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OALib Journal期刊

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Health Canada’s Wind Turbine Noise and Health Study—A Review Exploring Research Challenges, Methods, Limitations and Uncertainties of Some of the Findings  [PDF]
Carmen M. Krogh, Anne Dumbrille, Robert Y. McMurtry, Richard James, Robert W. Rand, Michael A. Nissenbaum, Jeffery J. Aramini, Stephen E. Ambrose
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105046
Abstract: Background: Risk of harm associated with wind turbines is debated globally. Some people living or working in proximity to wind turbines report adverse health effects such as sleep disturbance, noise annoyance, and diminished quality of life. Due to public concern, Health Canada announced its wind turbine noise and health study which included subjective and objective measurements. Findings were published between 2014 and 2016. In 2018, Health Canada published clarifications regarding the design and interpretation of study conclusions. Methods: Methods and subjective/objective findings were reviewed. Peer reviewed publications, conference presentations, judicial proceedings, government documents, and other sources were evaluated and considered in context with advanced methods for investigating reports of adverse health effects. Objectives: To review and explore some of the research challenges, methods, strengths and limitations of findings and conclusions. To participate in scientific dialogue and contribute towards an understanding of reported health risks associated with wind turbine noise. Results: Wind turbine human health research is challenged by numerous variables. Knowledge gaps and individual human and wind turbine variables are identified. Strengths and advisories of limitations are considered and acknowledged. Health Canada’s advisories that its study design does not permit any conclusions about causality and results may not be generalized beyond the sample taken in Canada are supported. Enhanced methods for investigating health outcomes are proposed including establishing referral resources within medical facilities for physicians. It is proposed staffing of the resource center include multidisciplinary teams of physicians, epidemiologists, acousticians and other specialists to investigate suspected wind turbine adverse health effects. Discussion: A review and appraisal of some of the research challenges associated with wind turbine human health research are presented. Given the identified methods, research/knowledge gaps, and limitations and cautionary advisories, Health Canada’s results should be carefully considered when predicting or protecting from health risks of wind turbine noise.
The Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Infections Among Patients Reporting Diarrheal Disease in Chobe District, Botswana  [PDF]
Kathleen Anne Alexander, Joel Herbein, Anne Zajac
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2012.24023
Abstract: Diarrheal disease is a chronic public health problem in Chobe District, Botswana. Acute diarrheal outbreaks occur annually with a bimodal seasonal pattern coinciding with major hydrological phenomena. Information is lacking regarding the etiology of reoccurring outbreaks. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are recognized as important waterborne causes of diarrheal disease with Cryptosporidium transmission potentially involving zoonotic reservoirs. In Chobe District, municipal water is obtained from the Chobe River after it exits the Chobe National Park where high concentrations of wildlife occur. Using the Giardia/Cryptosporidium QUIK CHEK rapid antigen cartridge test, we evaluate the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium among patients (n = 153) presenting to medical facilities in Chobe District with diarrhea (August 2011-July 2012). Cryptosporidium was only identified in children less than two years of age (10%, n = 42, 95% CI 3% - 23%), with positive cases occurring during diarrheal outbreak periods. Infections were not identified in adults despite the high level of human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the region (n = 117). Although not significant, cases were predominately identified in the wet season outbreak (p = 0.94, 25%, n = 12, 95% CI 5% - 57%, dry season outbreaks 3%, n = 30, CI 95% 0% - 17%). Giardia infections occurred across age groups and seasons (7%, n = 153, 95% CI 4% - 10%). This is the first published report of human infections with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in this area of Africa. This study suggests that Cryptosporidium may be a potentially important cause of diarrheal disease in children less than 2 years of age in this region. Further research is required to identify pathogen transmission and persistence dynamics and public health implications, particularly the role of HIV/AIDS and vulnerability to waterborne disease.
VIX and VIX Futures Pricing Algorithms: Cultivating Understanding  [PDF]
Hancock G. D’Anne
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.33038
Abstract: This article reviews the development of the S&P 500 volatility index and uses market information to develop algorithms which aid in clarifying some of the salient points in the determination of an index value. Understanding the pertinent points provides insight into the interpretation and limitations of the usefulness of the VIX and other VIX-type contracts.
The general motor programmer: its specialization for speech perception & movement  [PDF]
Anne Maria Keane
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2012.23024
Abstract: A common neural mechanism—the General Motor Programmer—is proposed by Keane (1999) to underlie both the perception of speech and the initiation of hand movement. A proposal to investigate the specific aspect of cognitive functioning this mechanism is specialized for, namely the timing or place of articulation, is outlined.
Adsorption Enthalpy Calculations of Hydrogen Adsorption at Ambient Temperature and Pressures Exceeding 300 bar  [PDF]
Matthew Beckner, Anne Dailly
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.410A3002
Abstract: Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured at ambient temperature to pressures exceeding 300 bar for three benchmark adsorbents: two metal-organic frameworks, Cu3(btc)2 (btc = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) and Zn4O(btb)2 (btb = 1,3,5-benzenetribenzoate), and the activated carbon MSC-30. The Dubinin-Astakhov model was applied to calculated absolute adsorption isotherms as a function of the fugacity to determine the adsorption enthalpy at ambient temperature. Comparisons of the calculated enthalpies and the surface excess concentration (excess adsorption per square meter of surface) show that Zn4O(btb)2 has an adsorption enthalpy comparable to MSC-30, but that the spacing between adsorbed molecules is much larger.

