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In ruminant field
of digestive research, the appeal to methods of less invasive studies and reproducing
the in vivo conditions is essential. The
objective of the present study was to determine whether the conditions created
with the proposed in vitro batch
culture was an accurate reproduction of the physico-chemical and fermentative
ruminal conditions observed in vivo.
Two experiments were conducted to compare ruminal reducing power measured in
vitro, i.e. in batch
cultures or, in vivo i.e. in live animals: dairy cows at
maintenance (Experiment 1) and lactating dairy cows (Experiment 2). In
Experiment 1, at the beginning of incubation period, in vitro redox potential (Eh), pH
and Clark’s exponent (rH) values were significantly higher than in vivo (+42
mV, +0.25 and +1.9, respectively) whereas volatile fatty acids (VFA)
Mild hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of i-carrageenan
from Eucheuma spinosum yielded two
oligosaccharides of sulfated tetrasaccharide structure. These were
characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Nuclear
Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESIMS).
Both oligosaccharides have structure of b-D-galactopyranose(Galp)4S-(1→4)-α-D-AnGalp2S-(1→3)-b-D-galactopyranose Galp)4S-(1→4)-α-D-AnGalp2S-(1→3). Application of the resulting oligosaccharides on protein
delivery system in terms of encapsulation efficiency was performed.