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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145555 matches for " Anroop B Nair "
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Controlled Release Matrix Uncoated Tablets of Enalapril Maleate using HPMC alone
Anroop B. Nair,Hiral vyas,Ashok Kumar
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) is generally combined with hydrophobic polymers in fabricating oral controlled solid dosage forms. This study evaluated the utility of diverse grades of HPMC in developing a controlled release formulation for a hydrophilic drug, enalapril maleate. Controlled release uncoated tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Two grades of HPMC (K100 and K4M) in different proportions were used to prepare the tablets, and were evaluated for physical properties, drug content, in vitro drug release and drug release kinetics as well. All the formulations demonstrated good physical integrity and the drug content were in the official limits. The formulation with HPMC K100 (25 mg/tablet) and K4M (15 mg/tablet) have been found to release the required amount of drug (2.97 mg/h) through out the study period (14 h). The calculated regression coefficients showed higher r2 value with Higuchi model and zero order kinetics. Given the excellent release profile, the study concluded that HPMC in different grades with low concentration alone can control the enalapril maleate release over a period of time (14 h).
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring By Reverse Iontophoresis
Anroop B Nair,Ankit Goel,Shashi Prakash,Ashok Kumar
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Therapeutic molecules possessing distinct pharmacokinetic variation, narrow therapeutic index and concentration dependent therapeutic/adverse effects demand constant monitoring. The current methods for blood sampling are invasive and possess low patient compliance. Human skin, selective and effective membrane to chemical permeation, offers an alternative route for the extraction of endogenous molecules in the body. Significant attention has been received in the application of reverse iontophoresis in extracting drugs/biomaterials from the subdermal region. This technique involves transiting of a low electric current across the skin usually with couple of skin electrodes to extract charged aswell as neutral molecules. Electromigration and electroosmosis are the two basic mechanisms involved in transport of molecules. Several in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the potential of reverse iontophoresis as a noninvasive tool in clinical chemistry and therapeutic drug monitoring. This technology is currently being used in device such as Glucowatch Biogrpaher which allows blood glucose detection across skin layers. Advances in technology and rapid progress in research has widely improved the opportunity of this system, and the recent trend indicates that severalproducts are likely to be developed very soon. This review provides an overview about the recent developments in reverse iontophoresis for therapeutic drug monitoring.
Design and evaluation of hydrophobic coated buoyant core as fl oating drug delivery system for sustained release of cisapride
Shery Jacob,Pandurang N Patil,Anroop B Nair
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: An inert hydrophobic buoyant coated–core was developed as floatingdrug delivery system (FDDS) for sustained release of cisapride using direct compression technology. Core contained low density, porous ethyl cellulose, which was coated with an impermeable, insoluble hydrophobic coating polymer such as rosin. It was further seal coated with low viscosity hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC E15) to minimize moisture permeation and better adhesion with an outer drug layer. It was found that stable buoyant core was sufficient to float the tablet more than 8 h without the aid of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. Sustained release of cisapride was achieved with HPMC K4M in the outer drug layer. The floating lag time required forthese novel FDDS was found to be zero, however it is likely that the porosity or density of the core is critical for floatability of these tablets. The in vitro release pattern of these tablets in simulated gastric fluid showed the constant and controlled release for prolonged time. It can be concluded that the hydrophobic coated buoyant core could be used as FDDS for gastroretentive delivery system of cisapride or other suitable drugs.
Novel Approaches in Formulation and Drug Delivery using Contact Lenses
Kishan Singh, Anroop B Nair,Ashok Kumar,Rachna Kumria
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: The success of ocular delivery relies on the potential to enhance the drug bioavailability by controlled and extended release of drug on the eye surface. Several new approaches have been attempted to augment the competence and diminish the intrinsic side effects of existing ocular drug delivery systems. In this contest, progress has been made to develop drug-eluting contact lens using different techniques, which have the potential to control and sustain the delivery of drug. Further, the availability of novel polymers have facilitated and promoted the utility of contact lenses in ocular drugdelivery. Several research groups have already explored the feasibility and potential of contact lens using conventional drugs for the treatment of periocular and intraocular diseases. Contact lenses formulated using modern technology exhibits high loading,controlled drug release, apposite thickness, water content, superior mechanical and optical properties as compared to commercial lenses. In general, this review discus various factors and approaches designed and explored for the successful delivery of ophthalmic drugs using contact lenses as drug delivery device.
