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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13703 matches for " Anna Lapuk "
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A Meta-Analysis Approach for Characterizing Pan-Cancer Mechanisms of Drug Sensitivity in Cell Lines
Kendric Wang, Raunak Shrestha, Alexander W. Wyatt, Anupama Reddy, Joseph Lehár, Yuzhou Wang, Anna Lapuk, Colin C. Collins
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103050
Abstract: Understanding the heterogeneous drug response of cancer patients is essential to precision oncology. Pioneering genomic analyses of individual cancer subtypes have begun to identify key determinants of resistance, including up-regulation of multi-drug resistance (MDR) genes and mutational alterations of drug targets. However, these alterations are sufficient to explain only a minority of the population, and additional mechanisms of drug resistance or sensitivity are required to explain the remaining spectrum of patient responses to ultimately achieve the goal of precision oncology. We hypothesized that a pan-cancer analysis of in vitro drug sensitivities across numerous cancer lineages will improve the detection of statistical associations and yield more robust and, importantly, recurrent determinants of response. In this study, we developed a statistical framework based on the meta-analysis of expression profiles to identify pan-cancer markers and mechanisms of drug response. Using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopaedia (CCLE), a large panel of several hundred cancer cell lines from numerous distinct lineages, we characterized both known and novel mechanisms of response to cytotoxic drugs including inhibitors of Topoisomerase 1 (TOP1; Topotecan, Irinotecan) and targeted therapies including inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC; Panobinostat) and MAP/ERK kinases (MEK; PD-0325901, AZD6244). Notably, our analysis implicated reduced replication and transcriptional rates, as well as deficiency in DNA damage repair genes in resistance to TOP1 inhibitors. The constitutive activation of several signaling pathways including the interferon/STAT-1 pathway was implicated in resistance to the pan-HDAC inhibitor. Finally, a number of dysregulations upstream of MEK were identified as compensatory mechanisms of resistance to the MEK inhibitors. In comparison to alternative pan-cancer analysis strategies, our approach can better elucidate relevant drug response mechanisms. Moreover, the compendium of putative markers and mechanisms identified through our analysis can serve as a foundation for future studies into these drugs.
Interactive Vision and Experimental Traditions: How to Frame the Relationship  [PDF]
Anna Estany
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.32046
Abstract: In recent decades, the cognitive view has had a considerable impact on the philosophy of science, and two reasons can for this be identified. First, philosophers have increasingly tended towards naturalistic approaches, as opposed to proposals that are more a priori. Second, the cognitive sciences underwent considerable development in the second half of the twentieth century. Motivated by the cognitive view in the philosophy of science, and within a naturalistic framework, the aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between two pairs of views. On the one hand, I consider the theoretical and experimental traditions; and on the other, I examine the views of pure and interactive vision. The two pairs belong to two independent debates; one in the philosophy of science (theoretical vs. experimental traditions) and the other in cognitive psychology (pure vs. interactive vision). Theoretical traditions correspond to a conception of science according to which the goal of scientific practice is to formulate theories that represent the world, and in them experiments play only an instrumental role that is always subsidiary to theory. The model of science promoted in the program of logical empiricism is a good example of such a tradition. Experimental traditions, in contrast, challenge that conception of science by attributing a more important role to experimentation, which is said to provide its own path to knowledge.
A pilot study, a specially designed pillow may prevent developmental plagiocephaly by reducing pressure from the infant head  [PDF]
Anna Ohman
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56A2006

Developmental plagiocephaly (DP) has been an increasing problem since the successful “back to sleep campaign”. The referrals for DP have increased by >400% during the years 2004 to 2008. Many infants spend less time in the prone position nowadays and some of the risk factors for DP are as follows: less than 3 times per day for the tummy time, torticollis and slow achievement of motor milestones. There is a need for better information to the parents but also for other strategies to prevent DP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a special pillow and thus to reduce pressure on the infant head. Method: infants aged zero to two months were included in the study. They were randomized to either intervention group or control group. Head shape was investigated on two occasions, on the second occasion motor development, mobility and muscle function of the neck were also investigated. The parents were asked about tummy time and sleep position. All infants were investigated by the same physical therapist, blinded to group belonging. Result: seven infants had CVAI >3.5 on the last assessment, five of these had not used any method to reduce pressure. Fishers exact test showed a tendency where infants with reduced pressure on the head had less DP (P 0.08). Paired t test showed significant decrease in CVAI for the infants who had had reduced pressure on the head (P 0.01). Among these infants the CVAI was zero for 47% in the last assessment. For the infants who had not had a reduction of pressure on the head, there was no indication of a decrease of CVAI (P 0.45), and only 12% of these infants had a CVAI that was zero in the last assessment. Conclusion: this pilot study shows that a specially designed pillow may prevent DP in young infants. However, a larger sample is needed to confirm or disprove this. The study is planned to go on until there are 200 participants.

