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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 151206 matches for " Annette H. Sohn "
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Antiretroviral Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings 2012
Ann Duerr,Fredrick L. Altice,Anthony D. Harries,Annette H. Sohn
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/346708
Antiretroviral Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings 2012
Ann Duerr,Fredrick L. Altice,Anthony D. Harries,Annette H. Sohn
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/346708
Comparisons of Primary HIV-1 Drug Resistance between Recent and Chronic HIV-1 Infection within a Sub-Regional Cohort of Asian Patients
Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Romanee Chaiwarith, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Rossana Ditangco, Awachana Jiamsakul, Patrick C. K. Li, Pacharee Kantipong, Christopher Lee, Winai Ratanasuwan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Annette H. Sohn, Somnuek Sungkanuparph, for the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Surveillance and Monitoring Studies
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062057
Abstract: Background The emergence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) has raised concerns after rapid global antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are limited data on the epidemiology of primary HIVDR in resource-limited settings in Asia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and compare the distribution of HIVDR in a cohort of ART-na?ve Asian patients with recent and chronic HIV-1 infection. Methods Multicenter prospective study was conducted in ART-na?ve patients between 2007 and 2010. Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were assessed using the World Health Organization 2009 list for surveillance of primary HIVDR. Results A total of 458 patients with recent and 1,340 patients with chronic HIV-1 infection were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of primary HIVDR was 4.6%. Recently infected patients had a higher prevalence of primary HIVDR (6.1% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.065) and frequencies of RAMs to protease inhibitors (PIs; 3.9% vs. 1.0%, p<0.001). Among those with recent infection, the most common RAMs to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were M184I/V and T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (1.1%), to non-NRTIs was Y181C (1.3%), and to PIs was M46I (1.5%). Of patients with chronic infection, T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (0.8%; NRTI), Y181C (0.5%; non-NRTI), and M46I (0.4%; PI) were the most common RAMs. K70R (p = 0.016) and M46I (p = 0.026) were found more frequently among recently infected patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis in patients with chronic infection, heterosexual contact as a risk factor for HIV-1 infection was less likely to be associated with primary HIVDR compared to other risk categories (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.20–0.59, p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of primary HIVDR was higher among patients with recent than chronic HIV-1 infection in our cohort, but of borderline statistical significance. Chronically infected patients with non-heterosexual risks for HIV were more likely to have primary HIVDR.
An In Vivo Photo-Cross-Linking Approach Reveals a Homodimerization Domain of Aha1 in S. cerevisiae
Michael Berg, Annette Michalowski, Silke Palzer, Steffen Rupp, Kai Sohn
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089436
Abstract: Protein-protein interactions play an essential role in almost any biological processes. Therefore, there is a particular need for methods which describe the interactions of a defined target protein in its physiological context. Here we report a method to photo-cross-link interacting proteins in S. cerevisiae by using the non-canonical amino acid p-azido-L-phenylalanine (pAzpa). Based on the expanded genetic code the photoreactive non-canonical amino acid pAzpa was site-specifically incorporated at eight positions into a domain of Aha1 that was previously described to bind Hsp90 in vitro to function as a cochaperone of Hsp90 and activates its ATPase activity. In vivo photo-cross-linking to the cognate binding partner of Aha1 was carried out by irradiation of mutant strains with UV light (365 nm) to induce covalent intermolecular bonds. Surprisingly, an interaction between Aha1 and Hsp90 was not detected, although, we could confirm binding of suppressed pAzpa containing Aha1 to Hsp90 by native co-immunoprecipitation. However, a homodimer consisting of two covalently crosslinked Aha1 monomers was identified by mass spectrometry. This homodimer could also be confirmed using p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine, another photoreactive non-canonical amino acid. Crosslinking was highly specific as it was dependent on irradiation using UV light, the exact position of the non-canonical amino acid in the protein sequence as well as on the addition of the non-canonical amino acid to the growth medium. Therefore it seems possible that an interaction of Aha1 with Hsp90 takes place at different positions than previously described in vitro highlighting the importance of in vivo techniques to study protein-protein interactions. Accordingly, the expanded genetic code can easily be applied to other S. cerevisiae proteins to study their interaction under physiological relevant conditions in vivo.
