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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 331020 matches for " Anthony S Blinkhorn "
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Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study
Amit Arora, Jane A Scott, Sameer Bhole, Loc Do, Eli Schwarz, Anthony S Blinkhorn
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-28
Abstract: This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a) initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b) introduction of solid food, c) intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d) fluoride exposure, and e) oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence.This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney.Dental caries (decay) is one of the most prevalent chronic childhood diseases worldwide and is a major problem both from a population health perspective and for individual families who have to deal with a young child suffering from toothache [1-3]. In 1996, 39 percent of Australian 6 year-old children had dental caries [4,5], and since that time caries experience in Australian children in all States and Territories has increased [5,6]. The 2002 Child Dental Health Survey of Australia reported that 45 percent of 5-year-olds had one or more decayed or missing teeth and 10 percent of those children examined were found to have more than seven decayed teeth [7]. Local data from the Centre for Oral Health Strategy (NSW Health) indicates that despite water fluoridation, dental caries is a major public health
Third Molar Removal and Orofacial Pain: a Population-Based Survey
Tatiana V. Macfarlane,Anthony S. Blinkhorn,Laura J. Stevenson,Paul Coulthard
Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Research , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: The aim of the current study was to investigate whether there was a relationship between a history of third molar removal and the prevalence of orofacial pain in a sample of the general population.Material and methods: A survey was conducted in South East Cheshire, United Kingdom (81% participation rate). Information was collected using postal questionnaires (n = 1510) and dental records (n = 809).Results: Participants who reported third molar extractions were more likely to report orofacial pain (RR = 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 - 1.65). Participants with a more recent history of extractions (< 8 years ago) as recorded in dental records were more likely to report orofacial pain compared to those who had all third molar present (RR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.10 - 3.32).Conclusions: This research suggests that self-reported third molar removal is linked to self-reported orofacial pain, however evidence from one study is not sufficient to give an unequivocal answer.
Experiences of dental care: what do patients value?
Alexandra Sbaraini, Stacy M Carter, Wendell Evans, Anthony Blinkhorn
BMC Health Services Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-177
Abstract: Seventeen patients were interviewed. Data analysis consisted of transcript coding, detailed memo writing, and data interpretation.Patients described their experiences when visiting dental practices with and without a structured preventive approach in place, together with the historical, biological, financial, psychosocial and habitual dimensions of their experience. Potential barriers that could hinder preventive activities as well as facilitators for prevention were also described. The offer of preventive dental care and advice was an amazing revelation for this group of patients as they realized that dentists could practice dentistry without having to “drill and fill” their teeth. All patients, regardless of the practice they came from or their level of clinical risk of developing dental caries, valued having a caring dentist who respected them and listened to their concerns without “blaming” them for their oral health status. These patients complied with and supported the preventive care options because they were being “treated as a person not as a patient” by their dentists. Patients valued dentists who made them aware of existing preventive options, educated them about how to maintain a healthy mouth and teeth, and supported and reassured them frequently during visits.Patients valued having a supportive and caring dentist and a dedicated dental team. The experience of having a dedicated, supportive and caring dentist helped patients to take control of their own oral health. These dentists and dental teams produced profound changes in not just the oral health care routines of patients, but in the way patients thought about their own oral health and the role of dental professionals.
How to do a grounded theory study: a worked example of a study of dental practices
Alexandra Sbaraini, Stacy M Carter, R Evans, Anthony Blinkhorn
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-128
Abstract: We documented a worked example of using grounded theory methodology in practice.We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Grounded theory methodology assisted us to develop a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and to analyse variation in this process in different dental practices.By employing grounded theory methodology rigorously, medical researchers can better design and justify their methods, and produce high-quality findings that will be more useful to patients, professionals and the research community.Qualitative research is increasingly popular in health and medicine. In recent decades, qualitative researchers in health and medicine have founded specialist journals, such as Qualitative Health Research, established 1991, and specialist conferences such as the Qualitative Health Research conference of the International Institute for Qualitative Methodology, established 1994, and the Global Congress for Qualitative Health Research, established 2011 [1-3]. Journals such as the British Medical Journal have published series about qualitative methodology (1995 and 2008) [4,5]. Bodies overseeing human research ethics, such as the Canadian Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, and the Australian National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research [6,7], have included chapters or sections on the ethics of qualitative research. The increasing popularity of qualitative methodologies for medical research has led to an increasing awareness of formal qualitative methodologies. This is particularly so for grounded theory, one of the most-cited qualitative methodologies in medical research [[8], p47].Grounded theory has a chequered history [9]. Many authors label their work 'grounded theory' but do not follow the basics of the methodo
Qualitative System Dynamics as a Tool in Accessible Design  [PDF]
Anthony S. White
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.41008
Abstract: A description of the Systems Dynamics paradigm is given and the reduced Qualitative System Dynamics (QSD) form explained. A simple example is given to illustrate the diagram construction. The principles of states (levels), rates and feedback loops are outlined. The QSD method is used to address the problem of accessibility by using human control of automation as an example, and applying the QSD method to evaluate the effects of the researcher and user in the de- sign of an accessible artefact. This simple automation model illustrates what can be found out from such a picture, in this indicating how the feedback from users has an influence on the time to deliver such designs.
