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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6997 matches for " Anthony Maher "
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The Inclusion of Pupils with Special Educational Needs
Anthony John Maher
Sport Science Review , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10237-011-0006-y
Abstract: The paper examines the planned and unplanned outcomes associated with the inclusion of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in the National Curriculum Physical Education (NCPE) in Britain. This involves the use of key concepts from figurational sociology, and documentary analysis, to examine the emergence of disability as a social issue in British society and in secondary school education. Norbert Elias' game models (Elias, 1978) are then used to analyse the NCPE 1992, 1995 and 2000 documents, and their associated consultation materials. This allows the researcher to identify all the major players involved in the formulation of the NCPEs, and the extent to which the objectives of each player, and their subsequent power struggles with each other, impacted upon the overall objectives and content of the NCPEs. The game models are then used to examine the extent to which the objectives of the players involved in the implementation of the NCPE generated outcomes which none of the players planned for, or could have foreseen.
An analysis of Euroqol EQ-5D and Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire scores six months following podiatric surgery
Anthony J Maher, Timothy E Kilmartin
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1757-1146-5-17
Abstract: A prospective audit of 375 consecutive day care surgical admissions was undertaken. All patients attending for surgery, who agreed to participate, were included. Pre operation patients completed the MOXFQ and the EQ-5D. Both questionnaires were completed again at 6?months post operation. Additional data was collected on patient demographics, surgical procedures and complications.Few complications were encountered and most patients (84%) returned for a final review 6?months post operation. Mean MOXFQ scores improved for each domain: pain; 51.7 pre-operation, reduced to 16.5 post-operation, walking; 50.2 reduced to 14.1 and social interaction; 45.7 reduced to 10.6. The minimal clinically important differences (MCID) estimates for the pain domain were exceeded by 82.6% of patients, while 74.8% exceeded the MCID for walking and 68.5% exceeded the MCID for social interaction. A small number of patients (2.9%) deteriorated across all three MOXFQ domains.The EQ-5D Index, summary of health related quality of life, improved from 0.66 pre-operation to 0.86 post operation. The EQ-5D index MCID was exceeded by 79.2% of patients. Index scores deteriorated for 1.8% of patients following surgery. Effect sizes measured following surgery were largest for the MOXFQ domains: Walking; 1.39, Pain; 1.52 and Social Interaction: 1.39. The EQ-5D index effect size was 0.83. The EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS) was not influenced by surgery.Both the MOXFQ and EQ-5D index (but not the VAS) appear sensitive to changes in health status at 6?months following elective foot surgery. Both instruments were particularly responsive to changes in pain, mobility and activity or social interaction following treatment. The MOXFQ was developed specifically for foot surgery and as such appears to be the more sensitive instrument. However the generic EQ-5D may allow comparison of general health states in the wider health community. Both instruments when used together appear well suited to the measurement of
Patient expectations of podiatric surgery in the United Kingdom
Antony N Wilkinson, Anthony J Maher
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1757-1146-4-27
Abstract: The UK based podiatric audit of surgery and clinical outcome measurement (PASCOM) audit system was applied to a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing elective podiatric surgery in Doncaster, South Yorkshire between 2004 and 2010. Data was collected relating to the surgical episode and patient expectations. A patient questionnaire was administered at 6 months post intervention.A total of 2910 unique surgical admissions were completed and satisfaction questionnaires were returned by 1869 patients. A total of 1430 patients answered question 1 which relates to patient expectations. Pain relief was the most frequent expectation with 1191 counts (52.3%), while footwear and mobility accounted for 16.6% and 16.4% respectively. Cosmesis counts occurred less commonly; 12.2%. 709 patients (49.6%) stated only a single expectation, 599 patients (41.9%) stated two expectations, 114 patients (8%) stated three expectations and 7 patients (0.5%) stated 4 expectations. Pain relief was the dominant expectation accounting for 515 counts (72.6%) of patients who provided only one response.This paper demonstrates the expectations of a large cohort of podiatric surgery patients. For the most part patients expect pain relief, improved mobility and improved shoe fitting, while a small number of patients also expect a cosmetic improvement. Further research is required to determine the relationship between patient expectation and health related quality of life, and to determine whether podiatric surgery is successful in addressing the expectations of patients.Within healthcare there has, in recent years, been a shift in research and audit towards the assessment of patient expectations, satisfaction and outcomes, as opposed to pure clinical measurements [1]. In the United Kingdom, the sea change can be traced back to 1983 when the National Health Service (NHS) Management Enquiry condemned the NHS for its failure to use market research techniques to evaluate service provision [2].Patient exp
