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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10219 matches for " Anne-Sylvie Dumenil "
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Canonisation du Coran… par le Coran ? Canonization of the Qur’an… by the Qur’an?
Anne-Sylvie Boisliveau
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/remmm.7141
Abstract: La canonisation du Coran a ceci de spécifique qu’elle se trouve énoncée dans le texte coranique lui-même. L’étude de cette formulation révèle une très forte argumentation en faveur de l’autorité canonique des récitations muhammadiennes. Comment une telle argumentation, d’aspect unifié, s’accorde-t-elle avec la réalité historique du processus de canonisation par la communauté musulmane, et notamment avec les hypothèses de J. Wansbrough et A.-L. de Prémare ? Distinguant fixation du texte et reconnaissance de l’autorité du texte comme les deux composantes de ce processus, nous posons l’hypothèse d’une évolution décalée de ces deux éléments : la formulation de l’autorité des récitations muhammadiennes précèderait l’effectivité de cette autorité, laquelle précèderait le processus de fixation. La formulation dans le texte ne serait pas le résultat mais la cause de la canonisation. The Qur’an is specific in that it proclaims its own canonization in the Qur’anic text itself. A study of this affirmation reveals a strong and organized argument for the canonical authority of Muhammad’s recitations. How does such a unified argument fit with the traditional process of canonization by the early Muslim community, most particularly as analyzed by J. Wansbrough and A.-L. de Prémare? By distinguishing between the fixing of the established text and the accepting of the authority of the text as the two components of this process, I suggest that the affirmation of the authority of Muhammad’s recitations preceded its effective authority, and thus preceded the process of fixing the text. Thus this affirmation in the Qur’an should not be regarded as the result of the canonization but as its cause.
Man-made climate change:Facts and fiction
Michael Dittmar,Anne-Sylvie Nicollerat
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: Important issues about climate change are summarized and discussed: A large body of evidence shows that the world climate is getting warmer. Climate models give a consistent explanation of this observation once human-made emissions of greenhouse gases are taken into account. Furthermore, the main source of greenhouse gases comes from the burning of oil, gas and coal, mainly in the industrialized countries. Without any change of behaviour, the possible predicted consequences of this climate change for the coming decades are very disturbing. Today's (in)action's will have long-term consequences for the entire biosphere and the living conditions of many future generations. The combination of the various points related to the climate change leads to a final question: "For how long will Humanity continue to bury its head in the sand?"
Efficacy of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients: a propensity analysis
Christophe Clec'h, Micha?l Darmon, Alexandre Lautrette, Frank Chemouni, Elie Azoulay, Carole Schwebel, Anne-Sylvie Dumenil, Ma?té Garrouste-Orgeas, Dany Goldgran-Toledano, Yves Cohen, Jean-Fran?ois Timsit
Critical Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/cc11905
Abstract: We performed a propensity analysis using data of the French longitudinal prospective multicenter Outcomerea database. Two propensity scores for RRT were built to match patients who received RRT to controls who did not despite having a close probability of receiving the procedure. AKI was defined according to RIFLE criteria. The association between RRT and hospital mortality was examined through multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses to control for residual confounding. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the impact of RRT timing.Among the 2846 study patients, 545 (19%) received RRT. Crude mortality rates were higher in patients with than in those without RRT (38% vs 17.5%, P < 0.001). After matching and adjustment, RRT was not associated with a reduced hospital mortality. The two propensity models yielded concordant results.In our study population, RRT failed to reduce hospital mortality. This result emphasizes the need for randomized studies comparing RRT to conservative management in selected ICU patients, with special focus on RRT timing.Acute kidney injury (AKI) significantly contributes to the morbidity and the mortality of critically ill patients through metabolic derangements, fluid overload and harmful effects of these disturbances on other failing organs. Renal replacement therapy (RRT), although not achieving the same level of homeostasis as a normally functioning kidney, helps limit the consequences of AKI and allows adequate administration of fluids and nutritional support. However, its benefits (aside from life-threatening complications, such as severe hyperkalemia, pulmonary edema, and intractable acidosis) in critically ill patients with AKI remain unclear.Available data are derived from uncontrolled studies, which all showed higher mortality rates among populations treated with RRT [1-5]. Due to their design, however, confounders and biases may have limited their accuracy. Particularly, treatment selection bias [6] may have
