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Development of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices
Rajalakshmi R Lakshman, Jill R Landsbaugh, Annie Schiff, Wendy Hardeman, Ken K Ong, Simon J Griffin
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-35
Abstract: We designed a 57-item (19 questions), self-administered questionnaire to measure the following four domains- 1) type of milk feeding, decision making and sources of advice; 2) frequency and quantity of milk feeds; 3) attitudes to infant feeding and growth; and 4) theory-based beliefs about following infant feeding recommendations. Forty mothers completed the questionnaire on two occasions six days apart (to assess test-retest reliability) and then participated in a semi-structured, open-ended telephone interview covering the same domains (to assess criterion validity). Percentage agreement, Cohen's Kappas (for categorical variables) and Spearman's correlation coefficients (for continuous variables) were used to quantify reliability and validity. Internal consistency between theory-based constructs (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention) was quantified by Chronbach's alpha.Of the 57 questionnaire items 51 (89%) had percentage agreement above 70% indicating good test-retest reliability, and the remaining 6 items had moderate or substantial levels of agreement (kappa 0.41-0.68). Comparing questionnaire with interview coding (validity), percentage agreement was above 66% for 39/57 items (68%). Of the 16 items with percentage agreement below 66%, only five had kappa values below 0.20 (two items had insufficient interview responses). Internal consistency was 0.51, 0.79 and 0.90 for self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention respectively.This questionnaire could be a useful tool in understanding the determinants of infant feeding and the 'causal mechanism' of interventions that target infant feeding practices to prevent early obesity.Rapid weight gain during infancy is recognised as an important risk factor for later obesity[1-3]. Most parents are poor at recognising overweight and obesity in their children[4-7] and one in five children in England are already overweight when they start school[8]. Hence early prevention of obesity has become a national priori
New Findings in the Theory of Optimal Congestion Taxes, with an Application to Road Transportation New Findings in the Theory of Optimal Congestion Taxes, with an Application to Road Transportation
Maurice Schiff
Revista de Análisis Económico (RAE) , 1991,
Abstract: New Findings in the Theory of Optimal Congestion Taxes, with an Application to Road Transportation It is generally assumed flat optimal taxes in the case of congestion fend to reduce output. However, in those cases where congestion is worst, the effect of the tax may in fact be to increase output. Furthermore, an increase in demand leads to a fall in output in those cases. Also, the optimal tax may then appear to be a subsidy, and has led some to conclude that the optimal tax formula is unsatisfactory. It is satisfactory, once properly interpreted. Finally, the tax may raise after-tax welfare of resource users.
The Function of Narrative: Toward a Narrative Psychology of Meaning
Brian Schiff
Narrative Works , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, I argue that the most salient aspect of narrative is not the arrangement of speech elements into a particular order but the kinds of actions that can be accomplished with narratives. Narrative is best thought of as a verb, “to narrate,” or the derived form, “narrating.” It is an expressive action, something that persons do. I argue that one of the primary functions of narrating is to “make present” life experience and interpretations of life in a particular time and space. Narrating brings experience and interpretations into play, into a field of action, in a specific here and now.
Maurice Schiff
Cuadernos de Economía , 2003,
Tussen wal en schip: Wat moet er gebeuren om schuldenaren met meervoudige problematiek te helpen?
Jade Schiff
Journal of Social Intervention : Theory and Practice , 2008,
Abstract: In this study we focus on debtors with multiple problems. While this group has grown in recent years, the possibilities to settle their debts have decreased. The requirements to qualify for debt counselling are too high, there are too many rules and creditors do not cooperate. This results in an increase in the number of evictions and homeless people. Shelters become clogged and the pressure on care workers grows. Several local initiatives tackle the problem of debtors with multiple problems. And the NVVK develops new guidelines for debt counselling. We recommend attention to prevention, less barriers at debt counselling and an integral approach.
Framing the President: The Dominant Ideology – A Comprehensive Repertoire of News Frames
SCHIFF, Frederick
Contemporanea : Revista de Comunica??o e Cultura , 2011,
Abstract: The theory of a dominant ideology underlying the news remains unacceptable for the commercial press and undermines its legitimacy. For social constructionists, no description or categorization is neutral. If all reporting has a point of view and the news inherently evaluates and frames events, the heuristic task is to demonstrate the existence of a single inventory of repeatedly used and shared “stock phrases” that consistently interpret “objective” events. Our case study examines coverage of U.S. President Bill Clinton in his first two years. Despite the wide number of events occurring and the large number of articles reviewed (N=513), the Clinton presidency was consistently portrayed using a finite and relatively small number of frames. We provide preliminary evidence of an industry-wide inventory of frames used by news workers over time and in a range of newsroom settings.
The KdV Action and Deformed Minimal Models
Jeremy Schiff
Physics , 1992,
Abstract: An action is constructed that gives an arbitrary equation in the KdV or MKdV hierarchies as equation of motion; the second Hamiltonian structure of the KdV equation and the Hamiltonian structure of the MKdV equation appear as Poisson bracket structures derived from this action. Quantization of this theory can be carried out in two different schemes, to obtain either the quantum KdV theory of Kupershmidt and Mathieu or the quantum MKdV theory of Sasaki and Yamanaka. The latter is, for specific values of the coupling constant, related to a generalized deformation of the minimal models, and clarifies the relationship of integrable systems of KdV type and conformal field theories. As a generalization it is shown how to construct an action for the $SL(3)$-KdV (Boussinesq) hierarchy.
Symmetries of KdV and Loop Groups
Jeremy Schiff
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: A simple version of the Segal-Wilson map from the SL(2,C) loop group to a class of solutions of the KdV hierarchy is given, clarifying certain aspects of this map. It is explained how the known symmetries, including Backlund transformations, of KdV arise from simple, field independent, actions on the loop group. A variety of issues in understanding the algebraic structure of Backlund transformations are thus resolved.
The Camassa-Holm Equation: A Loop Group Approach
Jeremy Schiff
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0167-2789(98)00099-2
Abstract: A map is presented that associates with each element of a loop group a solution of an equation related by a simple change of coordinates to the Camassa-Holm (CH) Equation. Certain simple automorphisms of the loop group give rise to Backlund transformations of the equation. These are used to find 2-soliton solutions of the CH equation, as well as some novel singular solutions.
B?cklund Transformations of MKdV and Painlevé Equations
Jeremy Schiff
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1088/0951-7715/7/1/015
Abstract: For $N\ge 3$ there are $S_N$ and $D_N$ actions on the space of solutions of the first nontrivial equation in the $SL(N) MKdV hierarchy, generalizing the two $Z_2$ actions on the space of solutions of the standard MKdV equation. These actions survive scaling reduction, and give rise to transformation groups for certain (systems of) ODEs, including the second, fourth and fifth Painlev\'e equations.
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