Ranking of E-Health Barriers Faced by Saudi Arabian Citizens, Healthcare Professionals and IT Specialists in Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Saleh Almuayqil, Anthony S. Atkins, Bernadette Sharp
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.810104
Abstract: Many boundaries are hindering successful utilisation of e-health in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We have previously proposed an integrated framework of knowledge management and knowledge discovery to overcome barriers of e-health in KSA. Our proposed framework facilitates diabetes self-management for diabetic citizens in the Kingdom. In this paper, we will investigate and rank the barriers of e-health in KSA from the prospective of three stakeholders. We designed a questionnaire which constituted of items related to eight different e-health barriers and its associated sub-barriers. Citizens participated in 51 items related to six barriers. Healthcare professionals answered 83 items related to eight barriers. IT specialists participated in 74 items related to six barriers. Within each group of respondents, we compared the mean scores for each factor and sub-factor. The highest possible score for the mean was 5.00 and the lowest was 0.00 where the higher the mean score was the more the barrier constituted an obstacle for e-health in KSA. Citizens ranked the connectivity of information system as the top barrier with the mean of 4.0 whereas the least barrier was the cultural barriers with the mean score of 3.1. Healthcare professionals ranked the connectivity of information systems as the top barriers with the mean score of 3.5 whereas the least barrier was the technical expertise and computer skills with the mean score of 2.2. The top ranked barrier from the perspective of IT specialists was the medication safety with the mean score of 3.5 and the least ranked barrier was security and privacy with the mean score of 2.2. The results showed consistency with the literature review. Our proposed framework will contribute to the successful implementation of e-health initiatives and assist citizens in KSA to self- manage diabetes.
Application of the SECI Model Using Web Tools to Support Diabetes Self-Management and Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Saleh Almuayqil, Anthony S. Atkins, Bernadette Sharp
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2017.95008
Abstract: The area of knowledge management, the SECI mode in particular, has great value in terms of enriching patients’ knowledge about their diseases and its complications. Despite its effectiveness, the application of knowledge management in the healthcare sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia seems deficient, leading to insufficient practice of self-management and education of different prevalent diseases in the Kingdom. Moreover, the SECI model seems to be only focusing in the conversion of human knowledge and ignore knowledge stored in databases and other technological means. In this paper, we propose a framework to support diabetic patients and healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to self-manage their disease. Data mining and the SECI model can provide effective mechanisms to support people with diabetes mellitus. The area of data mining has long been utilised to discover useful knowledge whereas the SECI model facilitates knowledge conversion between tacit and explicit knowledge among different individuals. The paper also investigates the possibilities of applying the model in the web environment and reviews the tools available in the internet that can apply the four modes of the SECI model. This review helps in providing a new median for knowledge management by addressing several cultural obstacles in the Kingdom.
A Control Theoretical Model of Web Service Value Development  [PDF]
Anthony S. White, Doreen Nielsen, Michael Censlive
Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation (OJMSi) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojmsi.2019.72007
Abstract: This paper describes a control theoretical model of collaborative value development. This model is designed to assist managers in choosing parameters that are critical to the development process in service design and support their Business Model. This methodology uses control system modelling of web-based service value generation implemented in SIMULINK/MATLAB. An application based on public domain Wikipedia data is used to validate and develop the model. A control theoretic model applied to the creation of Wikipedia articles shows very good agreement with Wikipedia published data for the time dependent growth in articles produced, and editors used, well within the variability of parametric data listed publically justifying the principle equations used in the model. This development and fine tuning of the model has been limited by the publically available data. To obtain a more accurate model in this area would need the co-operation of web service organisations to reveal confidential data. This modelling procedure can produce a decision support process for service design and could, with modification be applied much more widely to other choices in service design/implementation, even allowing for user contribution to be evaluated. This work shows how subjective judgements on value and other intangibles need to be continually re-evaluated. Such methodology has not been applied elsewhere to value generation applications. It could be used to rank contributions from co-creators for reward sharing.
Pregnancy Outcomes of the Internally Displaced Women in Juba, South Sudan  [PDF]
Sarah Mustafa, Projestine S. Muganyizi, Anthony Lupai, Belinda S. Balandya
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2019.93029
Abstract: Background: Conflict and displacement substantially affect maternal reproductive health by increasing the risks formorbidity and mortality. However, most literature on pregnancy outcomes is from cross-border refugees and migrants. To date, scanty literature is available on pregnancy outcomes of internally displaced women. South Sudan, with 16 women dying daily is badly affected by internal conflicts of which by the end of December 2013 about 2.2 million people were internally displaced. The aim of this study was to determine pregnancy outcomes of women living in the United Nations House Internally Displaced People (UN IDP) camp and factors associated with poor outcomes. The study was ethically cleared by MUHAS and the Ministry of Health in South Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in UN House IDP Camp in Juba among internally displaced women who attended antenatal services in the camp, from September to November 2016. Among them, women who became pregnant in last 3 years, excluding the index, were interviewed about their immediate past pregnancy experiences. Additionally, the women were interviewed on reproductive health and gender violence matters. Interviews were guided by a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed for associations with poor pregnancy outcome. Results: A total of 300 internally displaced women participated in the study. Data for 289 participants were analyzed for poor pregnancy outcome. More than half of the women, 157 (54.3%), had poor pregnancy outcome. Poor Maternal outcome was established in 47% of the women and poor fetal outcome in 27.7%.
Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review
Anthony S. Shakespeare
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012,
Abstract: Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.
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