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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 512767 matches for " Anthea B. M. Paul "
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Nutritional Correlates of Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2000-2010  [PDF]
Dotun Ogunyemi, Amy Whitten, Arnold M. Mahesan, Anthea B. M. Paul, Judy Boura
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.61008
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the associations of gestational diabetes (GDM) history with dietary intake, nutritional status, insulin resistance, demographic, and anthropometrical data. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2000-2010. Data analysis was based on 290 women who reported a history of GDM compared to 4239 women who denied a GDM history. Insulin resistance [HOMA_IR = (fasting insulin in mU/mL × fasting glucose in mmol/L)/405] was calculated. Pearson correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, Student’s t-tests, and chi-square analysis were used while linear regression assessed independent associations. Results: The median time-lapse from the diagnosis of GDM was 15 years. Women with a GDM history had significantly higher body mass index (BMI), other anthropometric measurements, diastolic blood pressures and insulin resistance. They were also more likely to be Hispanic, have delivered macrosomic infants, and delivered via cesarean. Previous GDM history compared to non-GDM subjects had significantly higher dietary intakes of energy calories, protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, mono-saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. Within the entire cohort, increasing insulin resistance was also associated with lower income, less college education, Hispanic or African American ethnicity, obesity, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and with higher dietary cholesterol but lower intake of dietary fiber and micronutrients. Regression analyses showed that GDM history, Hispanic ethnicity, BMI, dietary intake of cholesterol and decreasing income were independently predictive of insulin resistance. Conclusion: The data confirm that even many years after a pregnancy associated with GDM, women with a history of GDM still report significantly higher dietary intakes of energy calories, protein, and fat with no corresponding increase in consumption of dietary fiber or minerals and vitamins. Consequently, the increased calorie and food consumption of women with previous GDM are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and higher blood pressures. These observations may suggest the need to target high-risk groups who may need more resources and awareness of the benefits of quality nutrition.
Insulin Resistance in Pregnancy Is Correlated with Decreased Insulin Receptor Gene Expression in Omental Adipose: Insulin Sensitivity and Adipose Tissue Gene Expression in Normal Pregnancy  [PDF]
Arnold M. Mahesan, Dotun Ogunyemi, Eric Kim, Anthea B. M. Paul, Y.-D. Ida Chen
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.61011
Abstract: Aims: To determine correlations of insulin sensitivity to gene expression in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue of non-obese, non-diabetic pregnant women. Methods: Microarray gene profiling was performed on subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue from 14 patients and obtained while fasting during non-laboring Cesarean section, using Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 Expression BeadChips. Findings were validated by real-time PCR. Matusda-Insulin sensitivity index (IS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated from glucose and insulin levels obtained from a frequently sampled oral glucose tolerance test, and correlated with gene expression. Results: Of genes differentially expressed in omental vs. subcutaneous adipose, in omentum 12 genes were expressed toward insulin resistance, whereas only 5 genes were expressed toward insulin sensitivity. In particular, expression of the insulin receptor gene (INSR), which initiates the insulin signaling cascade, is strongly positively correlated with IS and negatively with HOMA-IR in omental tissue (r = 0.84). Conclusion: Differential gene expression in omentum relative to subcutaneous adipose showed a pro-insulin resistance profile in omentum. A clinical importance of omental adipose is observed here, as downregulation of insulin receptor in omentum is correlated with increased systemic insulin resistance.
Randomness
Paul M. B. Vitanyi
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: Here we present in a single essay a combination and completion of the several aspects of the problem of randomness of individual objects which of necessity occur scattered in our texbook "An Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and Its Applications" (M. Li and P. Vitanyi), 2nd Ed., Springer-Verlag, 1997.
Compression-based Similarity
Paul M. B. Vitanyi
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: First we consider pair-wise distances for literal objects consisting of finite binary files. These files are taken to contain all of their meaning, like genomes or books. The distances are based on compression of the objects concerned, normalized, and can be viewed as similarity distances. Second, we consider pair-wise distances between names of objects, like "red" or "christianity." In this case the distances are based on searches of the Internet. Such a search can be performed by any search engine that returns aggregate page counts. We can extract a code length from the numbers returned, use the same formula as before, and derive a similarity or relative semantics between names for objects. The theory is based on Kolmogorov complexity. We test both similarities extensively experimentally.
