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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 237319 matches for " Anna R Giuliano "
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Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Vaccines against Cervical HPV Infection and Diseases among Women: A Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis
Beibei Lu, Ambuj Kumar, Xavier Castellsagué, Anna R Giuliano
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-13
Abstract: Randomized-controlled trials of HPV vaccines were identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, conference abstracts and references of identified studies, and assessed by two independent reviewers. Efficacy data were synthesized using fixed-effect models, and evaluated for heterogeneity using I2 statistic.Seven unique trials enrolling 44,142 females were included. The fixed-effect Relative Risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were 0.04 (0.01-0.11) and 0.10 (0.03-0.38) for HPV-16 and HPV 18-related CIN2+ in the per-protocol populations (PPP). The corresponding RR was 0.47 (0.36-0.61) and 0.16 (0.08-0.34) in the intention-to-treat populations (ITT). Efficacy against CIN1+ was similar in scale in favor of vaccine. Overall vaccines were highly efficacious against 6-month persistent infection with HPV 16 and 18, both in the PPP cohort (RR: 0.06 [0.04-0.09] and 0.05 [0.03-0.09], respectively), and the ITT cohorts (RR: 0.15 [0.10-0.23] and 0.24 [0.14-0.42], respectively). There was limited prophylactic effect against CIN2+ and 6-month persistent infections associated with non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types. The risk of serious adverse events (RR: 1.00, 0.91-1.09) or vaccine-related serious adverse events (RR: 1.82; 0.79-4.20) did not differ significantly between vaccine and control groups. Data on abnormal pregnancy outcomes were underreported.Prophylactic HPV vaccines are safe, well tolerated, and highly efficacious in preventing persistent infections and cervical diseases associated with vaccine-HPV types among young females. However, long-term efficacy and safety needs to be addressed in future trials.Oncogenic HPV infection is the necessary cause of cervical cancer [1]. Worldwide 70% of invasive cervical cancer cases are caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 or 18, with HPV 16 being the most common type, detected in 55% of cases, followed by HPV 18, in 15% of cases [2]. Other oncogenic HPV types including 31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58 that are p
Cervical carcinogenesis: the role of co-factors and generation of reactive oxygen species
Giuliano,Anna;
Salud Pública de México , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342003000900009
Abstract: several hpv co-factors have been proposed, some more or less consistently associated with cervical dysplasia and cancer risk. more research, using prospective cohort designs, is needed to further describe where in carcinogenesis these factors are working and to assess the biological mechanism of these factors. in addition, further research is needed to define the role of various hormonal contraceptive formulations in promoting cervical carcinogenesis. while many interesting scientific questions remain to be answered, results from the numerous epidemiological studies conducted to date indicate that cervical dysplasia and cancer may be reduced if the oxidant antioxidant ratio is shifted to more of and antioxidant profile. in addition to cervical cancer screening, a reduction in cervical cancer incidence may be accomplished by reducing tobacco use, increasing nutritional status, and utilizing barrier contraception to prevent infection with other sexually acquired infections.
Cervical carcinogenesis: the role of co-factors and generation of reactive oxygen species
Giuliano Anna
Salud Pública de México , 2003,
Abstract: Several HPV co-factors have been proposed, some more or less consistently associated with cervical dysplasia and cancer risk. More research, using prospective cohort designs, is needed to further describe where in carcinogenesis these factors are working and to assess the biological mechanism of these factors. In addition, further research is needed to define the role of various hormonal contraceptive formulations in promoting cervical carcinogenesis. While many interesting scientific questions remain to be answered, results from the numerous epidemiological studies conducted to date indicate that cervical dysplasia and cancer may be reduced if the oxidant antioxidant ratio is shifted to more of and antioxidant profile. In addition to cervical cancer screening, a reduction in cervical cancer incidence may be accomplished by reducing tobacco use, increasing nutritional status, and utilizing barrier contraception to prevent infection with other sexually acquired infections.