Impact of ureido/carboxypenicillin resistance on the prognosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Catherine Kaminski, Jean-Fran?ois Timsit, Yohann Dubois, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Ma?té Garrouste-Orgeas, Aurélien Vesin, Elie Azoulay, Céline Feger, Anne-Sylvie Dumenil, Christophe Adrie, Yves Cohen, Bernard Allaouchiche, the OUTCOMEREA study group
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10136
Abstract: A total of 223 episodes of PA-VAP recorded into the Outcomerea database were evaluated. Patients with ureido/carboxy-resistant P. aeruginosa (PRPA) were compared with those with ureido/carboxy-sensitive P. aeruginosa (PSPA) after matching on duration of ICU stay at VAP onset and adjustment for confounders.Factors associated with onset of PRPA-VAP were as follows: admission to the ICU with septic shock, broad-spectrum antimicrobials at admission, prior use of ureido/carboxypenicillin, and colonization with PRPA before infection. Adequate antimicrobial therapy was more often delayed in the PRPA group. The crude ICU mortality rate and the hospital mortality rate were not different between the PRPA and the PSPA groups. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for time in the ICU before VAP diagnosis, neither ICU death (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32 to 1.69; P = 0.46) nor hospital death (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.99; P = 0.74) were increased in the presence of PRPA infection. This result remained unchanged in the subgroup of 87 patients who received adequate antimicrobial treatment on the day of VAP diagnosis.After adjustment, and despite the more frequent delay in the initiation of an adequate antimicrobial therapy in these patients, resistance to ureido/carboxypenicillin was not associated with ICU or hospital death in patients with PA-VAP.Despite many improvements in the management of mechanically-ventilated patients, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains the second leading cause of nosocomial infections in intensive care units (ICU). VAP has one of the highest mortality rates, ranking from 20 to 50% [1], and increases length of hospital stay, and hospital costs [2].Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infections and one of the bacteria most frequently responsible for late-onset VAP. When VAP is documented by bronchoscopic techniques, P. aeruginosa is the most frequently isolated nosocomial bacteria, with m
Mortality associated with timing of admission to and discharge from ICU: a retrospective cohort study
Kevin B Laupland, Benoit Misset, Bertrand Souweine, Alexis Tabah, Elie Azoulay, Dany Goldgran-Toledano, Anne-Sylvie Dumenil, Aurélien Vésin, Samir Jamali, Hatem Kallel, Christophe Clec'h, Michael Darmon, Carole Schwebel, Jean-Francois Timsit
BMC Health Services Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-321
Abstract: Adults (≥18 years) admitted to French ICUs participating in Outcomerea between January 2006 and November 2010 were included.Among the 7,380 patients included, 61% (4,481) were male, the median age was 62 (IQR, 49-75) years, and the median SAPS II score was 40 (IQR, 28-56). Admissions to ICU occurred during weekends (Saturday and Sunday) in 1,708 (23%) cases, during the night (18:00-07:59) in 3,855 (52%), and on nights and/or weekends in 4,659 (63%) cases. Among 5,992 survivors to ICU discharge, 903 (15%) were discharged on weekends, 659 (11%) at night, and 1,434 (24%) on nights and/or weekends. After controlling for a number of co-variates using logistic regression analysis, admission during the after hours was not associated with an increased risk for death. However, patients discharged from ICU on nights were at higher adjusted risk (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.11) for death.In this study, ICU discharge at night but not admission was associated with a significant increased risk for death. Further studies are needed to examine whether minimizing night time discharges from ICU may improve outcome.Patients who suffer acute illness and are admitted during the "after hours" (weekends or nights) may be at higher risk for adverse outcome as compared to patients admitted during weekdays [1]. Cavallazzi et al recently conducted a meta-analysis of ten studies conducted in adult ICUs and found that while night time admission was not associated with an increased risk, a small but significant increased risk for death was associated with weekend admission [2]. Since, Kuijsten et al reported a relative risk for death associated with admission in the afterhours of 1.059 (95% confidence interval 1.031-1.088) among 149,894 admissions to Dutch ICUs [3]. More recently Kevat et al reported on 245,057 admissions to Australian ICUs and found an increased risk for hospital mortality associated with admission during evenings/nights (17% vs. 14%; p < 0.001) and during
