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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1538 matches for " Annie Howell "
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Primary care Identification and Referral to Improve Safety of women experiencing domestic violence (IRIS): protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial
Alison Gregory, Jean Ramsay, Roxane Agnew-Davies, Kathleen Baird, Angela Devine, Danielle Dunne, Sandra Eldridge, Annie Howell, Medina Johnson, Clare Rutterford, Debbie Sharp, Gene Feder
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-54
Abstract: This protocol describes IRIS, a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with the general practice as unit of randomisation. Our trial tests the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a training and support programme targeted at general practice teams. The primary outcome is referral of women to specialist domestic violence agencies. Forty-eight practices in two UK cities (Bristol and London) are randomly allocated, using minimisation, into intervention and control groups. The intervention, based on an adult learning model in an educational outreach framework, has been designed to address barriers to asking women about domestic violence and to encourage appropriate responses to disclosure and referral to specialist domestic violence agencies. Multidisciplinary training sessions are held with clinicians and administrative staff in each of the intervention practices, with periodic feedback of identification and referral data to practice teams. Intervention practices have a prompt to ask about abuse integrated in the electronic medical record system. Other components of the intervention include an IRIS champion in each practice and a direct referral pathway to a named domestic violence advocate.This is the first European randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve the health care response to domestic violence. The findings will have the potential to inform training and service provision.ISRCTN74012786Domestic violence is threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) between adults who are in the same family or who are (or have been) intimate partners. The prevalence of physical and sexual violence varies internationally from 15 to 71% [1]. The 2001 British Crime Survey reported that 20% of women in England and Wales were physically assaulted by a current or former partner at some time in their lives. When threats, financial abuse and emotional abuse are included, this increased to 25% of women [2]
Sponge-associated bacteria of Lakshadweep coral reefs, India: resource for extracellular hydrolytic enzymes  [PDF]
Annie Feby, Shanta Nair
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2010.14043
Abstract: Sponges (Phylum: Porifera) is one of the major groups in the Lakshadweep coral reefs. These sponges harbor diverse bacteria with metabolic potentiality. From biodiversity to biotechnological prospecting, scientific investigations related to sponge associated microorganisms have expanded, but remain rather limited to few geographic locations. In this study, culturable bacteria associated with two demosponges viz Dysidea granulosa, Sigmadocia fibulata and the ambient water were screened for commercially important enzymes such as amylase, protease, gelatinase, lipase, deoxyribonucleic, phosphatase and urease. Amylase and phosphatase were the predominant enzymes produced by >80% of sponge-associated bacteria compared to the ambient water. Nearly 50% of the sponge-associated bacteria expressed multiple enzymatic activities (> 4) with variation in the percentage of expression of individual enzymes. More than 65% of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with sponges were Gammaproteobacteria. The order Vibrionales was the main source for multiple enzyme production. Sponge associated bacteria formed more closely related clusters than the water isolates based upon their activity pattern. High recovery of sponge-associated bacteria with multiple enzymatic activities suggest that these versatile bacteria are yet unexploited potential for bioprospecting.
Review: Gram Negative Bacteria in Brewing  [PDF]
Paradh Ashtavinayak, Hill Annie Elizabeth
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.63020
Abstract: Gram negative aerobic bacteria such as Acetic Acid Bacteria, which include Acetobacter and Gluconobacter, have historically caused significant problems to brewers. Although incidences of spoilage have recently reduced as a result of improvements in beer packaging, these bacteria are still a concern in dispense systems in pub breweries, public houses and cask conditioned beers. Gram negative facultative bacteria of the genus Zymomonas can spoil primed cask conditioned beer and cider. There is a wide range of Enterobacteraeceace which are found within brewery environments and they serve as indicator microorganisms for hygiene and sanitation. Gram negative strictly anaerobic bacteria such as Pectinatus and Megasphaera have recently emerged as a significant threat due to the improvement in reduction of oxygen levels in beer and an increase in production of unpasteurised beer. Pectinatus and Megasphaera are sensitive to routine cleaning agents used in breweries, but they can survive and proliferate in biofilms eventually causing spoilage of beer. This review focuses on Gram negative aerobic, facultative anaerobic and strictly anaerobic brewery related spoilage bacteria.
