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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6136 matches for " Ann Harris "
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Perceptions of the role of general practice and practical support measures for carers of stroke survivors: a qualitative study
Nan Greenwood, Ann Mackenzie, Ruth Harris, Will Fenton, Geoffrey Cloud
BMC Family Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-12-57
Abstract: The aims of this study are twofold. Firstly it explores both the support stroke carers would like from general practice and their reactions to the community based support proposed in the New Deal. Secondly, perceptions of a general practice team are investigated covering similar topics to carer interviews but from their perspective.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 stroke carers and 10 members of a general practice team. Carers' experiences and expectations of general practice and opinions of support measures from recent government policy were explored. General practice professionals were asked about their perceived role and their perceptions of carers' support needs. Interviews were content analysed.Carers' expectations of support from general practice were low and they neither received nor expected much support for themselves. General practice was seen as reactive primarily because of time constraints. Some carers would appreciate emotional support but others did not want additional services. Responses to recent policy initiatives were mixed with carers saying these might benefit other carers but not themselves.General practice professionals' opinions were broadly similar. They recognise carers' support needs but see their role as reactive, focussed on stroke survivors, rather than carers. Caring was recognised as challenging. Providing emotional support and referral were seen as important but identification of carers was considered difficult. Time constraints limit their support. Responses to recent policy initiatives were positive.Carers' expectations of support from general practice for themselves are low and teams are seen as reactive and time constrained. Both the carers and the general practice team participants emphasised the valuable role of general practice team in supporting stroke survivors. Research is needed to determine general practice teams' awareness and identification of carers and of the difficulties they encounter supporting str
An Optimized Protocol for Isolating Primary Epithelial Cell Chromatin for ChIP
James A. Browne, Ann Harris, Shih-Hsing Leir
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100099
Abstract: A critical part of generating robust chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data is the optimization of chromatin purification and size selection. This is particularly important when ChIP is combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify targets of DNA-binding proteins, genome-wide. Current protocols refined by the ENCODE consortium generally use a two-step cell lysis procedure that is applicable to a wide variety of cell types. However, the isolation and size selection of chromatin from primary human epithelial cells may often be particularly challenging. These cells tend to form sheets of formaldehyde cross-linked material in which cells are resistant to membrane lysis, nuclei are not released and subsequent sonication produces extensive high molecular weight contamination. Here we describe an optimized protocol to prepare high quality ChIP-grade chromatin from primary human bronchial epithelial cells. The ENCODE protocol was used as a starting point to which we added the following key steps to separate the sheets of formaldehyde-fixed cells prior to lysis. (1) Incubation of the formaldehyde-fixed adherent cells in Trypsin-EDTA (0.25% room temperature) for no longer than 5 min. (2) Equilibration of the fixed cells in detergent-free lysis buffers prior to each lysis step. (3) The addition of 0.5% Triton X-100 to the complete cell membrane lysis buffer. (4) Passing the cell suspension (in complete cell membrane lysis buffer) through a 25-gauge needle followed by continuous agitation on ice for 35 min. Each step of the modified protocol was documented by light microscopy using the Methyl Green-Pyronin dual dye, which stains cytoplasm red (Pyronin) and the nuclei grey-blue (Methyl green). This modified method is reproducibly effective at producing high quality sheared chromatin for ChIP and is equally applicable to other epithelial cell types.
Collagen XV Inhibits Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells
Anthony G. Clementz, Michael J. Mutolo, Shih-Hsing Leir, Kirsten J. Morris, Karolina Kucybala, Henry Harris, Ann Harris
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072250
Abstract: Collagen XV (COLXV) is a secreted non-fibrillar collagen found within basement membrane (BM) zones of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Its ability to alter cellular growth in vitro and to reduce tumor burden and increase survival in vivo support a role as a tumor suppressor. Loss of COLXV during the progression of several aggressive cancers precedes basement membrane invasion and metastasis. The resultant lack of COLXV subjacent to the basement membrane and subsequent loss of its interactions with other proteins in this zone may directly impact tumor progression. Here we show that COLXV significantly reduces invasion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through a collagen I (COLI) matrix. Moreover, we demonstrate that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these cells, which is recapitulated in vitro by cell scattering on a COLI substrate, is inhibited by over-expression of COLXV. We identify critical collagen-binding surface receptors on the tumor cells, including the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) and E-Cadherin (E-Cad), which interact with COLXV and appear to mediate its function. In the presence of COLXV, the intracellular redistribution of E-Cad from the cell periphery, which is associated with COLI-activated EMT, is inhibited and concurrently, DDR1 signaling is suppressed. Furthermore, continuous exposure of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells to high levels of COLXV suppresses endogenous levels of N-Cadherin (N-Cad). These data reveal a novel mechanism whereby COLXV can function as a tumor suppressor in the basement membrane zone.