A global framework for action to improve the primary care response to chronic non-communicable diseases: a solution to a neglected problem
Dermot Maher, Anthony D Harries, Rony Zachariah, Don Enarson
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-355
Abstract: Decreasing the chronic NCD burden requires a two-pronged approach: implementation of the multisectoral policies aimed at decreasing population-level risks for NCDs, and effective and affordable delivery of primary care interventions for patients with chronic NCDs. The primary care response to common NCDs is often unstructured and inadequate. We therefore propose a programmatic, standardized approach to the delivery of primary care interventions for patients with NCDs, with a focus on hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic airflow obstruction, and obesity. The benefits of this approach will extend to patients with related conditions, e.g. those with chronic kidney disease caused by hypertension or diabetes. This framework for a "public health approach" is informed by experience of scaling up interventions for chronic infectious diseases (tuberculosis and HIV). The lessons learned from progress in rolling out these interventions include the importance of gaining political commitment, developing a robust strategy, delivering standardised interventions, and ensuring rigorous monitoring and evaluation of progress towards defined targets.The goal of the framework is to reduce the burden of morbidity, disability and premature mortality related to NCDs through a primary care strategy which has three elements: 1) identify and address modifiable risk factors, 2) screen for common NCDs and 3) and diagnose, treat and follow-up patients with common NCDs using standard protocols. The proposed framework for NCDs borrows the same elements as those developed for tuberculosis control, comprising a goal, strategy and targets for NCD control, a package of interventions for quality care, key operations for national implementation of these interventions (political commitment, case-finding among people attending primary care services, standardised diagnostic and treatment protocols, regular drug supply, and systematic monitoring and evaluation), and indicators to measure progress toward
National smokefree law in New Zealand improves air quality inside bars, pubs and restaurants
Nick Wilson, Richard Edwards, Anthony Maher, Jenny N?the, Rafed Jalali
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-85
Abstract: We included 34 pubs, restaurants and bars, 10 transportation settings, nine other indoor settings, six outdoor smoking areas of bars and restaurants, and six other outdoor settings. These were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. The number of lit cigarettes among occupants at defined time points in each venue was observed and a portable real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure fine particulate levels (PM2.5).No smoking was observed during the data collection periods among over 3785 people present in the indoor venues, nor in any of the transportation settings. The levels of fine particulates were relatively low inside the bars, pubs and restaurants in the urban and rural settings (mean 30-minute level = 16 μg/m3 for 34 venues; range of mean levels for each category: 13 μg/m3 to 22 μg/m3). The results for other smokefree indoor settings (shops, offices etc) and for smokefree transportation settings (eg, buses, trains, etc) were even lower. However, some "outdoor" smoking areas attached to bars/restaurants had high levels of fine particulates, especially those that were partly enclosed (eg, up to a 30-minute mean value of 182 μg/m3 and a peak of maximum value of 284 μg/m3). The latter are far above WHO guideline levels for 24-hour exposure (ie, 25μg/m3).There was very high compliance with the new national smokefree law and this was also reflected by the relatively good indoor air quality in hospitality settings (compared to the "outdoor" smoking areas and the comparable settings in countries that permit indoor smoking). Nevertheless, adopting enhanced regulations (as used in various US and Canadian jurisdictions) may be needed to address hazardous air quality in relatively enclosed "outdoor" smoking areas.There is growing international interest in the use of smokefree legislation for improving air quality and protecting the health of workers and the public. Comprehensive smokefree laws have been introduced in such jurisdictions as
Vehicle emissions and consumer information in car advertisements
Nick Wilson, Anthony Maher, George Thomson, Michael Keall
Environmental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-7-14
