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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 176329 matches for " Anne E Holland "
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Clinical review: Humidifiers during non-invasive ventilation - key topics and practical implications
Antonio M Esquinas Rodriguez, Raffaele Scala, Arie Soroksky, Ahmed BaHammam, Alan de Klerk, Arschang Valipour, Davide Chiumello, Claude Martin, Anne E Holland
Critical Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/cc10534
Abstract: The human airway has an important role in heating and humidifying inspired gas, and recovering heat and moisture from expired gas. The amount of water vapor in a gas mixture can be measured as absolute humidity (AH) or relative humidity (RH) in relation to the temperature. AH is the total water present in the gas (mg H2O/L) and RH is the amount of water present expressed as the percentage of maximum carrying capacity at a given temperature [1]. The human airway must provide gas at core temperature and 100% RH at the alveolar surface in order to optimize gas exchange and protect lung tissue [2].Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a mechanical ventilation modality that does not utilize an invasive artificial airway (endotracheal tube or tracheostomy tube) [3]. NIV is usually delivered through a nasal or oro-nasal mask so the inspired gas passes through the upper airway where it is conditioned. Like during spontaneous breathing, patients under NIV require adequate humidification and heating of the inspired air (that is, gas conditioning) [3]. NIV delivers inspired air at high flow rates, which may overwhelm the usual airway humidification mechanisms. Inadequate gas conditioning has been associated with anatomical and functional deterioration of nasal mucosa (ciliary activity, mucus secretion, local blood flow, nasal resistance). In addition, there are also negative effects on tolerance to NIV when a patient breathes inadequately humidified air [1,3-5] (Table 1).Metaplastic changes and keratinization of the nasal epithelium and submucosa have been reported in patients on home-NIV when the level of humidification was inadequate for long periods [5]. These histopathological findings were confirmed by our recent survey, which found similar structural changes of the nasal mucosa in four patients with acute respiratory failure treated for 7 days with NIV without a humidification system added (unpublished data; Figure 1). This suggests that changes in the nasal mucosa occur rel
The benefits of exercise training in interstitial lung disease: protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial
Leona Dowman, Christine F McDonald, Catherine Hill, Annemarie Lee, Kathryn Barker, Claire Boote, Ian Glaspole, Nicole Goh, Annemarie Southcott, Angela Burge, Rebecca Ndongo, Alicia Martin, Anne E Holland
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-13-8
Abstract: One hundred and sixteen participants with interstitial lung disease recruited from three tertiary institutions will be randomised to either an exercise training group (supervised exercise training twice weekly for eight weeks) or a usual care group (weekly telephone support). The 6-minute walk distance, peripheral muscle strength, health-related quality of life, dyspnoea, anxiety and depression will be measured by a blinded assessor at baseline, immediately following the intervention and at six months following the intervention. The primary outcome will be change in 6-minute walk distance following the intervention, with planned subgroup analyses for participants with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, dust-related interstitial lung disease and connective-tissue related interstitial lung disease. The effects of disease severity on outcomes will be evaluated using important markers of disease severity and survival, such as forced vital capacity, carbon monoxide transfer factor and pulmonary hypertension.This trial will provide certainty regarding the role of exercise training in interstitial lung disease and will identify at what time point within the disease process this treatment is most effective. The results from this study will inform and optimise the clinical management of people with interstitial lung disease.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000416998The interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a disabling and diverse group of chronic lung conditions that have been broadly classified into four groups: ILD of known cause such as occupational or environmental exposures and/or collagen vascular disease; granulomatous ILD such as sarcoidosis; idiopathic interstitial pneumonias including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP); and other rare forms of ILD including lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis/histiocytosis X, and eosinophilic pneumonia [1]. Many ILDs are characterised
The effects of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Annemarie L Lee, Nola Cecins, Catherine J Hill, Anne E Holland, Linda Rautela, Robert G Stirling, Phillip J Thompson, Christine F McDonald, Sue Jenkins
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-10-5
Abstract: This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 64 patients with bronchiectasis from three tertiary institutions. Participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention group (supervised, twice weekly exercise training with regular review of airway clearance therapy) or a control group (twice weekly telephone support). Measurements will be taken at baseline, immediately following the intervention and at six and 12 months following the intervention period by a blinded assessor. Exercise capacity will be measured using the incremental shuttle walk test and the six-minute walk test. Quality of life and health status will be measured using the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire, Leicester Cough Questionnaire, Assessment of Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The rate of hospitalisation will be captured as well as the incidence of acute pulmonary exacerbations using a daily symptom diary.Results from this study will help to determine the efficacy of supervised twice-weekly pulmonary rehabilitation upon exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis and will contribute to clinical practice guidelines for physiotherapists in the management of this population.This study protocol is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00885521).Bronchiectasis not related to cystic fibrosis (non-CF bronchiectasis) is characterised by permanent dilatation of the airways arising from bronchial inflammation and infection [1]. Predominant symptoms include cough with sputum production, dyspnoea and fatigue [2-4]. This clinical profile contributes to progressive deconditioning, which gives rise to reduced exercise tolerance and diminished health-related quality of life (HRQoL) [2,5,6]. Patients with bronchiectasis suffer from recurrent acute exacerbations, which may require hospitalisation [7,8]. This clinical course of bronchiectasis imposes considerable economic cost to the healthcare system [9,10]. More importantly, the inci
