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Strategies, Performances and Profiling of a Sample of U.S. Universities in 2012  [PDF]
Angela Besana, Annamaria Esposito
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.53008
Abstract: The global economic crisis is affecting performances of not-for-profits. At the same time donors are targeted by a pressing good-cause related marketing, so that the competition for philanthropy is particularly keen. U.S. universities can be public, not-for-profit and for-profit. U.S. not-for-profit universities are confronted with different marketing, fundraising and revenue diversification. Above all, marketing concerns customers and their segmentation and their purchasing-power exploitation; fundraising aims to gain the trustworthiness of donors, instead. The aim of this paper is the analysis of the revenue diversification of a sample of 100 U.S. not-for-profit universities according to IRS (Internal Revenue Service) Forms. These 100 U.S. universities had the highest 2012’s revenues for the Guidestar ranking (www.guidestar.org). The cluster analysis gives evidence that the highest gain and the highest solvency are both connected with the implementation of revenue diversification for one profile. The most crowded cluster is the Marketing Expert with the second highest gain.
Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises
Annamaria Esposito
Business Systems Review , 2013, DOI: 10.7350/bsr.b08.2013
Abstract: The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespread communication purpose is to activate dialogues and new connections with their stakeholders and the most used communication tools are participation in fairs, sponsorships and events, but the very emerging tool is online communication: digital and social media. Despite the small number of cases included, the paper is to be considered as a starting point for a further quantitative investigation on this topic. The research shows that SMEs managers tend to adapt IMC in order to grasp opportunities on the market, rather than planning and communicating the values related to the product in an integrated way. This point ought to be taken into account to start an exchange of practices between managers and professionals in the marketing communication field..
Opposite influence of light and blindness on pituitary-gonadal function
Antonio Bellastella,Annamaria De Bellis,Giuseppe Bellastella,Katherine Esposito
Frontiers in Endocrinology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2013.00205
Abstract: Some environmental factors may influence the pituitary-gonadal function. Among these, light plays an important role in animal and in humans. The effect of light on the endocrine system is mediated by the pineal gland, through the modulation of melatonin secretion. In fact, melatonin secretion is stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, thus its circadian rhythm peaks at night. Light plays a favourable action on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis likely inhibiting melatonin secretion, even if the exogenous melatonin administration does not seem to impair the hormonal secretions of this axis. The basal and rhythmic pituitary-gonadal hormone secretions is regulated by a central clock gene and some independent clock genes present in the peripheral tissues. Light is able to induce the expression of some of these genes, thus playing an important role in regulating the hormonal secretions of pituitary -gonadal axis and the sexual and reproductive function in animals and humans. The lack of light stimulus in blind subjects induces increased plasma melatonin concentrations with a free-running rhythm of secretion, which impairs the hormonal secretions of pituitary-gonadal axis, causing disorders of reproductive processes in both sexes.
Protective Effects of Many Citrus Flavonoids on Cartilage Degradation Process  [PDF]
Lucia Crascì, Annamaria Panico
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.43035
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of many citrus flavanones, such as neoeriocitrin, naringin and neohesperidin, in cartilage degradation. Degenerative joint disease involved degradation of joints, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone. When bone surfaces become less well protected by cartilage, bone may be exposed and damaged. The degradation cartilage is mediated by alteration of the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes, changes in proteolytic enzyme activity, mechanical disruption of the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), or a combination of these processes. We examine the capability of neoeriocitrin, naringin and neohesperidin, to inhibit metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, collagenase involved in degradation of cartilage matrix components. Also, we assay the flavonoids effect on reducing of Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) release, and restore Nitric oxide (NO) levels in explant of human articular cartilage. Our results suggest that neoeriocitrin, naringin and neohesperidin are a potential therapeutic agent to protect cartilage tissue.
The happy celiac: An oxymoron or a possibility?  [PDF]
Maurizio Esposito
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.45041
Abstract: Background: Several international studies, confirmed in Italy too, show a hard presence of socio-relational problems inside the celiac population. Methods: Qualitative study involving persons with celiac disease and their families. 25 individual semi-structured interviews were conducted in three Italian regions. Results: Problems of management of social life for celiac persons are experienced, specially in the fields of: school, work, travels and life outside the home. Conclusion: Chronic illness is a “biographical disruption” [1] and the whole society has to be invested to fight the burden of celiac persons in their possibility of access to public life.
The Social World of Seafarers. A Sociological Research in Central Italy  [PDF]
Esposito Maurizio
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.34027
Abstract: Background: This article analyzes the social world of seafarers, with the aim of crossing the boundary defining the field of social sciences and entering the area of knowledge, where, to paraphrase Marcel Mauss, scientists argue for a place. Methods and Instruments: The research is based on an empirical study carried out at port authorities, fishermen’s cooperatives and fish markets in a few regions of central Italy during a two year period using empirical research methods utilized in fields of sociological knowledge, such as: semi-structured interviews, talks and informal conversations. The qualitative research was conducted through Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software using the software Atlas.ti. Our attempt is to study in depth, through an empirical study conducted on a sample of 119 individuals, the heuristic subject on seafarers, in particular sailors and fishermen, specifically from a sociological point of view. The focus is an analysis of the life-worlds of these people in connection with variables such as the socio-economic characteristics of households, the relationship with the primary nuclear family, the element of solitude (in connection with individual feelings like melancholy and nostalgia), the relationship with peers and the crew. Results: From empirical research, it is seen that sailors and fishermen, despite their different local facets, represent a social world characterized by the richness of its material, social and symbolic expressions. The craft of the sea unites them, sometimes creating a subculture absolutely different from that of other populations and subcultures.
The Rehabilitation Role of Punishment in Prisons in Italy. Theoretical Development and Sociological Considerations  [PDF]
Maurizio Esposito
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.42018

