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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13705 matches for " Anna Bonjoch "
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Randomised Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Once-Daily Etravirine-Based Regimen as a Switching Strategy in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving a Protease Inhibitor–Containing Regimen. Etraswitch Study
Patricia Echeverría, Anna Bonjoch, Jordi Puig, José Moltó, Roger Paredes, Guillem Sirera, Arelly Ornelas, Nuria Pérez-álvarez, Bonaventura Clotet, Eugènia Negredo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084676
Abstract: Background Etravirine (ETR) was approved for patients with virological failure and antiretroviral resistance mutations. It has also shown antiviral efficacy in antiretroviral-na?ve patients. However, data on the switching from protease inhibitors (PI) to ETR are lacking. Methods HIV-1-infected patients with suppressed viral load (VL) during a PI-containing regimen (>12 months) and no previous virological failure were randomized to switch from the PI to ETR (400 mg/day, dissolved in water) (ETR group, n = 22) or to continue with the same regimen (control group, n = 21). Percentage of patients with VL≤50 copies/mL were assessed at week 48, as well as changes in CD4 T-cell counts and metabolic profile. Results We included 43 patients [72.9% male, 46.3 (42.2; 50.6) years]. Two patients receiving ETR (grade-1 diarrhea and voluntary discontinuation) and another in the control group (simplification) discontinued therapy early. No patients presented virological failure (two consecutive VL>50 copies/mL); treatment was successful in 95.2% of the control group and 90.9% of the ETR group (intention-to-treat analysis, missing = failure) (p = 0.58). CD4+ T-cell counts did not significantly vary [+49 cells/μL in the ETR group (p = 0.25) and ?4 cells/μL in the control group (p = 0.71)]. The ETR group showed significant reductions in cholesterol (p<0.001), triglycerides (p = <0.001), and glycemia (p = 0.03) and higher satisfaction (0–10 scale) (p = 0.04). Trough plasma concentrations of ETR were similar to observed in studies using ETR twice daily. Conclusion Switch from a PI-based regimen to a once-daily combination based on ETR maintained undetectable VL during 48 weeks in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients while lipid profile and patient satisfaction improved significantly. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01034917
Time of Progression to Osteopenia/Osteoporosis in Chronically HIV-Infected Patients: Screening DXA Scan
Eugenia Negredo, Anna Bonjoch, Moisés Gómez-Mateu, Carla Estany, Jordi Puig, Nuria Perez-Alvarez, Joaquin Rosales, Silvana di Gregorio, Luis del Rio, Guadalupe Gómez, Bonaventura Clotet
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046031
Abstract: Background Algorithms for bone mineral density (BMD) management in HIV-infected patients are lacking. Our objective was to assess how often a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan should be performed by assessing time of progression to osteopenia/osteoporosis. Methods All DXA scans performed between 2000 and 2009 from HIV-infected patients with at least two DXA were included. Time to an event (osteopenia and osteoporosis) was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Strata (tertiles) were defined using baseline minimum T scores. Differences between strata in time to an event were compared with the log-rank test. Results Of 391 patients (1,639 DXAs), 49.6% had osteopenia and 21.7% osteoporosis at their first DXA scan. Of the 112 (28.6%) with normal BMD, 35.7% progressed to osteopenia; median progression time was 6.7 years. These patients were stratified: “low-risk" (baseline minimum T score >?0.2 SD), “middle-risk" (between ?0.2 and ?0.6 SD), and “high-risk" (from ?0.6 to ?1 SD); median progression time to osteopenia was 8.7, >7.2, and 1.7 years, respectively (p<0.0001). Of patients with osteopenia, 23.7% progressed to osteoporosis; median progression time was >8.5 years. Progression time was >8.2 years in “low-risk" tertile (T score between ?1.1 and ?1.6 SD), >8.5 years in “middle-risk" (between ?1.6 and ?2), and 3.2 years in “high-risk" (from ?2 to ?2.4) (p<0.0001). Conclusions Our results may help to define the BMD testing interval. The lowest T score tertiles would suggest recommending a subsequent DXA in 1–2 years; in the highest tertiles, ≥6 years. Early intervention in patients with bone demineralization could reduce fracture–related morbidity/mortality.
Differences in the Inflammatory Response Induced by Acute Pancreatitis in Different White Adipose Tissue Sites in the Rat
Sabrina Gea-Sorlí, Laia Bonjoch, Daniel Closa
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041933
Abstract: Background There is increasing evidence of the role of adipose tissue on the systemic effects of acute pancreatitis. Patients with higher body mass index have increased risk of local and systemic complications and patients with android fat distribution and higher waist circumference are at greater risk for developing the severe form of the disease. Here we evaluated the changes on different areas of adipose tissue and its involvement on the inflammatory response in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Methods Pancreatitis was induced in male Wistar rats by intraductal administration of sodium taurocholate. Orlistat was administered to inhibit lipase activity. Activation of peritoneal macrophages was evaluated by measuring IL1β and TNFα expression. Inflammation was evaluated by measuring myeloperoxidase activity in mesenteric, epididymal and retroperitoneal areas of adipose tissue. Changes in the expression of inflammatory mediator in these areas of adipose tissue were also evaluated by RT-PCR. Results Pancreatitis induces the activation of peritoneal macrophages and a strong inflammatory response in mesenteric and epididymal sites of adipose tissue. By contrast, no changes were found in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Inhibition of lipase prevented the activation of macrophages and the local inflammation in adipose tissue. Conclusions Our results confirm the involvement of adipose tissue on the progression of systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. However, there is a considerable diversity in different adipose tissue sites. These differences need to be taken into account in order to understand the progression from local pancreatic damage to systemic inflammation during acute pancreatitis.
Interactive Vision and Experimental Traditions: How to Frame the Relationship  [PDF]
Anna Estany
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.32046
Abstract: In recent decades, the cognitive view has had a considerable impact on the philosophy of science, and two reasons can for this be identified. First, philosophers have increasingly tended towards naturalistic approaches, as opposed to proposals that are more a priori. Second, the cognitive sciences underwent considerable development in the second half of the twentieth century. Motivated by the cognitive view in the philosophy of science, and within a naturalistic framework, the aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between two pairs of views. On the one hand, I consider the theoretical and experimental traditions; and on the other, I examine the views of pure and interactive vision. The two pairs belong to two independent debates; one in the philosophy of science (theoretical vs. experimental traditions) and the other in cognitive psychology (pure vs. interactive vision). Theoretical traditions correspond to a conception of science according to which the goal of scientific practice is to formulate theories that represent the world, and in them experiments play only an instrumental role that is always subsidiary to theory. The model of science promoted in the program of logical empiricism is a good example of such a tradition. Experimental traditions, in contrast, challenge that conception of science by attributing a more important role to experimentation, which is said to provide its own path to knowledge.
A pilot study, a specially designed pillow may prevent developmental plagiocephaly by reducing pressure from the infant head  [PDF]
Anna Ohman
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56A2006