Abstract: Content analysis of the two most popular current affairs magazines in New Zealand for the five year period 2001–2005 was undertaken (n = 514 advertisements). This was supplemented with vehicle data from official websites.The advertisements studied provided some information on fuel type (52%), and engine size (39%); but hardly any provided information on fuel efficiency (3%), or emissions (4%). Over the five-year period the reported engine size increased significantly, while fuel efficiency did not improve.For the vehicles advertised, for which relevant official website data could be obtained, the average "greenhouse rating" for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions was 5.1, with a range from 0.5 to 8.5 (on a scale with 10 being the best and 0.5 being the most polluting). The average CO2 emissions were 50% higher than the average for cars made by European manufacturers. The average "air pollution" rating for the advertised vehicles was 5.4 (on the same 1–10 scale). The yearly averages for the "greenhouse" or "air pollution" ratings did not change significantly over the five-year period. One advertised hybrid vehicle had a fuel consumption that was under half the average (4.4 versus 9.9 L/100 km), as well as the best "greenhouse" and "air pollution" ratings.To enhance informed consumer choice and to control greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions, governments should introduce regulations on the content of vehicle advertisements and marketing (as started by the European Union). Similar regulations are already in place for the marketing of many other consumer products.The advertising of vehicles has been studied previously, due to concerns that it may adversely influence safety-related behaviours [1-5]. However, there are no published Medline-indexed articles where such advertising has been analysed in terms of greenhouse gas emissions or other air pollutant emissions. This is despite the growing international concern around both these types of emissions, given the current
Patterns of sports sponsorship by gambling, alcohol and food companies: an Internet survey
Anthony Maher, Nick Wilson, Louise Signal, George Thomson
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-95
Abstract: A search methodology was developed to identify Internet-based evidence of sports sponsorship at the national level and at the regional and club level in one specific region (Wellington). The top eight sports for 5-17-year-olds were selected and products and services of sponsors were classified in terms of potential public health impact (using a conservative approach).Sponsorship of these popular sports was common at the national, regional and club levels (640 sponsors listed on 107 websites overall). Sports sponsorship associated with sponsors' products classified as "unhealthy" (eg, food high in fat and sugar, gambling and alcohol) were over twice as common as sponsorship associated with sponsors' products classified as "healthy" (32.7% (95% CI = 29.1, 36.5) versus 15.5% (95% CI = 12.8, 18.6) respectively). "Gambling" was the most common specific type of sponsorship (18.8%) followed by alcohol (11.3%).There were significantly more "alcohol" sponsors for rugby, compared to all the other sports collectively (rate ratio (RR) = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.60, 3.79), and for top male sports compared to female (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.05, 3.18). Also there was significantly more "unhealthy food" sponsorship for touch rugby and for "junior" teams/clubs compared to other sports collectively (RR = 6.54; 95% CI = 2.07, 20.69; and RR = 14.72, 95% CI = 6.22, 34.8; respectively). A validation study gave an inter-rater reliability for number of sponsors of 95% (n = 87 sponsors), and an inter-rater reliability of classification and categorisation of 100%.This study found that the sponsorship of popular sports for young people is dominated by "unhealthy" sponsorship (ie, predominantly gambling, alcohol and unhealthy food) relative to "healthy" sponsorship. Governments may need to consider regulations that limit unhealthy sponsorship and/or adopt alternative funding mechanisms for supporting popular sports.Some of the key public health concerns in developed countries include alcohol misuse; poo
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Wings Effect on Turbulent Flow between two contra-rotating cylinders  [PDF]
Maher Raddaoui
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.25048
Abstract: Many industries in the world take part in the pollution of the environment. This pollution often comes from the reactions of combustion. To optimize these reactions and to minimize pollution, turbulence is a funda- mental tool. Several factors are at the origin of turbulence in the complex flows, among these factors, we can quote the effect of wings in the rotating flows. The interest of this work is to model and to simulate numeri- cally the effect of wings on the level of turbulence in the flow between two contra-rotating cylinders. We have fixed on these two cylinders eight wings uniformly distributed and we have varied the height of the wings to have six values from 2 mm to 20 mm by maintaining the same Reynolds number of rotation. The numerical tool is based on a statistical model in a point using the closing of the second order of the transport equations of the Reynolds stresses (Reynolds Stress Model: RSM). We have modelled wings effect on the flow by a source term added to the equation tangential speed. The results of the numerical simulation showed that all the average and fluctuating variables are affected the value of the kinetic energy of turbulence as those of Reynolds stresses increase with the height of the wings.
