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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 412714 matches for " Anna M. Macrae "
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Early Root Herbivory Impairs Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization and Shifts Defence Allocation in Establishing Plantago lanceolata
Alison E. Bennett, Anna M. Macrae, Ben D. Moore, Sandra Caul, Scott N. Johnson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066053
Abstract: Research into plant-mediated indirect interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and insect herbivores has focussed on those between plant shoots and above-ground herbivores, despite the fact that only below-ground herbivores share the same part of the host plant as AM fungi. Using Plantago lanceolata L., we aimed to characterise how early root herbivory by the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) affected subsequent colonization by AM fungi (Glomus spp.) and determine how the two affected plant growth and defensive chemistry. We exposed four week old P. lanceolata to root herbivory and AM fungi using a 2×2 factorial design (and quantified subsequent effects on plant biomass and iridoid glycosides (IGs) concentrations. Otiorhynchus sulcatus reduced root growth by c. 64%, whereas plant growth was unaffected by AM fungi. Root herbivory reduced extent of AM fungal colonization (by c. 61%). O. sulcatus did not influence overall IG concentrations, but caused qualitative shifts in root and shoot IGs, specifically increasing the proportion of the more toxic catalpol. These changes may reflect defensive allocation in the plant against further attack. This study demonstrates that very early root herbivory during plant development can shape future patterns of AM fungal colonization and influence defensive allocation in the plant.
The Small Heat Shock Protein p26 Aids Development of Encysting Artemia Embryos, Prevents Spontaneous Diapause Termination and Protects against Stress
Allison M. King, Thomas H. MacRae
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043723
Abstract: Artemia franciscana embryos enter diapause as encysted gastrulae, a physiological state of metabolic dormancy and enhanced stress resistance. The objective of this study was to use RNAi to investigate the function of p26, an abundant, diapause-specific small heat shock protein, in the development and behavior of encysted Artemia embryos (cysts). RNAi methodology was developed where injection of Artemia females with dsRNA specifically eliminated p26 from cysts. p26 mRNA and protein knock down were, respectively, confirmed by RT-PCR and immuno-probing of western blots. ArHsp21 and ArHsp22, diapause-related small heat shock proteins in Artemia cysts sharing a conserved α-crystallin domain with p26, were unaffected by injection of females with dsRNA for p26, demonstrating the specificity of protein knock down. Elimination of p26 delayed cyst release from females demonstrating that this molecular chaperone influences the development of diapause-destined embryos. Although development was slowed the metabolic activities of cysts either containing or lacking p26 were similar. p26 inhibited diapause termination after prolonged incubation of cysts in sea water perhaps by a direct effect on termination or indirectly because p26 is necessary for the preservation of diapause maintenance. Cyst diapause was however, terminated by desiccation and freezing, a procedure leading to high mortality within cyst populations lacking p26 and indicating the protein is required for stress tolerance. Cysts lacking p26 were also less resistant to heat shock. This is the first in vivo study to show that knock down of a small heat shock protein slows the development of diapause-destined embryos, suggesting a role for p26 in the developmental process. The same small heat shock protein prevents spontaneous termination of diapause and provides stress protection to encysted embryos.
Your Space or Mine? Mapping Self in Time
Brittany M. Christian, Lynden K. Miles, C. Neil Macrae
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049228
Abstract: While humans are capable of mentally transcending the here and now, this faculty for mental time travel (MTT) is dependent upon an underlying cognitive representation of time. To this end, linguistic, cognitive and behavioral evidence has revealed that people understand abstract temporal constructs by mapping them to concrete spatial domains (e.g. past = backward, future = forward). However, very little research has investigated factors that may determine the topographical characteristics of these spatiotemporal maps. Guided by the imperative role of episodic content for retrospective and prospective thought (i.e., MTT), here we explored the possibility that the spatialization of time is influenced by the amount of episodic detail a temporal unit contains. In two experiments, participants mapped temporal events along mediolateral (Experiment 1) and anterioposterior (Experiment 2) spatial planes. Importantly, the temporal units varied in self-relevance as they pertained to temporally proximal or distal events in the participant’s own life, the life of a best friend or the life of an unfamiliar other. Converging evidence from both experiments revealed that the amount of space used to represent time varied as a function of target (self, best friend or unfamiliar other) and temporal distance. Specifically, self-time was represented as occupying more space than time pertaining to other targets, but only for temporally proximal events. These results demonstrate the malleability of space-time mapping and suggest that there is a self-specific conceptualization of time that may influence MTT as well as other temporally relevant cognitive phenomena.