Developmental plagiocephaly (DP) has been an increasing problem since the successful “back to sleep campaign”. The referrals for DP have increased by >400% during the years 2004 to 2008. Many infants spend less time in the prone position nowadays and some of the risk factors for DP are as follows: less than 3 times per day for the tummy time, torticollis and slow achievement of motor milestones. There is a need for better information to the parents but also for other strategies to prevent DP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a special pillow and thus to reduce pressure on the infant head. Method: infants aged zero to two months were included in the study. They were randomized to either intervention group or control group. Head shape was investigated on two occasions, on the second occasion motor development, mobility and muscle function of the neck were also investigated. The parents were asked about tummy time and sleep position. All infants were investigated by the same physical therapist, blinded to group belonging. Result: seven infants had CVAI >3.5 on the last assessment, five of these had not used any method to reduce pressure. Fishers exact test showed a tendency where infants with reduced pressure on the head had less DP (P 0.08). Paired t test showed significant decrease in CVAI for the infants who had had reduced pressure on the head (P 0.01). Among these infants the CVAI was zero for 47% in the last assessment. For the infants who had not had a reduction of pressure on the head, there was no indication of a decrease of CVAI (P 0.45), and only 12% of these infants had a CVAI that was zero in the last assessment. Conclusion: this pilot study shows that a specially designed pillow may prevent DP in young infants. However, a larger sample is needed to confirm or disprove this. The study is planned to go on until there are 200 participants.