Food, fizzy, and football: promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport - a New Zealand case study
Mary-Ann Carter, Louise Signal, Richard Edwards, Janet Hoek, Anthony Maher
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-126
Abstract: We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships.Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important.While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest policies that restrict sponsorship of sports by unhealthy food and beverage manufacturers may help limit children’s exposure to unhealthy food marketing within New Zealand sports settings. Given the global nature of the food industry, the findings of this New Zealand case study may be relevant elsewhere.High participation rates in formal sport and consistent pairing of recommendations linking physical activity and healthy eating [1-3] suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for encouraging improved nutrition. Studies in Australia have demonstrated how health sponsorship funding can create healthier environments in sports clubs [4-6].Although elite sports people understand the role diet plays in enhancing their performance [7], the sponsorship relationships between sporting organisations and food and beverage brands and companies do not always reinforce either sports-related or more general nutrition recommendations. For
Penetrance estimates for BRCA1 and BRCA2 based on genetic testing in a Clinical Cancer Genetics service setting: Risks of breast/ovarian cancer quoted should reflect the cancer burden in the family
D Gareth Evans, Andrew Shenton, Emma Woodward, Fiona Lalloo, Anthony Howell, Eamonn R Maher
BMC Cancer , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-8-155
Abstract: We reviewed 385 unrelated families (223 with BRCA1 and 162 with BRCA2 mutations) ascertained through two regional cancer genetics services. We estimated the penetrance for both breast and ovarian cancer in female mutation carriers (904 proven mutation carriers – 1442 females in total assumed to carry the mutation) and also assessed the effect on penetrance of mutation position and birth cohort.Breast cancer penetrance to 70 and to 80 years was 68% (95%CI 64.7–71.3%) and 79.5% (95%CI 75.5–83.5%) respectively for BRCA1 and 75% (95%CI 71.7–78.3%) and 88% (95%CI 85.3–91.7%) for BRCA2. Ovarian cancer risk to 70 and to 80 years was 60% (95%CI 65–71%) and 65% (95%CI 75–84%) for BRCA1 and 30% (95%CI 25.5–34.5%) and 37% (95%CI 31.5–42.5%) for BRCA2. These risks were borne out by a prospective study of cancer in the families and genetic testing of unaffected relatives. We also found evidence of a strong cohort effect with women born after 1940 having a cumulative risk of 22% for breast cancer by 40 years of age compared to 8% in women born before 1930 (p = 0.0005).In high-risk families, selected in a genetics service setting, women who test positive for the familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation are likely to have cumulative breast cancer risks in keeping with the estimates obtained originally from large families. This is particularly true for women born after 1940.Since the identification of the BRCA1 [1] and BRCA2 [2] genes a great deal of debate has focussed on the issue of breast and ovarian cancer risk associated with mutations in these genes. It is clear that calculated cancer risks are dependent on the method of ascertainment of the families studied. Thus, breast cancer risks in large familial breast cancer kindreds with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations are substantially higher than risks derived from population based studies [3,7,8]. In the high-risk families that recruited to the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium (BCLC) cohort, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were estimated to cause a cumulati
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