A New Threat Looming over the Mediterranean Basin: Emergence of Viral Diseases Transmitted by Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes
Giuliano Gasperi,Romeo Bellini,Anna R. Malacrida,Andrea Crisanti,Michele Dottori,Serap Aksoy
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001836
Abstract:
Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico
Rocio Parada, Rosalba Morales, Anna R Giuliano, Aurelio Cruz, Xavier Castellsague, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-25
Abstract: For the comparison of the prevalence of HPV infection in men and women, we used the MacNemar test. This test is used to prove a hypothesis of equality of proportions in non-independent groups. In this case the groups of men and women are not independent because they are sexual partners. Table 1 shows that the prevalence of HPV is greater in men than in women (20.4% vs 13.7%, p value = 0.0009). There were no statistically significant differences between type specific infection in men and women; only in types HPV31, HPV53, HPV55, HPV61 and HPV84 (Table 1 and Figure 1).The analysis of known risk factors for HPV infection was carried out separately for men and women. Non-conditional logistic regression was performed. When stratifying by sex we do not need to consider the condition of sexual partners. This part of the analysis was performed in this way, as it allows us to include explanatory variables in men - variables that cannot be defined in women, such as circumcision, use of condoms, and some specific characteristics on sexual risk behaviors. In women it allows us to consider, in addition to characteristics of their own sexual behaviors, characteristics of their male partner's sexual behavior - circumcision, use of condoms, etc. (Table 2). The last section of the study focuses on assessing the risk of HPV infection in women, considering the presence of HPV infection in their sex partners as an explanatory variable. Thus we find that women whose sexual partners are HPV positive have 5.15 times greater risk of HPV, compared to those whose partners are HPV negative (CI 95% 3.01, 8.82). Indeed, what matters to us in this part is proving that the variable "presence of HPV in male partner" be associated with the presence of HPV in the female. We do not seek to compare the risk of HPV infection between men and women (Table 3).We are thankful for your observations and deeply regret the confusion in the results presented.The pre-publication history for this paper can be acc
Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico
Rocio Parada, Rosalba Morales, Anna R Giuliano, Aurelio Cruz, Xavier Castellsagué, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-223
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 504 clinically healthy heterosexual couples from four municipalities in the State of Mexico, Mexico. HPV testing was performed using biotinylated L1 consensus primers and reverse line blot in cervical samples from women and in genital samples from men. Thirty-seven HPV types were detected, including high-risk oncogenic types and low-risk types. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate factors associated with HPV.The prevalence of HPV infection was 20.5% in external male genitals and 13.7% in cervical samples. In 504 sexual couples participating in the study, concordance of HPV status was 79%; 34 partners (6.7%) were concurrently infected, and 21 out of 34 partners where both were HPV positive (61.8%) showed concordance for one or more HPV types. The principal risk factor associated with HPV DNA detection in men as well as women was the presence of HPV DNA in the respective regular sexual partner (OR = 5.15, 95%CI 3.01-8.82). In men, having a history of 10 or more sexual partners over their lifetime (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.3 - 4.8) and having had sexual relations with prostitutes (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.01 - 2.8) increased the likelihood of detecting HPV DNA.In heterosexual couples in rural regions in Mexico, the prevalence of HPV infection and type-specific concordance is high. High-risk sexual behaviors are strong determinants of HPV infection in men.Although there is clear evidence for the influence of the male factor in the development of cervical neoplasia[1,2], HPV transmission in heterosexual couples has rarely been studied. The few studies conducted have included the male sexual partners of women with clinical HPV lesions [3-8] In addition, heterosexual couples have been studied through controlled clinical trials to evaluate the effect of the use of condoms on the rate of persistence of flat penile lesions[9]. Previous reports from prospective studies of women initiating sexual life have estimated an accumul
Design and results of the USA-Mexico Border Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Cervical Dysplasia, and Chlamydia trachomatis Study
Giuliano Anna R.,Denman Catalina,Zapien Jill Guernsey de,Henze Jose Luis Navarro
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2001,
Abstract: Objective. Mexico has one of the highest mortality rates of invasive cervical cancer in the world. This is particularly true for the states in northern Mexico that border on the United States of America. In addition, Hispanics in the United States have higher rates than do non-Hispanics in the country. Therefore, a binational team was formed to focus on this problem and to determine the risk factors and prevalence of cervical dysplasia and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the sexually transmitted disease (STD) known to cause cervical cancer. Chlamydia trachomatis infection, a common STD and potential HPV cofactor, was also assessed. Methods. Research was conducted in 1997 and 1998 in the border region of two states, Arizona in the United States and Sonora in Mexico, applying a cross-sectional study of women attending clinics for routine gynecologic care. Clinical measurements included Pap smears, HPV infection by both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture (HC), and C. trachomatis status by HC and enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). A total of 2 436 women were enrolled (mean age 33.3 years ± 10.3 years). Results. The overall prevalence of abnormal cytology was 9.3%, with a significant difference in the prevalence in Mexico (11.4%) vs. the United States (6.6%). Of the participants, 14.5% of them tested positive for HPV by PCR, with no significant difference between the two countries, in spite of a lower behavioral risk profile for the Mexican women. Overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was found to be greater by HC than by EIA (8.2% vs. 3.0%), and in Mexico higher by both methods. Conclusions. An important accomplishment of the project was the implementation of a quality control program for Pap smear collection, which resulted in a significant reduction in inadequate smears in Mexico. Despite numerous potential logistical barriers, the binational team successfully conducted a large-scale study in the border area and developed an infrastructure for future research.