Quantum Kolmogorov Complexity Based on Classical Descriptions
Paul M. B. Vitanyi
Mathematics , 2001,
Abstract: We develop a theory of the algorithmic information in bits contained in an individual pure quantum state. This extends classical Kolmogorov complexity to the quantum domain retaining classical descriptions. Quantum Kolmogorov complexity coincides with the classical Kolmogorov complexity on the classical domain. Quantum Kolmogorov complexity is upper bounded and can be effectively approximated from above under certain conditions. With high probability a quantum object is incompressible. Upper- and lower bounds of the quantum complexity of multiple copies of individual pure quantum states are derived and may shed some light on the no-cloning properties of quantum states. In the quantum situation complexity is not sub-additive. We discuss some relations with ``no-cloning'' and ``approximate cloning'' properties.
Conditional Kolmogorov Complexity and Universal Probability
Paul M. B. Vitanyi
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: The Coding Theorem of L.A. Levin connects unconditional prefix Kolmogorov complexity with the discrete universal distribution. There are conditional versions referred to in several publications but as yet there exist no written proofs in English. Here we provide those proofs. They use a different definition than the standard one for the conditional version of the discrete universal distribution. Under the classic definition of conditional probability, there is no conditional version of the Coding Theorem.
Registers
Paul M. B. Vitanyi
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: Entry in: Encyclopedia of Algorithms, Ming-Yang Kao, Ed., Springer, To appear. Synonyms: Wait-free registers, wait-free shared variables, asynchronous communication hardware. Problem Definition: Consider a system of asynchronous processes that communicate among themselves by only executing read and write operations on a set of shared variables (also known as shared registers). The system has no global clock or other synchronization primitives.
On The Average-Case Complexity of Shellsort
Paul M. B. Vitanyi
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We prove a lower bound expressed in the increment sequence on the average-case complexity (number of inversions which is proportional to the running time) of Shellsort. This lower bound is sharp in every case where it could be checked. We obtain new results e.g. determining the average-case complexity precisely in the Yao-Janson-Knuth 3-pass case.
Distributed elections in an Archimedean ring of processors
Paul M. B. Vitanyi
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Unlimited asynchronism is intolerable in real physically distributed computer systems. Such systems, synchronous or not, use clocks and timeouts. Therefore the magnitudes of elapsed absolute time in the system need to satisfy the axiom of Archimedes. Under this restriction of asynchronicity logically time-independent solutions can be derived which are nonetheless better (in number of message passes) than is possible otherwise. The use of clocks by the individual processors, in elections in a ring of asynchronous processors without central control, allows a deterministic solution which requires but a linear number of message passes. To obtain the result it has to be assumed that the clocks measure finitely proportional absolute time-spans for their time units, that is, the magnitudes of elapsed time in the ring network satisfy the axiom of Archimedes. As a result, some basic subtilities associated with distributed computations are highlighted. For instance, the known nonlinear lower bound on the required number of message passes is cracked. For the synchronous case, in which the necessary assumptions hold a fortiori, the method is -asymptotically- the most efficient one yet, and of optimal order of magnitude. The deterministic algorithm is of -asymptotically- optimal bit complexity, and, in the synchronous case, also yields an optimal method to determine the ring size. All of these results improve the known ones.
Information Distance in Multiples
Paul M. B. Vitanyi
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Information distance is a parameter-free similarity measure based on compression, used in pattern recognition, data mining, phylogeny, clustering, and classification. The notion of information distance is extended from pairs to multiples (finite lists). We study maximal overlap, metricity, universality, minimal overlap, additivity, and normalized information distance in multiples. We use the theoretical notion of Kolmogorov complexity which for practical purposes is approximated by the length of the compressed version of the file involved, using a real-world compression program. {\em Index Terms}-- Information distance, multiples, pattern recognition, data mining, similarity, Kolmogorov complexity
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