Long-Term Projections of Global Food Requirements: Why Were We Wrong?  [PDF]
Ira Sohn
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.42026

This article reports on and analyzes long-term projections of world food requirements compared with observed 2000 data reported by the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization. The importance of this “post-mortem” is to strengthen the case for carrying out long-term projections of essential resources—food, energy, and non-fuel minerals because of the long-lead times needed to insure that adequate global output levels of these basic ingredients of living standards will be met. This study should prove useful to those preparing today’s long-term projections, with world population projected to rise to over 9bn by mid-century.

Assessment of the calibration performance of satellite visible channels using cloud targets: application to Meteosat-8/9 and MTSAT-1R
S.-H. Ham ,B. J. Sohn
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: To examine the calibration performance of the Meteosat-8/9 Spinning Enhanced Visible Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) 0.640-μm and the Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT)-1R 0.724-μm channels, three calibration methods are employed. Total eight months during the 2004–2007 period are used for SEVIRI, and total seven months during the 2007–2008 period are used for MTSAT-1R. First, a ray-matching technique is used to compare Meteosat-8/9 and MTSAT-1R visible channel reflectances with the well-calibrated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 0.646-μm channel reflectances. Spectral differences of the response function between the two channels of interest are taken into account for the comparison. Second, collocated MODIS cloud products are used as inputs to a radiative transfer model (RTM) to calculate Meteosat-8/9 and MTSAT-1R visible channel reflectances. In the simulation, cloud three-dimensional (3-D) radiative effect associated with subgrid variations is taken into account using the lognormal-independent column approximation (LN-ICA) to minimize the simulation bias caused by the plane-parallel homogeneous assumption. Third, an independent method uses the typical optical properties of deep convective clouds (DCCs) to simulate reflectances of selected DCC targets. Although all three methods are not in perfect agreement, the results suggest that calibration coefficients of Meteosat-8/9 0.640-μm channels are underestimated by 6–7%. On the other hand, the calibration accuracy of MTSAT-1R visible channel appears to be variable with the target reflectance itself because of an underestimate of calibration coefficient (up to 20%) and a non-zero space offset. The results further suggest that the solar channel calibration scheme combining the three methods in this paper can be used as a tool to monitor the calibration performance of visible sensors that are particularly not equipped with an onboard calibration system.
Policy on infant formula industry funding, support or sponsorship of articles submitted for publication
Annette Beasley, Lisa H Amir
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-2-5
Abstract: Despite current scientific evidence that artificial feeding is a harmful practice [1], unquestioned acceptance of breastfeeding as the normal or "default" method of infant feeding [2] remains elusive throughout the industrialised world. The dominance of an infant formula feeding culture is evident through popular beliefs such as "artificial milk feeds [are]...at least as good for the baby (if not actually better) as breast feeding", and ambivalent views associated with "give it a go" attitudes [3]. This lack of a breastfeeding culture in most industrialised nations is the legacy of decades of commercial marketing of infant formula, often endorsed by medical practices [4].Throughout the developing world the profound consequences of the aggressive marketing strategies of the infant formula industry particularly since the end of the Second World War is well known. Public awareness of the tragic outcome of the use of infant formula in the developing world led to a consumer boycott of Nestlé products during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Around this time the first of a series of international strategies designed to reduce infant mortality rates through regulating the promotion of artificial baby milk was implemented. In 1981, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes [5]. The aim of the International Code was "to contribute to the provision of safe and adequate nutrition for infants, by the protection and promotion of breast-feeding, and by ensuring the proper use of breast-milk substitutes, when these are necessary, on the basis of adequate information and through appropriate marketing and distribution" [5] (p.8). While a significant move, universal implementation of the International Code has been hampered by the difficulty of enforcing compliance among members of the infant formula industry and within non-signatory nations.Following the launch of the International Code, the World Health Assembly has i
Infant feeding, poverty and human development
Annette Beasley, Lisa H Amir
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-2-14