Telephone follow-up to a mail survey: when to offer an interview compared to a reminder call
Jeanette Y Ziegenfuss, Kelly R Burmeister, Ann Harris, Stefan D Holubar, Timothy J Beebe
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-32
Abstract: A randomized study was embedded within a survey study of individuals treated with ulcerative colitis conducted in March 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota. After two mail contacts, non-respondents were randomly assigned to either a reminder telephone call or a telephone interview. Average cost per completed interview and response rates were compared between the two experimental conditions.The response rate in the reminder group and the interview did not differ where we considered both a completed survey and a signed form a complete (24% vs. 29%, p = 0.08). However, if such a signed form was not required, there was a substantial advantage to completing the interview over the phone (24% vs. 43%, p < 0.0001). The reminder group on average cost $27.00 per completed survey, while the interview group on average cost $53.00 per completed survey when a signed form was required and $36.00 per complete when a signed form was not required.The additional cost of completing an interview is worth it when an additional signed form is not required of the respondent. However, when such a signed form is required, offering an interview instead of a reminder phone call as a follow up to non-respondents does not increase response rates enough to outweigh the additional costs.Although response rates vary by study and mode of administration, there is evidence that response rates are declining across all modes of survey administration [1-3]. Mixed mode surveys have been shown to increase response rates by appealing to respondents who did not respond to the first mode they were offered [4]. Thus switching modes can offer potential respondents an additional opportunity for survey completion and allow respondents to complete the survey utilizing a mode with which they may feel more comfortable.Dillman and colleagues [5] suggest making the final contact to a potential respondent distinct from previous failed attempts as a way to increase response rates based on the premise that people prefer di
Detecting spatiotemporal clusters of accidental poisoning mortality among Texas counties, U.S., 1980 – 2001
Ella T Nkhoma, Chiehwen Ed Hsu, Victoria I Hunt, Ann Harris
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-3-25
Abstract: Several significant (p < 0.05) accidental poisoning mortality clusters were identified in different regions of Texas. The geographic and temporal persistence of clusters was found to vary by racial group, gender, and race/gender combinations, and most of the clusters persisted into the present decade. Poisson regression revealed significant differences in risk according to race and gender. The Black population was found to be at greatest risk of accidental poisoning mortality relative to other race/ethnic groups (Relative Risk (RR) = 1.25, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.24 – 1.27), and the male population was found to be at elevated risk (RR = 2.47, 95% CI = 2.45 – 2.50) when the female population was used as a reference.The findings of the present study provide evidence for the existence of accidental poisoning mortality clusters in Texas, demonstrate the persistence of these clusters into the present decade, and show the spatiotemporal variations in risk and clustering of accidental poisoning deaths by gender and race/ethnicity. By quantifying disparities in accidental poisoning mortality by place, time and person, this study demonstrates the utility of the spatial scan statistic combined with GIS and regression methods in identifying priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.The accidental poisoning mortality rate has been increasing in the United States. In the 21-year period spanning 1981 to 2001, mortality rates due to accidental poisoning more than doubled from 2.0 per 100,000 in 1981 to 4.9 per 100,000 in 2001 [1]. The burden of accidental poisoning mortality in this period was more than four million years of potential life lost (YPLL) before age 65 [1]. Accidental poisoning mortality trends in Texas have mirrored national trends with a linear increase in rates from 1.5 per 100,000 in 1981 to 5.2 per 100,000 in 2001. During this period, 10,406 total deaths attributable to accidental poisoning have contributed to more than 250,000 YP
Effects of laterally wedged insoles on symptoms and disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial
Kim Bennell, Kelly-Ann Bowles, Craig Payne, Flavia Cicuttini, Richard Osborne, Anthony Harris, Rana Hinman
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-8-96
Abstract: Two hundred participants with painful radiographic medial knee OA and varus malalignment will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated to lateral wedge or control insole groups using concealed allocation. Participants will be blinded as to which insole is considered therapeutic. Blinded follow up assessment will be conducted at 12 months after randomisation. The outcome measures are valid and reliable measures recommended for OA clinical trials. Questionnaires will assess changes in pain, physical function and health-related quality-of-life. Magnetic resonance imaging will measure changes in tibial cartilage volume. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, participants will record the use of all health-related treatments in a log-book returned to the assessor on a monthly basis. To test the effect of the intervention using an intention-to-treat analysis, linear regression modelling will be applied adjusting for baseline outcome values and other demographic characteristics.Results from this trial will contribute to the evidence regarding the effectiveness of laterally wedged insoles for the management of medial knee OA.ACTR12605000503628; NCT00415259.Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, localised joint disease affecting approximately one-third of adults, with the disease prevalence increasing with advancing age [1]. The economic impact of knee OA is also a large and growing problem for health care systems. In Australia, the estimated financial costs of OA and other arthritic diseases in 2000 totalled almost 9 billion dollars [2]. Demographic predictions indicate that people aged over 65 years will comprise more than 20% of the population by 2040 [3], thus knee OA will only become more prevalent.The knee is the most common lower limb site for OA, with the disease affecting the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints either in isolation or combination. The medial tibiofemoral compartment is the most commonly affected (medial 67% versus lateral 16% [4]). Patients with
Assessment and Use of NGR Instrumentation on the JOIDES Resolution to Quantify U, Th, and K Concentrations in Marine Sediment
Ann G. Dunlea,Richard W. Murray,Robert N. Harris,Maxim A. Vasiliev
Scientific Drilling , 2013, DOI: 10.2204/iodp.sd.15.05.2013
Risk and Protective Factors in Child Development and the Development of Resilience  [PDF]
Ann Buchanan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24025
Abstract: It was the distinguished UK psychiatrist, Professor Sir Michael Rutter, who first promoted the idea that there were risk and protective factors within the wider ecological framework of the child which profoundly influenced the child’s development. This paper based on 20 years of research at the Centre for Research into Parenting and Children at University of Oxford will explore some of these risk and protective factors and demonstrate how it is possible to artificially create protective conditions for those children who do not have them naturally, and to promote their resilience, so necessary in this fast changing world.
The Impact of Declining Fertility on Children, Parents and Policy  [PDF]
Ann Buchanan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.29052
Abstract: This paper, based on an international study of declining fertility, highlights the impact on children, parents and policy. Though in general, fewer children per family, are associated with young people’s increased health, well-being and education, the increase in the numbers of elderly will put pressure on women to carry the burden of, not only caring for their young, but also large numbers of elderly relatives, while at the same time contributing to a declining work force. Although there is little evidence that lone children do worse than children from a two-child family, the pressure on young people is great as they bear the hopes and aspirations of their family members and their societies to fill the gap in a world with fewer children. The paper concludes that social policy the world over will need to be alert to the impact of changing demography and the importance of investing in children so that they can contribute in a future world where they will be at a premium.
Recent Studies on Nutrition and Parkinson’s Disease Prevention: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Ann Gaba
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.55023
Abstract: Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive movement disorder, affecting primarily people over sixty years of age. With aging populations, some estimates indicate as many as nine million people will be impacted by this disease by 2030. Thus it is imperative to identify means of prevention, delay of onset, and management of symptoms. Many elements of diet and nutrition have been investigated to accomplish these goals. This review will examine recent studies of potential diet and nutrition factors and PD incidence. Methods: A PubMed Search was conducted using the keywords “Parkinson, prevention and nutrition”, and “Parkinson, prevention, and diet.” Search parameters were limited to articles published in English, and published between 2005 and February 2015. Results: Nineteen studies were selected for closer evaluation, with twelve ultimately included in the analysis. Selected papers all included large samples (N > 200), comparisons of individuals with and without diagnosed PD and detailed descriptions of how nutritional intakes were assessed. Conclusions: Several specific dietary components emerged as being of potential importance in PD prevention. Dairy products, most specifically liquid whole milk, were identified as increasing PD risk. Coffee and black tea, but not green tea, seemed to be protective, most likely due to their caffeine content. Vegetables from the solenaceae?family, specifically peppers, had a protective effect, possibly due to their nicotine content. Mediterranean diet adherence, with a relatively high intake of vegetables, may also be protective. The role of dietary fats is not yet clear. Dietary cholesterol was found to be protective in men, but not women, with dietary mono-unsaturated fatty acids being protective in women but not men. These results are consistent with a preliminary report for the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines, which addresses diet and risk of neurodegenerative disorders for the first time.
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