Z' studies at the LHC: an update
Michael Dittmar,Abdelhak Djouadi,Anne-Sylvie Nicollerat
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2003.09.103
Abstract: We reanalyse the potential of the LHC to discover new $Z'$ gauge bosons and to discriminate between various theoretical models. Using a fast LHC detector simulation, we have investigated how well the characteristics of $Z'$ bosons from different models can be measured. For this analysis we have combined the information coming from the cross section measurement, which provides also the $Z'$ mass and total width, the forward-backward charge asymmetries on- and off-peak, and the $Z'$ rapidity distribution, which is sensitive to its $u \bar{u}$ and $d \bar{d}$ couplings. We confirm that new $Z'$ bosons can be observed in the process $pp \to Z' \to l^+ l^-$, up to masses of about 5 TeV for an integrated luminosity of 100 fb$^{-1}$. The off- and on-resonance peak forward-backward charge asymmetries $A_{\rm FB}^{l}$ show that interesting statistical accuracies can be obtained up to $Z'$ masses of the order of 2 TeV. We then show how the different experimental observables allow for a diagnosis of the $Z'$ boson and the distinction between the various considered models.
Prognostic consequences of borderline dysnatremia: pay attention to minimal serum sodium change
Michael Darmon, Eric Diconne, Bertrand Souweine, Stéphane Ruckly, Christophe Adrie, Elie Azoulay, Christophe Clec'h, Ma?té Garrouste-Orgeas, Carole Schwebel, Dany Goldgran-Toledano, Hatem Khallel, Anne-Sylvie Dumenil, Samir Jamali, Christine Cheval, Bernard Allaouchiche, Fabrice Zeni, Jean-Fran?ois Timsit
Critical Care , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/cc11937
Abstract: Observational study on a prospective database fed by 13 intensive care units (ICUs). Unselected patients with ICU stay longer than 48 h were enrolled over a 14-year period were included in this study. Mild to severe hyponatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration < 135, < 130, and < 125 mmol/L respectively. Mild to severe hypernatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration > 145, > 150, and > 155 mmol/L respectively. Borderline hyponatremia and hypernatremia were defined as serum sodium concentration between 135 and 137 mmol/L or 143 and 145 respectively.A total of 11,125 patients were included in this study. Among these patients, 3,047 (27.4%) had mild to severe hyponatremia at ICU admission, 2,258 (20.3%) had borderline hyponatremia at ICU admission, 1,078 (9.7%) had borderline hypernatremia and 877 (7.9%) had mild to severe hypernatremia. After adjustment for confounder, both moderate and severe hyponatremia (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.82, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.395 and 1.27, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60 respectively) were associated with day-30 mortality. Similarly, mild, moderate and severe hypernatremia (sHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.57; 1.51, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.99; and 2.64, 95% CI 2.00 to 3.81 respectively) were independently associated with day-30 mortality.One-third of critically ill patients had a mild to moderate dysnatremia at ICU admission. Dysnatremia, including mild changes in serum sodium concentration, is an independent risk factor for hospital mortality and should not be neglected.Dysnatremia is a common finding at ICU admission [1-3]. Abnormal serum sodium concentrations are known to adversely affect physiologic function and an increasing body of evidence suggests that dysnatremia may be associated with adverse outcome [1-4]. Critically ill patients are particularly exposed to dysnatremia due to the nature of the disease leading to ICU admission and to lack of free access to water [2,4,5]. Up to one-third of critically ill patients have a dys
Validity of the FACIT-Sp to Assess Spiritual Well-Being in Elderly Patients  [PDF]
Stéfanie Monod, Estelle Lécureux, Etienne Rochat, Brenda Spencer, Laurence Seematter-Bagnoud, Anne-Sylvie Martin-Durussel, Christophe Büla
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.610128