A randomised controlled trial of an open lung strategy with staircase recruitment, titrated PEEP and targeted low airway pressures in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Carol L Hodgson, David V Tuxen, Andrew R Davies, Michael J Bailey, Alisa M Higgins, Anne E Holland, Jenny L Keating, David V Pilcher, Andrew J Westbrook, David J Cooper, Alistair D Nichol
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10249
Abstract: Twenty ARDS patients were randomised to treatment or ARDSnet control ventilation strategies. The treatment group received SRM with decremental PEEP titration and targeted plateau pressure < 30 cm H2O. Gas exchange and lung compliance were measured daily for 7 days and plasma cytokines in the first 24 hours and on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 (mean ± SE). Duration of ventilation, ICU stay and hospital stay (median and interquartile range) and hospital survival were determined.There were significant overall differences between groups when considering plasma IL-8 and TNF-α. For plasma IL-8, the control group was 41% higher than the treatment group over the seven-day period (ratio 1.41 (1.11 to 1.79), P = 0.01), while for TNF-α the control group was 20% higher over the seven-day period (ratio 1.20 (1.01 to 1.42) P = 0.05). PaO2/FIO2 (204 ± 9 versus 165 ± 9 mmHg, P = 0.005) and static lung compliance (49.1 ± 2.9 versus 33.7 ± 2.7 mls/cm H2O, P < 0.001) were higher in the treatment group than the control group over seven days. There was no difference in duration of ventilation (180 (87 to 298) versus 341 (131 to 351) hrs, P = 0.13), duration of ICU stay (9.9 (5.6 to 14.8) versus 16.0 (8.1 to 19.3) days, P = 0.19) and duration of hospital stay (17.9 (13.7 to 34.5) versus 24.7 (20.5 to 39.8) days, P = 0.16) between the treatment and control groups.This open lung strategy was associated with greater amelioration in some systemic cytokines, improved oxygenation and lung compliance over seven days. A larger trial powered to examine clinically-meaningful outcomes is warranted.ACTRN12607000465459Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory condition of the lungs that is associated with high mortality [1]. Mechanical ventilation is a life supporting intervention that aims to maintain gas exchange in these patients, but it can also augment or initiate lung injury [2]. Lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategies that aim to minimise tidal volume and plateau pressure ha
Evidence for Repeated Independent Evolution of Migration in the Largest Family of Bats
Isabelle-Anne Bisson,Kamran Safi,Richard A. Holland
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007504
Abstract: How migration evolved represents one of the most poignant questions in evolutionary biology. While studies on the evolution of migration in birds are well represented in the literature, migration in bats has received relatively little attention. Yet, more than 30 species of bats are known to migrate annually from breeding to non-breeding locations. Our study is the first to test hypotheses on the evolutionary history of migration in bats using a phylogenetic framework.
Impact of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection on Chimpanzee Population Dynamics
Rebecca S. Rudicell,James Holland Jones,Emily E. Wroblewski,Gerald H. Learn,Yingying Li,Joel D. Robertson,Elizabeth Greengrass,Falk Grossmann,Shadrack Kamenya,Lilian Pintea,Deus C. Mjungu,Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf,Anna Mosser,Clarence Lehman,D. Anthony Collins,Brandon F. Keele,Jane Goodall,Beatrice H. Hahn,Anne E. Pusey,Michael L. Wilson
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001116
Abstract: Like human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) can cause CD4+ T cell loss and premature death. Here, we used molecular surveillance tools and mathematical modeling to estimate the impact of SIVcpz infection on chimpanzee population dynamics. Habituated (Mitumba and Kasekela) and non-habituated (Kalande) chimpanzees were studied in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Ape population sizes were determined from demographic records (Mitumba and Kasekela) or individual sightings and genotyping (Kalande), while SIVcpz prevalence rates were monitored using non-invasive methods. Between 2002–2009, the Mitumba and Kasekela communities experienced mean annual growth rates of 1.9% and 2.4%, respectively, while Kalande chimpanzees suffered a significant decline, with a mean growth rate of ?6.5% to ?7.4%, depending on population estimates. A rapid decline in Kalande was first noted in the 1990s and originally attributed to poaching and reduced food sources. However, between 2002–2009, we found a mean SIVcpz prevalence in Kalande of 46.1%, which was almost four times higher than the prevalence in Mitumba (12.7%) and Kasekela (12.1%). To explore whether SIVcpz contributed to the Kalande decline, we used empirically determined SIVcpz transmission probabilities as well as chimpanzee mortality, mating and migration data to model the effect of viral pathogenicity on chimpanzee population growth. Deterministic calculations indicated that a prevalence of greater than 3.4% would result in negative growth and eventual population extinction, even using conservative mortality estimates. However, stochastic models revealed that in representative populations, SIVcpz, and not its host species, frequently went extinct. High SIVcpz transmission probability and excess mortality reduced population persistence, while intercommunity migration often rescued infected communities, even when immigrating females had a chance of being SIVcpz infected. Together, these results suggest that the decline of the Kalande community was caused, at least in part, by high levels of SIVcpz infection. However, population extinction is not an inevitable consequence of SIVcpz infection, but depends on additional variables, such as migration, that promote survival. These findings are consistent with the uneven distribution of SIVcpz throughout central Africa and explain how chimpanzees in Gombe and elsewhere can be at equipoise with this pathogen.
