3 days of incubation. In conclusion, 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT showed more potent anti-HIV activity, while 10-hydroxy-CPT had less efficient activity, compared with the parent CPT. Though the antiviral mechanisms remain to be further elucidated; the modification of -OH residues at C-7 of CPT could enhance the antiviral activity, while of -OH residues at C-10 of CPT had decreased the antiviral activity, which provides the preliminary modification strategy for anti-viral activities enhancement of this compound.
Assistência aos pacientes com HIV/Aids no Brasil
Portela,Margareth Crisóstomo; Lotrowska,Michel;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102006000800010
Abstract: this study was intended to assess care provided to those living with hiv/aids in brazil and the brazilian unified health system (sus) capacity of delivering interventions to cope with the epidemic as well as to discuss the sustainability of the brazilian initiative of providing universal free access to antiretrovirals (arvs). original data from a study comprising 119 respondents on the potential capacity of delivering a prospective hiv vaccine in brazil was used. inpatient and pharmaceutical care was based on data from the sus hospital information system and drug logistics management systems of the national program for std/aids. the study results indicate good performance of the brazilian arv access program but access to treatment of opportunistic infections was, however, unsatisfactory. the rates covered by sus for aids hospital admissions remained very low, on average around r$700 in 2004. health care to hiv/aids patients has been considered a citizen's right strongly supported by an effective joint action of the brazilian government and civil society. the current challenges are fine monitoring of processes and program results and ensuring sustainability of universal free arv access.
Experience of a pediatric HIV clinic in Guatemala City
Samayoa,Blanca; Anderson,Matthew R.; Grazioso,Carlos; Rivera,Blanca Estela; Harrison,Margo; O'Brien,William; Arathoon,Eduardo;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892009000100008
Abstract: objectives: to describe the clinical experience of a guatemalan pediatric hiv clinic and referral center, and fill the gap in literature available on pediatric hiv in guatemala, a country facing a growing hiv epidemic. methods: analyses were performed on data available from the clinical databases maintained by the clínica familiar luis ángel garcía within the hospital general san juan de dios in guatemala city, guatemala. results: from january 1997-june 2006, a total of 536 children (individuals under 13 years of age) were registered at the clinic, 54% of them female. at the initial visit, 241 were known to be hiv infected, while 295 were known to have been exposed to hiv, but were of undetermined infection status. of the 295 with undetermined status, serostatus was determined in 173, and 57 (33%) were hiv positive. the patients came from all 24 departments of guate mala, but the majority (64%) was from guatemala city. most had perinatal exposure; three patients had been sexually exposed to hiv (all male); and the mode of infection could not be determined for six children. in the cohort of children whose infection status was initially undetermined, the provision of antiretroviral (arv) medication (both pre- and neonatal), in addition to cesarean section, was associated with an odds ratio of 0.06 for hiv infection (p < 0.001) when compared to children who had no interventions. highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart) was administered to 167 hiv-infected children. there were 44 known deaths in this cohort; no deaths occurred among the children who were not infected. conclusions: pediatric hiv/aids is present in all parts of guatemala. programs to prevent mother to child transmission and to provide appropriate treatment to families living with hiv/aids must be a public health priority.
Cost to the general scheme of the health insurance fund and distinctive features of the outpatient population treated with antiretroviral therapy in 2000 in metropolitan France.
Silvera L,Flori YA,Slota L,Chinaud F
Revue Médicale de l'Assurance Maladie , 2004,
Abstract: Aims: To determine the number of patients treated with antiretroviral agents purchased from community-based, private chemists and to assess the global reimbursement costs for the general scheme of the French health insurance fund. Method: We performed a cross-sectional survey by using reimbursement data from the general scheme of the French health insurance fund stricto sensu . We enrolled all patients who were reimbursed for at least one antiretroviral agent they had purchased from a city-based, private chemist during the last quarter of 2000. Results: We enrolled a total of 11,890 patients whose average age was 39.5 years. The male-female sex ratio was 2.7. Nearly all the patients (96,3 %) were waived from co-payments since their illness figured on the list of long-term disorders which are reimbursed 100 % by the healthfund. One-half of the patients did not file any reimbursement request for a hospitalization during the year 2000. The healthfund reimbursed an average of 12,404 euros per patient over the year including 8,263 euros for medications. Average expenditures for patients receiving antiretroviral agents were nearly 11 times the expenditures for the average beneficiary in the general population. Medication costs for these patients were 39 times more than in the population in general. Conclusion: This type of easily reproducible study can enable the healthfund to carefully follow changes in care related to HIVpositive patients, particularly with respect to the out-patient medications they purchase. These data can be complemented by data from mandatory HIV reporting as well as from information concerning patients receiving in-patient hospital care. The development of a drug-coding system for medications delivered by hospitals will eventually enable us to follow the entire population of patients treated with antiretroviral drugs in France.
Potential Anti-HIV Agents from Marine Resources: An Overview
Thanh-Sang Vo,Se-Kwon Kim
Marine Drugs , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/md8122871
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and is a global public health issue. Anti-HIV therapy involving chemical drugs has improved the life quality of HIV/AIDS patients. However, emergence of HIV drug resistance, side effects and the necessity for long-term anti-HIV treatment are the main reasons for failure of anti-HIV therapy. Therefore, it is essential to isolate novel anti-HIV therapeutics from natural resources. Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed regarding marine-derived anti-HIV agents such as phlorotannins, sulfated chitooligosaccharides, sulfated polysaccharides, lectins and bioactive peptides. This contribution presents an overview of anti-HIV therapeutics derived from marine resources and their potential application in HIV therapy.
Eventos adversos relacionados à profilaxia anti-retroviral em acidentes ocupacionais
Medeiros,Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo; Bakowski,Elcio; Sassi,Silvia Janice Gomes; Destra,Alessandra Santana;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102007000200018
Abstract: the objective of the study was to describe adverse events detected clinically or in the laboratory that were secondary to the use of antiretroviral agents among individuals undergoing antiretroviral prophylaxis. evaluations were performed on 37 teaching hospital employees who underwent prophylaxis using four regimens of antiretroviral medication following occupational exposition to contaminated fluids from patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. thirty-two (86.5%) developed adverse events detected clinically or in the laboratory. the prophylaxis administered to two professionals (5.4%) had to be suspended because of the reactions that occurred. adverse events relating to prophylaxis for hiv infection in health care workers who were victims of occupational accidents were frequent. however, it was rarely necessary to withdraw the antiretroviral medication.
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