Models, AmI-Creator and A-Methodology for Ambient Intelligence Environments  [PDF]
Anna Chambers
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.74030

The current paper introduces an approach to a development of Ambient Intelligence domain-based software systems from scratch. The presented approach is based on models. The paper also presents the domain-related models expressing different levels of abstractions and stages of the development. The approach refers to a Model-Driven Development of Ambient Intelligence which was suggested at AmI-07-Ambient Intelligence conference. The approach is presented as a standard with its feasible realization. It starts from modeling of a content of the future AmI-dedicated software system and concludes by mapping the graphical concepts into a final code. A process proving feasibility and correctness of the approach is provided through a dedicated research methodology. Its process comprises an identification of needs in a speedy development of the systems. It is followed by studying of the currently available techniques capable of supporting the development and an experimenting with them. It continues by finding a solution, verified by its validation and concludes by an identification of the further perspectives. The developed approach presents a common way of a communication amongst stakeholders participating in creating of AmI-based environments. Such communication involves the notations of AmI-Creator—a Domain-Specific Language of Ambient Intelligence domain. Every part of DSL corresponds to a demonstration of A-methodology expressing a step-by-step guidance for the development. The methodology comprises two parts dedicated to providing semantics for DSL through studying of Ambient Intelligence domain ontology; and development of actual environments. A validity of the working proposition is confirmed by three examples. The further challenges refer to an extension of the presented work by other frameworks and expansion to a development of different domains with complex organizations.

A specially designed pillow may be used as treatment for young infants with developmental plagiocephaly  [PDF]
Anna ?hman
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512280

Developmental plagiocephaly has increased since the back to sleep campaign and is nowadays a rather common condition in infants. Prevention is the best way to decrease this problem, therefore, tools for treatment are needed. This case description of two children who dropped out from a study of a specially designed pillow indicates that the Mimos pillow may work as the treatment in young infants with developmental plagiocephaly.

Beighton Scores for Healthy Infants at the Age of Three Months  [PDF]
Anna ?hman
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2015.32006
Abstract: Objective: To investigate the incidence of hypermobility in infants at the age of three months. Method: Eighty-one healthy infants aged three months were examined using the Beighton score. The spine was excluded for practical reasons; due to this the highest possible Beighton score for the participants in this study was 8. Also ankle dorsiflexion and the big toe were examined. Results: The mean score on the Beighton scale was 2.7; median was 2.0 and the range was 0 to 6. Almost half of the infants scored at least 4 on the Beighton scale. T test showed no gender difference. Neither was there any difference between right and left sides. Conclusions: Infants at the age of three months have high mobility in the distal joints, ankle dorsiflexion, thumb and little finger. It is rare to find hypermobility in elbows and knees at this age.
A Craniometer with a Headband Can Be a Reliable Tool to Measure Plagiocephaly and Brachycephaly in Clinical Practice  [PDF]
Anna ?hman
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.812128
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the intra- and inter-reliability for measuring infants with plagiocephaly and brachycephaly with a craniometer when using a marked headband as landmarks. Subjects: Six physiotherapists and eight infants participated in the study. Methods: The physiotherapists measured all infants twice; each infant was measured with the same headband and craniometer. The physiotherapists were blinded to measurements carried out by their colleagues. The infants with their parents changed places in the room to minimize the possibility that the physiotherapists would remember their first measurements of any infant. Results: There was a high intra- and inter-reliability, for intra-reliability ICC 0.96 to 0.99 and for inter-reliability ICC 0.98. Conclusion: It is possible to achieve a high intra- and inter-reliability when using a headband and craniometer when measuring cranial vault asymmetry for plagiocephaly and cephalic ratio for brachycephaly.
The Role of an Implicit Assumption of Causality in the Methodology of Empirical Research  [PDF]
Anna Storozhuk
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.83022
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to point out the causal ladenness of empirical data in the social sciences. This is a kind of theory ladenness, representing implicit assumptions about the deterministic nature of political processes. The nonlinear and chaotic nature of social phenomena requires the collection of data not only about the current state of the system, but also about the evolution of the system. Using an example, we illustrate that the conclusions made on the basis of information about the final state can be very different from the conclusions made on the basis of monitoring the dynamics of the system. Low-importance factors can have big consequences in a chaotic case and, vice versa, there takes place fading of causality: considerable efforts can lead to more than modest results. For the successful management of political life, it is important to be able to identify the impacts that lead to great consequences.
Genomic and transcriptional events associated with poor clinical responses to conventional therapies
K Chin, S Devries, J Fridlyand, P Spellman, W-L Kuo, A Lapuk, R Neve, T Tokuyasu, C Kingsley, S Dairkee, K Chew, A Jain, BM Ljung, L Esserman, F Waldman, JW Gray
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1059
Forming Stages of Polycrystalline TiN Films Depending on the Nitrogen Concentration in Mixed Gas  [PDF]
Anna L. Kameneva
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.21002
Abstract: The influence of nitrogen concentration in mixed gas on temperature conditions, structure and phase composition of the TiN film deposited by arc spraying has been investigated. By electron microscopic investigations and X-ray diffraction phase analysis was recognized forming stages and structuring process of the film with main cubic phase (111) TiN. It was discovered that forming stages and process of structuring of ion-plasma TiN films are affected by both film temperature and its rate of heating.
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