Controversies in hormonal adjuvant therapy for premenopausal patients
A Howell
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2275
Current status of adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal patients with primary breast cancer
A Howell
Breast Cancer Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1695
Tamoxifen resistance and adjuvant hormone therapy
A Howell
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1223
The emerging breast cancer epidemic: early diagnosis and treatment
Anthony Howell
Breast Cancer Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2739
Abstract: Whereas less than one-third of women diagnosed with breast cancer in developed countries die from the disease, this proportion reaches over two-thirds in developing countries and is directly related to income per capita (Figure 1a) [1,3]. Berry and colleagues [4] developed a series of independent statistical models of breast cancer incidence in order to determine the relative importance of the contribution of mammographic screening and adjuvant therapy to the marked decline in breast cancer mortality in the majority of developed countries. They estimated the mortality decline was related equally to screening and therapy and that mortality would increase in countries with limited facilities for screening and treatment (Figure 1b).The analyses of Berry and colleagues and trials of screening indicate the importance of early detection by mammography. However, where mammographic screening is introduced into a country gradually, improvements in outcome are also seen in the non-screened group, which may, in part, be related to a general increase in awareness of the importance of early treatment [5,6]. Whilst randomised trials of breast self-examination versus no examination do not demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention compared with women simply being made aware of breast examination [7], these studies do not address the issue of lack of awareness or of barriers to women presenting early rather than late. In many developing countries, the introduction of mammographic screening is currently not possible because of expense, the relatively low incidence of breast cancer and low age of diagnosis. Thus, the Early Resource Allocation Panel of the Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) produced guidelines suggesting a graded system of introduction for breast awareness and mammography based on whether the health care system was basic, limited, enhanced or maximal [8,9]. In countries with basic and limited resources they suggest the widespread introduction of culturally
An early peak of relapse after surgery for breast cancer
Anthony Howell
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr946
Abstract: The recent research paper by the Milan group reports the time to recurrence after removal of a primary breast tumour in a group of 1173 patients entered into clinical trials in Milan between 1964 and 1980 [1]. All patients were treated by radical or modified radical mastectomy but they did not receive postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Previous analyses of this patient series estimating the hazard ratio for relapse at 6–12 month intervals reported peaks of relapse at 18 months and 60 months and then a tapered plateau like tail of relapse extending up to 15 years [2]. The early peak was more pronounced in patients with node-positive tumours that were more than 2 cm in diameter. No differences in the curves were seen for local and distant relapse or for pre- and postmenopausal patients. At the same time Saphner and colleagues reported similar findings [3], with the additional observation that the early peak was significantly higher in oestrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours. No ER data are available for the Milan series.In the current paper by the Milan group, the aim of the authors was to further interrogate the kinetics of the first peak. Hazard rates were calculated at three month intervals and the authors report in detail 368 patients with a local (95) or distant (273) relapse within the first four years after surgery. The analysis demonstrates, for the first time, a double peak of early relapse with maximum at 8–10 months and 28–30 months for premenopausal patients, but a wide peak with a maximum at 18–24 months for postmenopausal patients. When divided into node-positive and node-negative, the double pattern was seen only in node-positive premenopausal patients: it was more pronounced in patients with more than three nodes involved, but was unrelated to tumour size.This analysis therefore confirms a previous one in the same group of patients, which showed that 27% of all distant relapses of premenopausal node-positive patients occurred within the first
Can metabolomics in addition to genomics add to prognostic and predictive information in breast cancer?
Anthony Howell
BMC Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-8-73
Abstract: See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/10/628 webciteThe major problems in breast cancer are predicting women at risk more precisely and predicting the presence of micrometastases at the time of primary surgery, including whether they will grow in the future and their responsiveness to systemic therapy. Transcriptomics have led to improvements of standard prognostic markers such as tumour size and axillary lymph node status. In parallel, kits for delineating expression of selected predictive and prognostic gene expression profiles have been developed and are commercially available. Clinical trials (TAYLORX and MINDACT) are in progress to determine their value for selection of appropriate adjuvant systemic hormone and chemotherapy. However, the question arises whether other 'omics' such as proteomics and metabolomics can add to the prognostic and predictive information already available from genomics given the heterogeneity and remaining behavioural unpredictability of breast tumours, as well as whether such studies might indicate additional therapeutic targets or whether adding 'omic' platforms together may be clinically useful? The paper by Borgan et al. [1], published this month in BMC Cancer, from two centres in Norway is the first attempt to assess the interactive value of transcriptomics and metabolomics in a series of primary breast cancers.Metabolomics is the study of the metabolic changes which occur in living systems as a result of gene and protein expression and may enhance the information provided by genomics and proteomics. The metabolome may be the most sensitive measure of cellular phenotype, and methods are evolving to measure the metabolome of a single cell. Analytical methods for metabolomics analysis include liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (hundreds of metabolites with multiple unknown peaks), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS approximately 120 to 200 metabolites) and the method used in the paper by Borgan et
An Introduction to Chaotic dynamical systems. 2nd Edition, by Robert L. Devaney
Garry Howell
International Journal of Stochastic Analysis , 1990, DOI: 10.1155/s1048953390000077
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