Abstract: Among instruments measuring spiritual well-being, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp-12) is the most widely used instrument in research. It has been validated in patients suffering from cancer or HIV/AIDS, but has rarely been used in elderly patients. The objectives of this study were to determine the psychometric properties and suitability of the FACIT-Spto assess spiritual well-being in hospitalized elderly patients. This cross-sectional study uses a mixed method approach. Subjects were patients (N = 208), aged 65 years and older, consecutively admitted in post-acute rehabilitation. Psychometric properties of the FACIT-Sp were investigated. The internal structure of the FACIT-Sp (factor structure and internal consistency) was assessed. Convergent validity of the FACIT-Sp was assessed using the Spiritual Distress Assessment Tool (SDAT), the question “Are you at peace?” and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Predictive validity was assessed using length of stay (LOS) and discharge destination. Understanding and interpretation of FACIT-Sp items were consecutively assessed in a sub-sample of 135 patients. Results show that FACIT-Sp scores ranged from 7 to 46 (mean 29.6 ± 7.8); 23.1% of the patients had high spiritual well-being. Cronbach’s α was good (0.85). Item-to-total correlations were all significant (0.34 to 0.73). Principal component analyses performed with 2 or 3 factors were only moderately consistent with previous work. FACIT-Sp correlated with SDAT, “Are you at peace?” and GDS (Rho = -0.45, P < 0.001; 0.51, P < 0.001 and -0.38, P < 0.001). No association was found with LOS or discharge destination. Spontaneous comments about one or more FACIT-Sp items were made by 97/135 (71.9%). Specifically, items that address purpose and meaning in life were frequently found difficult to answer. Analyses suggest that the FACIT-Sp may underestimate spiritual well-being in older patients. In conclusion, despite having acceptable psychometric properties, the FACIT-Sp presents limitations for measurement of spiritual well-being in hospitalized elderly patients.
Rapid and Green Analytical Method for the Determination of Quinoline Alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra Based on Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) Prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Anne-Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier,Abdelhakim Elomri,Axelle Blanckaert,Elisabeth Seguin,Emmanuel Petitcolas,Farid Chemat
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12117846
Abstract: Quinas contains several compounds, such as quinoline alkaloids, principally quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cichonidine. Identified from barks of Cinchona, quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) is proposed for the extraction of quinoline alkaloids from bark of Cinchona succirubra. The process is performed in four steps, which ensures complete, rapid and accurate extraction of the samples. Optimal conditions for extraction were obtained using a response surface methodology reached from a central composite design. The MIEL extraction has been compared with a conventional technique soxhlet extraction. The extracts of quinoline alkaloids from C. succirubra obtained by these two different methods were compared by HPLC. The extracts obtained by MIEL in 32 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine) similar to those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction in 3 hours. MIEL is a green technology that serves as a good alternative for the extraction of Cinchona alkaloids.
Analgesia e seda??o em situa??es de emergência e unidades de tratamento intensivo pediátrico
Lago, Patrícia M.;Piva, Jefferson P.;Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos;Sfoggia, Ana;Knight, Geoff;Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie;Duncan, Alan;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0021-75572003000800012
Abstract: objective: to review the current strategies for use of sedatives and analgesics in emergency rooms and intensive care units. sources of data: original data from our emergency rooms and intensive care units; medline literature review focused on sedatives and analgesic drugs; textbooks. summary of the findings: despite the advances in understanding pain in children, in many critical care units the misguided treatment of pain and anxiety still results in significant morbidity. difficulties in communication, invasive procedures and the belief that children do not have sufficient neurologic development to process noxious sensations are still a challenge in intensive care units conclusions: the last decade was marked by significant advances in understanding pediatric pain. treating intensive care unit-related pain and anxiety has clear benefits which may influence the course of disease.
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