Abstract: October 2007 has been dedicated by the Council of Science Editors to the global theme of 'Poverty and Human Development'. The Council's initiative follows earlier successes with simultaneous publications on a global theme across scientific journals. In 1996, 36 journals from 21 countries published articles on 'Emerging and re-emerging global microbial threats'. The following year, 97 journals in 31 countries published on the theme of 'Ageing'. The objective of this strategy is to raise awareness, and to stimulate research and international collaboration on important topics.In a call for submissions on the current global theme of poverty and human development from the perspective of breastfeeding, the International Breastfeeding Journal (IBJ) referred potential contributors to the emerging policy development framework of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding [1]. The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of IBJ's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. In view of the significance of the global theme, the lack of response to the call for papers was disappointing. Nevertheless, it remains important that this journal endorse the intention of the global theme through editorial commentary.The important issue of childhood survival has been highlighted in recent years, with statistics indicating 99% of childhood deaths occur in less-developed countries, and gaps between rich and poor within many countries are increasing [2]. The Lancet series on child survival reported that less than four in ten children are exclusively breastfed for 6 months (in the 42 countries accounting for 90% of deaths in under five year olds in 2000) [3]. There is high quality evidence that infants not exclusively breastfed are at increased risk of death from diarrhoea, pneumonia and neonatal sepsis [4]. It is proposed that ex
From sequence to structure and back again: approaches for predicting protein-DNA binding
Annette H?glund, Oliver Kohlbacher
Proteome Science , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-2-3
Abstract: Detecting the short and variable transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in genomic DNA is an intriguing challenge for computational and structural biologists. Fast and reliable computational methods for predicting TFBSs on a whole-genome scale offer several advantages compared to the current experimental methods that are rather laborious and slow. Two main approaches are being explored, advanced sequence-based algorithms and structure-based methods.The aim of this review is to outline the computational and experimental methods currently being applied in the field of protein-DNA interactions. With a focus on the former, the current state of the art in modeling these interactions is discussed. Surveying sequence and structure-based methods for predicting TFBSs, we conclude that in order to achieve a sound and specific method applicable on genomic sequences it is desirable and important to bring these two approaches together.A complex network of gene regulatory signals allows each cell in both single- and multicellular organisms to flexibly respond to environmental factors. In 1967, Ptashne realized that gene expression is regulated by protein switches that bind to target sequences in the DNA [1]. Understanding the mechanisms underlying sequence-specific binding of proteins to DNA and the resulting gene expression, holds great promise for targeting numerous diseases through rational drug development [2].The sequencing of whole genomes alongside with experimental studies of the control of gene expression has revealed some fundamental mechanisms. Each gene is regulated by at least one, but often multiple transcription factor (TFs). The TFs bind to specific transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) within the regulatory regions (promoters) of the genes. The functional arrangement, i.e. the presence, combination, and order of the TFBSs in a regulatory region, form promoter modules [3] that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes [4].The analysis of indivi
Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits
Stephen H. Thomas,Annette O. Arthur
Emergency Medicine International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/698562
Abstract: Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS) utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems. 1. Introduction This discussion strives to overview potential benefits accrued by utilization of helicopter EMS (HEMS). The goal will be to outline the major HEMS-associated gains accrued by patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions. The existence and degree of benefits from HEMS use have been debated for years. Unfortunately, it is not possible to know, at the time of vehicle triage, precisely which patients will benefit from HEMS. On the other hand, there are systematic reviews of the literature which strongly suggest that HEMS accrues benefits for at least some types of patients [1–3]. An example review is found in a 2007 report from the independent Institute of Health Economics, prepared for the Canadian health ministry in Alberta. These authors, after reviewing all available studies from the year 2000, concluded: “Overall, patients transported by helicopter showed a benefit in terms of survival, time interval to reach the healthcare facility, time interval to definite treatment, better results, or a benefit in general.” [4]. Since few would argue that HEMS benefit is always predicated solely on time and logistics, any consideration of HEMS outcomes must include broader considerations of out-of-hospital care (for purposes of consistency within this paper, “prehospital”
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