When is it best to test? Attitudes of health professionals regarding genetic testing for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)
Lynch E,Duncan RE,Macrae F,Delatycki M
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1897-4287-10-s2-a43
Abstract:
Chronic Effects of Palmitate Overload on Nutrient-Induced Insulin Secretion and Autocrine Signalling in Pancreatic MIN6 Beta Cells
Maria L. Watson, Katherine Macrae, Anna E. Marley, Harinder S. Hundal
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025975
Abstract: Background Sustained exposure of pancreatic β cells to an increase in saturated fatty acids induces pleiotropic effects on β-cell function, including a reduction in stimulus-induced insulin secretion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic over supply of palmitate upon glucose- and amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS and AASIS, respectively) and autocrine-dependent insulin signalling with particular focus on the importance of ceramide, ERK and CaMKII signalling. Principal Findings GSIS and AASIS were both stimulated by >7-fold resulting in autocrine-dependent activation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt). Insulin release was dependent upon nutrient-induced activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) as their pharmacological inhibition suppressed GSIS/AASIS significantly. Chronic (48 h, 0.4 mM) palmitate treatment blunted glucose/AA-induced activation of CaMKII and ERK and caused a concomitant reduction (~75%) in GSIS/AASIS and autocrine-dependent activation of PKB. This inhibition could not be attributed to enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid uptake/oxidation or ceramide synthesis, which were unaffected by palmitate. In contrast, diacylglycerol synthesis was elevated suggesting increased palmitate esterification rather than oxidation may contribute to impaired stimulus-secretion coupling. Consistent with this, 2-bromopalmitate, a non-oxidisable palmitate analogue, inhibited GSIS as effectively as palmitate. Conclusions Our results exclude changes in ceramide content or mitochondrial fatty acid handling as factors initiating palmitate-induced defects in insulin release from MIN6 β cells, but suggest that reduced CaMKII and ERK activation associated with palmitate overload may contribute to impaired stimulus-induced insulin secretion.
The use of 16s rDNA methods in soil microbial ecology
Macrae, Andrew;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822000000200002
Abstract: new and exciting molecular methods, many using the 16s small sub-unit ribosomal nucleic acid molecule, are opening the microbial "black box" in soil. these studies have added much to our knowledge of microbial diversity in soils, and are beginning to advance our understanding of the relationship between this diversity and its function in soil processes. over the next few years, the knowledge gained from molecular studies will, we hope, lead to improvements in sustainable land management and sustainable exploitation of soil genetic resources. as we enter the third millenium, it is appropriate to review the application of 16s rdna methods to soil microbiology. this review examines 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) methods and their application to soil. it mentions their limits and suggests how they may be applied in the future.
Polyposis syndromes– what to do when genotyping seems not informative
Macrae F
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1897-4287-10-s2-a2
Abstract:
Framing children through observation practices: using art theory to re-think ways of looking at children.
Christina MacRae
Reconceptualizing Educational Research Methodology , 2011,
Abstract: This paper looks at methodological questions that are raised through the practice of observation to consider how researchers ‘keep an eye on the world’, and particularly how early years practitioners keep an eye on children. Drawing on notions of perspective in art history and theory as methodological resources it asks questions about the frames through which children have been conventionally seen in both research and Early Years Settings. In particular I have chosen to focus on the Target Child Observation System, as it was the system that I was first trained to use both as an Early Years Teacher and as a researcher. By referring to perspective as a method to represent what is observed, the paper contrasts two different models of perspective. Alberti’s use of the window and grid to project the observed is contrasted with Brunelleschi’s mirror play. Questions are raised about how observation as procedure acts to limit vision by organising the gaze. Brunelleschi’s demonstration of perspective can be useful in order to remind us of ways in which the objects of our gaze might escape verification through observation.
If Indonesia is Too Hard to Understand, Let’s Start with Bali
Graeme MacRae
Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities , 2011,
Abstract: Stereotypical representations, especially those by the media, are for most outside observers, the means and an obstacle to understanding Indonesia. One way around such stereotypes is to look at the way Indonesians themselves understand Indonesia. This essay reports and reflects on Balinese understandings of Indonesia in the wake of the political, economic and terrorist upheavals of the early years of the twenty-first century. It concludes with an epilogue and update, arguing that the real issues for understanding Indonesia are now environmental.
The use of 16s rDNA methods in soil microbial ecology
Macrae Andrew
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2000,
Abstract: New and exciting molecular methods, many using the 16S small sub-unit ribosomal nucleic acid molecule, are opening the microbial "black box" in soil. These studies have added much to our knowledge of microbial diversity in soils, and are beginning to advance our understanding of the relationship between this diversity and its function in soil processes. Over the next few years, the knowledge gained from molecular studies will, we hope, lead to improvements in sustainable land management and sustainable exploitation of soil genetic resources. As we enter the third millenium, it is appropriate to review the application of 16S rDNA methods to soil microbiology. This review examines 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) methods and their application to soil. It mentions their limits and suggests how they may be applied in the future.
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