Formulation and evaluation of enteric coated tablets of proton pump inhibitor
Anroop B Nair,Rachna Gupta,Rachna Kumria,Shery jacob
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The present study was an attempt to formulate and evaluate enteric coated tablets for esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate. Different core tablets were prepared and formulation (F-1) was selected for further enteric coating, based on the disintegration time. Seal coating was applied to achieve 3% weight gain using opadry . Enteric coating was carried out using different polymers like Eudragit L-30 D-55, hydroxy propyl methylcellulose phthalate, cellulose acetate phthalate and Acryl-EZE to achieve 5% weight gain. Disintegration studies showed that the formulations failed in 0.1 N HCl media. Hence the quantity of enteric coating was increased to 8% w/w. In vitro analysis of the developed tablets was carried out. Results from disintegration time and dissolution rate studies indicate that all the esomeprazole enteric tablets prepared possess good integrity, desirable for enteric coated tablets. Among the polymers studied, the methacrylic polymers exhibited better dissolution rate than the cellulose polymers. Stability studies indicate that the prepared formulations were stable for a period of three months. This study concluded that enteric coated tablets of esomeprazole can be prepared using any of the enteric coating polymer studied using a minimal weight gain of 8%.
Simultaneous determination of moxifloxacin and cefixime by first and ratio first derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry
Mahesh Attimarad, Bander E Al-Dhubiab, Ibrahim A Alhaider, Anroop B Nair, Sree N, Mueen K
Chemistry Central Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-153x-6-105
Abstract: In the first derivative spectrophotometric method varying concentration of moxifloxacin and cefixime were prepared and scanned in the range of 200 to 400 nm and first derivative spectra were calculated (n?=?1). The zero crossing wavelengths 287 nm and 317.9 nm were selected for determination of moxifloxacin and cefixime, respectively. In the second method the first derivative of ratio spectra was calculated and used for the determination of moxifloxacin and cefixime by measuring the peak intensity at 359.3 nm and 269.6 nm respectively.Calibration graphs were established in the range of 1–16 μg /mL and 1–15 μg /mL for both the drugs by first and ratio first derivative spectroscopic methods respectively with good correlation coefficients. Average accuracy of assay of moxifloxacin and cefixime were found to be 100.68% and 98 93%, respectively. Relative standard deviations of both inter and intraday assays were less than 1.8%. Moreover, recovery of moxifloxacin and cefixime was more than 98.7% and 99.1%, respectively.The described derivative spectrophotometric methods are simple, rapid, accurate, precise and excellent alternative to sophisticated chromatographic techniques. Hence, the proposed methods can be used for the quality control of the cited drugs and can be extended for routine analysis of the drugs in formulations.Ultraviolet (UV) – visible spectroscopic method of analysis is widely used in the analysis of drugs in pharmaceutical formulations and for dissolution and disintegration studies due to its good sensitivity and cost effectiveness. In last three decades, derivative spectrophotometry has been extensively used in the determination of drugs in multi components having overlapping spectra, which eliminates interference from formulation matrix by using the zero-crossing techniques [1-4]. Ratio-spectra derivative spectrophotometric method is another useful technique for the estimation of drugs in their mixtures [5-8].The derivative spectra methods allows us t
Prodrugs For Transdermal Drug Delivery
Anroop B,Bijaya Ghosh
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Transdermal drug delivery has become a vital interest because of it offers some unique advantages over the traditional drug delivery. Skin provides a large, accessible surface area in addition to avoiding the hepatic first-pass effect and chemical degradation in the gastrointestinal tract 1 .Transdermal delivery can only be feasible if the drug moieties can penetrate the skin and reach the circulatory system in sufficient quantity for its therapeutic effect. But stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of skin possesses a multilamellar lipidic structure punctuated by proteinaceous corneocytes 2 . Very few drugs can compromise the formidable barrier. In order to increase the range of drugs available for transdermal delivery number of chemical and physical enhancement techniques has been attempted 3 . The prodrug approach is one of these. It involves structural modification of a molecule to endow it with tailor made physicochemical parameters, to increase its acceptability to the skin.