Models, AmI-Creator and A-Methodology for Ambient Intelligence Environments  [PDF]
Anna Chambers
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.74030

The current paper introduces an approach to a development of Ambient Intelligence domain-based software systems from scratch. The presented approach is based on models. The paper also presents the domain-related models expressing different levels of abstractions and stages of the development. The approach refers to a Model-Driven Development of Ambient Intelligence which was suggested at AmI-07-Ambient Intelligence conference. The approach is presented as a standard with its feasible realization. It starts from modeling of a content of the future AmI-dedicated software system and concludes by mapping the graphical concepts into a final code. A process proving feasibility and correctness of the approach is provided through a dedicated research methodology. Its process comprises an identification of needs in a speedy development of the systems. It is followed by studying of the currently available techniques capable of supporting the development and an experimenting with them. It continues by finding a solution, verified by its validation and concludes by an identification of the further perspectives. The developed approach presents a common way of a communication amongst stakeholders participating in creating of AmI-based environments. Such communication involves the notations of AmI-Creator—a Domain-Specific Language of Ambient Intelligence domain. Every part of DSL corresponds to a demonstration of A-methodology expressing a step-by-step guidance for the development. The methodology comprises two parts dedicated to providing semantics for DSL through studying of Ambient Intelligence domain ontology; and development of actual environments. A validity of the working proposition is confirmed by three examples. The further challenges refer to an extension of the presented work by other frameworks and expansion to a development of different domains with complex organizations.

A specially designed pillow may be used as treatment for young infants with developmental plagiocephaly  [PDF]
Anna ?hman
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512280

Developmental plagiocephaly has increased since the back to sleep campaign and is nowadays a rather common condition in infants. Prevention is the best way to decrease this problem, therefore, tools for treatment are needed. This case description of two children who dropped out from a study of a specially designed pillow indicates that the Mimos pillow may work as the treatment in young infants with developmental plagiocephaly.

Beighton Scores for Healthy Infants at the Age of Three Months  [PDF]
Anna ?hman
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2015.32006
Abstract: Objective: To investigate the incidence of hypermobility in infants at the age of three months. Method: Eighty-one healthy infants aged three months were examined using the Beighton score. The spine was excluded for practical reasons; due to this the highest possible Beighton score for the participants in this study was 8. Also ankle dorsiflexion and the big toe were examined. Results: The mean score on the Beighton scale was 2.7; median was 2.0 and the range was 0 to 6. Almost half of the infants scored at least 4 on the Beighton scale. T test showed no gender difference. Neither was there any difference between right and left sides. Conclusions: Infants at the age of three months have high mobility in the distal joints, ankle dorsiflexion, thumb and little finger. It is rare to find hypermobility in elbows and knees at this age.
A Craniometer with a Headband Can Be a Reliable Tool to Measure Plagiocephaly and Brachycephaly in Clinical Practice  [PDF]
Anna ?hman
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.812128
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the intra- and inter-reliability for measuring infants with plagiocephaly and brachycephaly with a craniometer when using a marked headband as landmarks. Subjects: Six physiotherapists and eight infants participated in the study. Methods: The physiotherapists measured all infants twice; each infant was measured with the same headband and craniometer. The physiotherapists were blinded to measurements carried out by their colleagues. The infants with their parents changed places in the room to minimize the possibility that the physiotherapists would remember their first measurements of any infant. Results: There was a high intra- and inter-reliability, for intra-reliability ICC 0.96 to 0.99 and for inter-reliability ICC 0.98. Conclusion: It is possible to achieve a high intra- and inter-reliability when using a headband and craniometer when measuring cranial vault asymmetry for plagiocephaly and cephalic ratio for brachycephaly.
The Role of an Implicit Assumption of Causality in the Methodology of Empirical Research  [PDF]
Anna Storozhuk
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.83022
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to point out the causal ladenness of empirical data in the social sciences. This is a kind of theory ladenness, representing implicit assumptions about the deterministic nature of political processes. The nonlinear and chaotic nature of social phenomena requires the collection of data not only about the current state of the system, but also about the evolution of the system. Using an example, we illustrate that the conclusions made on the basis of information about the final state can be very different from the conclusions made on the basis of monitoring the dynamics of the system. Low-importance factors can have big consequences in a chaotic case and, vice versa, there takes place fading of causality: considerable efforts can lead to more than modest results. For the successful management of political life, it is important to be able to identify the impacts that lead to great consequences.
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