This article deals with punishment and prisons, in particular, the rehabilitative role of punishment in Italian prisons. This role is herewith specified: On the one hand, by sociological considerations on punishment and prisons, based on the studies of Clemmer and Goffman; on the other hand, by international rules and the Italian legislation, dating back to the Reform of the Penitentiary Code 1975 and lastly, from a critical point of view. Generally speaking, the term rehabilitative model in this context means to restore solidarity with the socially recognized values, reconstructing the broken citizenship bond.

Suicidal Risk in Italian Prisons. A Population-Based Cohort Study  [PDF]
Maurizio Esposito
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2018.81004
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of suicidal risk in Italian prisons. Beginning with a general analysis of the concept and the sociological approaches to suicide, we analyze the main studies on suicide in Italian penal institutions. We present updated Italian prisoners suicide statistics (2002-2015), which we then analyze and discuss both in absolute numbers and in percentage terms. The results indicate that the situation is critical: suicide is the leading cause of death in Italian prisons. The problem mainly affects Italian elder prisoners, the weakest group for mental and physical health. The trend data for female detainees reveal that the ability to adapt to prison life appears more difficult than for male detainees. In addition, suicide among foreign detainees has risen in recent years; a probable contributing factor is the inability to use alternative measures such as house arrest. The conclusion attests a need to provide health policies with treatment options for the cure and care of prisoners in difficulty, with a total approach responding not only to the specific symptoms or to risk behaviors but also to the whole person in a holistic sense.
The rehabilitation of a reservoir: A new methodological approach for calculating the sustainable useful storage capacity  [PDF]
Annamaria De Vincenzo, Bruno Molino
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.48A007

Present work introduces the sustainable useful storage capacity as the minimum storage capacity able to satisfy the water demand for drinkable, industrial and irrigational purposes and necessary in order to overcome water deficit situations which, at least in Central Southern Italy, occur in the summer, when agricultural demand is really high. Sediment volumes to be removed from the reservoir bottom will be calculated as the difference between the current and the sustainable useful storage capacities of the reservoir in study. The calculation methodology of the useful sustainable storage capacity, based on the reservoir water balance between inflows at the reservoir and water demand, has been applied to the Camastra reservoir (Basilicata, Southern Italy), for which numerous reliable data including more than 40 years of inflows and water supplied volumes and data relative to 7 bathymetric surveys are available. Result analysis shows that this methodology, at least in the study case, enables sediment quantities to be removed more sustainably from a technical, economical and environmental point of view.

The Evolutionary Processes of Canine Coronaviruses
Annamaria Pratelli
Advances in Virology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/562831
Abstract: Since the first identification of the virus in 1971, the disease caused by canine coronavirus (CCoV) has not been adequately investigated, and the role that the virus plays in canine enteric illness has not been well established. Only after the emergence in 2002 of SARS in human has new attention been focused on coronaviruses. As a consequence of the relatively high mutation frequency of RNA-positive stranded viruses, CCoV has evolved and, with the biomolecular techniques developed over the last two decades, new virus strains, serotypes, and subtypes have been identified in infected dogs. Considering the widespread nature of CCoV infections among dog populations, several studies have been carried out, focusing upon the epidemiological relevance of these viruses and underlining the need for further investigation into the biology of CCoVs and into the pathogenetic role of the infections. This paper reports the evolutionary processes of CCoVs with a note onto recent diagnostic methods. 1. Coronaviruses: Genome and Structure Coronaviruses (CoVs), a genus in the Coronaviridae family, order Nidovirales, are large, enveloped, RNA viruses that cause highly prevalent diseases in humans and domestic animals. CoVs are spherical enveloped particles about 100–120?nm in diameter with a capped, polyadenylated single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA 27.6 to 31?kb in length, the largest known RNA virus genome. The 5′ end of the genome consists of a 65 to 98?nt sequence, termed the leader RNA, that is also present at the 5′ end of all subgenomic mRNAs. An untranslated region (UTR) of 200 to 400?nts follows this leader sequence. At the 3′ end of the RNA genome is another UTR of 200 to 500?nts followed by a poly(A) sequence of variable length. Both 5′- and 3′-UTRs are important for RNA replication and transcription. The remaining genomic sequence includes different open reading frames (ORFs) which differ markedly among coronaviruses in number, nt sequence, genes order, and in method of expression. At the 5′ end of each gene, all CoVs have a common intergenic sequence of about 7 bases which is essential for the formation of subgenomic RNAs [1]. The first two-thirds of the genome consists of two partially overlapping ORFs, ORF1a and ORF1b. These ORFs are translated into a polyprotein which is the precursor both of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and of proteases. The one-third in the 3′ end of the genome contains ORFs encoding for the major structural proteins, spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. These ORFs are interspersed with
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