高速分幅相机鉴别率极限的研究
Thomas E.Holland,李景镇
光子学报 , 1973,
Abstract: 对Schadin教授提出的转镜分幅相机的鉴别率极限的信息量概念所作的进一步理论探论,构成了本文的大部分篇幅。根据转镜的尺寸和目标的扩散速度所限定的孔径比、鉴别率、分幅速度、有效曝光时间和对光源的要求,提出了一个完全的信息。在这个信息里,可以得到作为象速函数的每幅的平均鉴别率。可以利用这个函数来评定不同型号的转镜分幅相机。此外,还简要地叙述了旋转棱镜和析象管相机、电光快门和变相管的理论研究方面的进展。析象管和变象管所固有的低鉴别率,表明它们用在最高象速区域很有效,而高鉴别率的转镜相机和旋转棱镜动片相机用在比较低的速度区域是非常有效的。
Preparing Topological States of a Bose-Einstein Condensate
J. E. Williams,M. J. Holland
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1038/44095
Abstract: The burgeoning field of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute alkali and hydrogen gases has stimulated a great deal of research into the statistical physics of weakly interacting quantum degenerate systems. The recent experiments offer the possibility for exploring fundamental properties of low temperature physics in a very controllable and accessible way. One current goal of experimenters in this field is to observe superfluid-like behavior in these trapped Bose gases, analogous to persistent currents in superfluid liquid helium, which flow without observable viscosity, and electric currents in superconductors, which flow without observable resistance. These ``super'' properties of Bose-condensed systems occur because the macroscopic occupation of a quantized mode provides a stabilizing mechanism that inhibits decay due to thermal relaxation. Here we solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation of motion of the condensate involving two hyperfine atomic states and show how to generate, with extremely high fidelity, topological modes such as vortices that open the door to the study of superfluidity in these new systems. Our approach is inspired by recent experiments investigating a trapped condensate with two strongly coupled internal states. We show how the interplay between the internal and motional dynamics can be utilized to prepare the condensate in a variety of interesting configurations.
Globular Clusters in NGC 5128
Stephen Holland,Pat Cote,James E. Hesser
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We used the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope to search for globular clusters in the inner regions of the nearby giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5128. This galaxy is believed to be the product of a merger between a large elliptical galaxy and a small late-type spiral between 160 and 500 Myr ago. We identified 21 globular cluster candidates and measured their core radii, tidal radii, half-mass radii, ellipticities, position angles, and V-I colors. We find evidence that the NGC 5128 globular cluster candidates are systematically more elliptical than are those of the Milky Way. Approximately half of the candidates have (V-I)_0 colors that are consistent with their being either old, unreddened globular clusters, similar to those found in the Milky Way, or young, reddened globular clusters that may have formed during the recent merger event. Most of the rest have colors that are consistent with their being old globular clusters similar to those found in the Milky Way. We find one blue object with (V-I)_0 < 0.26 +/- 0.09. The color, reddening, and integrated magnitude of this object are consistent with its being a small globular cluster with an age of approximately 100 Myr and a mass (based on its integrated luminosity) of <= 4000 Solar masses. We find no evidence for bimodality in the colors of the globular cluster candidates in our sample beyond what can be explained by uncertainties in the differential reddening.
Ceacam1 Separates Graft-versus-Host-Disease from Graft-versus-Tumor Activity after Experimental Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation
Sydney X. Lu,Lucy W. Kappel,Anne-Marie Charbonneau-Allard,Renée Atallah,Amanda M. Holland,Claire Turbide,Vanessa M. Hubbard,Jimmy A. Rotolo,Marsinay Smith,David Suh,Christopher King,Uttam K. Rao,Nury Yim,Johanne L. Bautista,Robert R. Jenq,Olaf Penack,Il-Kang Na,Chen Liu,George Murphy,Onder Alpdogan,Richard S. Blumberg,Fernando Macian,Kathryn V. Holmes,Nicole Beauchemin,Marcel R. M. van den Brink
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021611
Abstract: Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) is a potentially curative therapy for a variety of hematologic diseases, but benefits, including graft-versus-tumor (GVT) activity are limited by graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). Carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 1 (Ceacam1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein found on epithelium, T cells, and many tumors. It regulates a variety of physiologic and pathological processes such as tumor biology, leukocyte activation, and energy homeostasis. Previous studies suggest that Ceacam1 negatively regulates inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease models.
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