Economics of Offshore IT Outsourcing: An International Trade Perspective  [PDF]
Bijoy Bordoloi, Anne Powell
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2013.44032
Abstract:

In recent times, offshore outsourcing of Information Technology (IT) products and services, including software development and maintenance activities, has been an issue of much controversy in the United States, with popular sentiment being against outsourcing in the mass media. Is offshore outsourcing really bad for the US economy? If yes, why did so many US companies, including IT companies, start outsourcing to begin with and still continue to do so? For that matter, why doesn’t the federal government simply ban it as a national policy? To provide some possible answers to these questions, this paper examines the issue of offshore outsourcing from the perspectives of international trade theory and the unique cost characteristics of “information goods”.

Productivity and Efficiency in the Development of the Swedish Construction Sector  [PDF]
Anne Landin, Mats Oberg
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.46038
Abstract:

The measurement of productivity and efficiency of activities in the Swedish construction sector is examined. Understanding past and present levels of productivity is necessary to steer emerging and future developments aimed at increasing efficiency of construction. The absence of purposeful measurement methods and tools for determining current and targeted levels of productivity creates confusion for clients, designers, constructors and end-users, who are unable to make confident forecasts of costs and revenues or benefits over project life cycles. The findings of an investigation using panels of expert practitioners guided by senior researchers revealed shortcomings in the understanding of factors of driving productivity as well as uncertainty over where improvements might be achieved. The significance of the findings is that methods and tools must be calibrated to current and emerging construction practices and their technical bases rather than continuing with measurements that were conceived for earlier processes and products. The paper concludes with an outline of further research aimed at improving self-learning in regard to both process and product as part of a broad response to raising efficiency through innovation.

The Saartjie Baartman’s Body Shape versus the Victorian Dress: The Untold African Treasures  [PDF]
Anne Mastamet-Mason
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.28017
Abstract: In most African countries, it is still a common belief that thin women are not attractive. Until the 21st century, full-figured women were considered attractive, were respected, and their padded (with flesh) and curvaceous bodies represented wealth, fertility and good health. The western society views a thin woman as ideal body and has forced many women including Africans to believe that a body that deviates from it is unaccepted. Fashion designers use the thin model as a basis from which to create ready-to-wear clothing for all consumers including those whose body characteristics do not comply with the ideal body features. This has resulted in unsatisfied consumers with clothing sold in the retail stores and negative reactions towards their bodies. The problem of ideal body versus un-ideal body shape date back to 19th Century, where Saartjie Baartman’s body shape characterised by full breasts, narrow waist and extra large buttocks was viewed by Europeans as ugly, yet later on, the same body, though not acknowledged, was used to inspire the creation of Victorian bustle dress that resembled her body in every aspect. This article examines the relationship between the Victorian Bustle dress that became popular from 1870 onwards and the unique body features of Saartjie Baartman, an African slave who was displayed in Europe against her wish as from 1810 to 1815, and even after her death, her body continued to be exhibited in a Museum in Paris. This paper concludes that her body could have inspired the development of the Victorian bustle dress. The paper encourages African women to view their bodies sensibly rather than basing their beauty on the western standard ideologies. Likewise, promotional media houses are encouraged to portray all body shapes fairly and positively. African researchers are advised to search beyond surfaces of historical events for the purposes of documenting underlying important facts affecting Africa.
Intelligent Agent Technologies: The Work Horse of ERP E-Commerce  [PDF]
Anne T. Galante
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2015.54015
Abstract: Agents are the new defacto standard for inclusion in modules of today’s software systems such as ERP systems, mobile applications and operating systems. Agents are an integral part of today’s software design. The question is how do intelligent agents work in the specific area of ERP credit card processing e-commerce models? To answer this question, a specific area of ERP systems will be analyzed: credit card processing for merchants. One specific merchant credit card processor will be specifically investigated: EVO Merchants. This paper will research how exactly does ERP systems interact using Application Programing Interface or “API” specified by a credit card clearing house. Secure Socket Layers or SSL, and XML are discussed and elaborated on specifically how intelligent agents play such a pivotal role in ERP e-commerce systems for credit card processing.
Digital exclusion or learning exclusion? An ethnographic study of adult male distance learners in English prisons
Anne Pike,Anne Adams
Research in Learning Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v20i0.18620
Abstract: Previous research has highlighted the value of technology to enhance learning. However, digital inclusion research has argued that many issues such as skills, access, usability and choice impact on the effectiveness of technology to enhance learning. The findings in this paper add to the debate by highlighting the importance of value and context. In particular, the value that institutions and individuals place on the role of further and higher distance learning in a prison can affect technology-enhanced learning in that context. This research identified that despite good IT skills and improved technologies, prison learners’ access and use of technology is hampered by conflicting priorities amongst the multiple organisations controlling prisoner activities. This can lead to a prison in which menial work is valued far higher than learning. Technology-enhanced distance learning, perceived by many to be a lifeline in a desolate environment, is heavily restricted in such prisons. The situation is thought to be deteriorating as the number of organisations involved increases and the Government's plans for “working” prisons gather pace.
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