Scaling Properties of Long-Range Correlated Noisy Signals
Anna Carbone,Giuliano Castelli
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: The Hurst coefficient $H$ of a stochastic fractal signal is estimated using the function $\sigma_{MA}^2=\frac{1}{N_{max}-n}\sum_{i=n}^{N_{max}} [y(i)-\widetilde{y}_n(i)]^2$, where $\widetilde{y}_n(i)$ is defined as $1/n \sum_{k=0}^{n-1} y(i-k)$, $n$ is the dimension of moving average box and $N_{max}$ is the dimension of the stochastic series. The ability to capture scaling properties by $\sigma_{MA}^2$ can be understood by observing that the function $C_n(i)= y(i)-\widetilde{y}_n(i)$ generates a sequence of random clusters having power-law probability distribution of the amplitude and of the lifetime, with exponents equal to the fractal dimension $D$ of the stochastic series.
Interchromosomal Duplications on the Bactrocera oleae Y Chromosome Imply a Distinct Evolutionary Origin of the Sex Chromosomes Compared to Drosophila
Paolo Gabrieli,Ludvik M. Gomulski,Angelica Bonomi,Paolo Siciliano,Francesca Scolari,Gerald Franz,Andrew Jessup,Anna R. Malacrida,Giuliano Gasperi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017747
Abstract: Diptera have an extraordinary variety of sex determination mechanisms, and Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm for this group. However, the Drosophila sex determination pathway is only partially conserved and the family Tephritidae affords an interesting example. The tephritid Y chromosome is postulated to be necessary to determine male development. Characterization of Y sequences, apart from elucidating the nature of the male determining factor, is also important to understand the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes within the Tephritidae. We studied the Y sequences from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae. Its Y chromosome is minute and highly heterochromatic, and displays high heteromorphism with the X chromosome.
Sex and the single embryo: early deveopment in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata
Paolo Gabrieli, Andrea Falaguerra, Paolo Siciliano, Ludvik M Gomulski, Francesca Scolari, Antigone Zacharopoulou, Gerald Franz, Anna R Malacrida, Giuliano Gasperi
BMC Developmental Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-213x-10-12
Abstract: Using a novel PCR-based sexing method, which takes advantage of a putative LTR retrotransposon MITE insertion on the medfly Y chromosome, the transcriptomes of individual early male and female embryos were analysed using RT-PCR. This study is focused on two crucial aspects of the onset of embryonic development: sex determination and cellular blastoderm formation. Together with the three known medfly genes (Cctransformer, Cctransformer2 and Ccdoublesex), the expression patterns of other medfly genes that are similar to the D. melanogaster sex-determination genes (sisterlessA, groucho, deadpan, Sex-lethal, female lethal d, sans fille and intersex) and four cellular blastoderm formation genes (Rho1, spaghetti squash, slow-as-molasses and serendipity-α) were analyzed, allowing us to sketch a preliminary outline of the embryonic process in the medfly. Furthermore, a putative homologue of the Zelda gene has been considered, which in D. melanogaster encodes a DNA-binding factor responsible for the maternal-to-zygotic transition.Our novel sexing method facilitates the study of i) when the MTZ transition occurs in males and females of C. capitata, ii) when and how the maternal information of "female-development" is reprogrammed in the embryos and iii) similarities and differences in the regulation of gene expression in C. capitata and D. melanogaster. We suggest a new model for the onset of the sex determination cascade in the medfly: the maternally inherited Cctra transcripts in the female embryos are insufficient to produce enough active protein to inhibit the male mode of Cctra splicing. The slow rate of development and the inefficiency of the splicing mechanism in the pre-cellular blastoderm facilitates the male-determining factor (M) activity, which probably acts by inhibiting CcTRA protein activity.The onset of embryonic development is the result of a complex interaction between maternal and zygotic genetic information: during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MTZ) e
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