Self-emulsifying therapeutic system: a potential approach for delivery of lipophilic drugs
Wadhwa, Jyoti;Nair, Anroop;Kumria, Rachna;
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-82502011000300003
Abstract: self-emulsifying therapeutic system (sets) provide an effective and intelligent solution to the various issues related to the formulation of hydrophobic drugs with limited solubility in gastrointestinal fluid. although the potential utility of sets is well known, only in recent years has a mechanistic understanding of the impact of these systems on drug disposition emerged. these in situ emulsion-forming systems have a high stability when incorporated in various dosage forms. sets are being looked upon as systems which can overcome the problems associated with delivery of poorly water soluble drugs. an in-depth knowledge about lipids and surfactants that can contribute to these systems, criterion for their selection and the proportion in which they can be used, represent some crucial factors determining the in vivo performance of these systems. this article presents a comprehensive account of various types of self-emulsifying formulations with emphasis on their composition and examples of currently marketed preparations.
Goel Ankit,Saini Vipin,Nair Anroop
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is highly required for drugs possessing narrow therapeutic index as a slight variation in the therapeutic range could result in no or low clinical efficiency or causes significant side effects or high risk of toxicity. In recent days, reverse iontophoresis technique has been attempted for the non invasive drug monitoring. Typically, it applies a low electric current through a pair of skin electrodes to promote the transport of both charged and neutral molecules. Transdermal iontophoretic extraction of propranolol was carried out and the study involves effect of different solvents having their different pH values on the iontophoretic extraction, effect of different voltages on the iontophoretic extraction, effect of different permeation enhancers on the permeability of propranolol hydrochloride and the effect of stratum corneum removal on the permeability of propranolol. Iontophoretic diffusion was carried out in vitro using full thickness rat skin. The efficient quantity of propranolol was collected at cathode by electromigration. The correlation between the extracted fluxes of propranolol and its subdermal concentration was found to be adequate. The values of extraction fluxes didn’t attain a steady state throughout the experiment. The decrease in the solvent pH doesn’t affect the transdermal extraction of propranolol. The decrease in the voltage causes diminishes in the iontophoretic fluxes. The application of permeation enhancers especially propylene glycol causes significantly increase in the iontophoretic fluxes of propranolol. Thus it is concluded that propranolol hydrochloride can be quantitatively extracted by reverse iontophoresis in varying conditions of subdermal concentration.
Gupta Sumeet,Kaushik Manish,Nair Anroop
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: Clinical trial is an inextricable link between advances in medical research technology and improved health care. It is a component of medical health research intended to produce knowledge valuable for understanding human disease, preventing and treating illness and promoting health, the present study investigated the facts of clinical trials and to highlight the features of e-clinical trials through information technology system. Methodology: The study has been carried out using secondary data from different sources which includes official website of the clinical trial gov and ublished articles. Results: Challenges encountered by the harmaceutical industry in the research and development of clinical trial process include design of clinical trial, lack of pidemiological data in specific time, problems in assessing clinicalrelevance and cost-effectiveness, lack of knowledge and training, and high prices. Conclusion: This paper puts forward certain suggestion in order to strengthen the e-clinical trials. Under the eclinicaltrial process the pharmaceutical industry has to achieve a great success in development of clinical data in the patients of various diseases and has brought them a great relief.
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