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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 114150 matches for " Anita O'Connor "
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Cortical injury in multiple sclerosis; the role of the immune system
Caroline A Walker, Anita J Huttner, Kevin C O'Connor
BMC Neurology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-11-152
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is widely viewed as a disease of white matter [1]. White matter lesions that include demyelination and neuronal damage are readily visible by MRI and macroscopically upon autopsy [2,3]. White matter lesions visualized via MRI are used to diagnose MS, in effect making these lesions the leading pathognomonic sign for MS [4]. The most widely accepted animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rodents, is based on an induced autoimmune reaction against myelin proteins of white matter of the central nervous system (CNS) [5]. That such injury is easily identifiable and ubiquitous, white matter pathology has been the subject of considerable attention. Although white matter damage is clearly present in the disease, it is not the only site within the CNS where the pathology of MS occurs. The cerebral cortex of the MS brain has recently been recognized as a major site of disease pathogenesis, perhaps now moving toward equal importance as the white matter. This is not to say that tissue damage in the cortex was never recognized. Gray matter damage has been described in MS since the earliest known reference to the disease phenotype. In Pathological Anatomy (1838), the Scottish pathologist Robert Carswell describes and illustrates a spinal cord that is viewed, by medical historians, to be among the very first documented cases of MS [6,7]. In this report Carswell notes the presence of lesions and atrophy. Regarding the grey matter damage, he writes, "The depth to which the medullary substance was affected in this matter varied from half a line to three or four lines, and on dividing the cord, it was seen to penetrate as far as the gray substance." His illustrations of the spinal cord's traverse sections demonstrate lesions exclusive to the white matter and those that have extended from the white into the gray matter. Although MS was not named a separate disease until 30 years later in Jean-Martin Charcot's Histology de la Sclerose en
Costs and difficulties of recruiting patients to provide e-health support: pilot study in one primary care trust
Ray B Jones, Anita O'Connor, Jade Brelsford, Neil Parsons, Heather Skirton
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-12-25
Abstract: The sample comprised 46 practices with total patient population of 250,000. We approached all practices using various methods, seeking collaboration to recruit patients via methods agreed with each practice. A detailed research diary was kept of time spent recruiting practices and patients. Researcher time was used to estimate costs. Patients who consented to participate were offered email support for their use of the Internet for health.Eighteen practices agreed to take part; we recruited 27 patients, most (23/27) from five practices. Practices agreed to recruit patients for an e-health intervention via waiting room leaflets (16), posters (16), practice nurses (15), doctors giving patients leaflets (5), a study website link (7), inclusion in planned mailshots (2), and a special mailshot to patients selected from practice computers (1). After low recruitment response we also recruited directly in five practices through research assistants giving leaflets to patients in waiting rooms. Ten practices recruited no patients. Those practices that were more difficult to recruit were less likely to recruit patients. Leaving leaflets for practice staff to distribute and placing posters in the practice were not effective in recruiting patients. Leaflets handed out by practice nurses and website links were more successful. The practice with lowest costs per patient recruited (£70) used a special mailshot to selected patients.Recruitment via general practice was not successful and was therefore expensive. Direct to consumer methods and recruitment of patients in outpatients to offer email support may be more cost effective. If recruitment in general practice is required, contacting practices by letter and email, not following up non-responding practices, and recruiting patients with selected conditions by special mailshot may be the most cost-effective approach.E-health services include: (i) seeking information from online resources, (ii) interacting with an application that ai
Non-obstetric vaginal trauma  [PDF]
Ian S. C. Jones, Alan OConnor
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.31005

Objective: To describe the mechanism, injury pattern and management of women who present to the Emergency Department with non-obstetric vaginal trauma. Methods: A retrospective, single institution case series was carried out. Data was sourced from medical records of women who presented to the Emergency Department and Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital between 2007 and 2011. Records of possible injuries to the vagina were assessed to determine incidence, age, site, type of injury, mechanism of injury and whether urinary retention required treatment. Results: Vaginal non-obstetric trauma was found in 11 of 519 cases resulting in lacerations or tears. Injuries were due to consensual coitus, other forms of sexual activity and self harm. Acute urinary retention did not occur in any case but two cases required resuscitation. Site of injury was most common high in the vagina. Conclusion: Non-obstetric vaginal injuries are uncommon (incidence 2.1%). All cases require assessment for vulvar, vaginal, urethral, anal and bony pelvis injuries. This may require examination under anaesthesia. Social worker and psychological support is important to reduce the incidence of long-term psychological problems.

A longitudinal study of quality of life among people living with a progressive neurological illness  [PDF]
Marita P. McCabe, Elodie J. OConnor
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56A2004

This study investigated predictors of quality of life (QOL) of people with progressive neurological illnesses. Participants were 257 people with motor neurone disease (MND), Huntington’s disease (HD), multiple sclerosis (MS), or Parkinson’s. Participants completed questionnaires on two occasions, 12 months apart. There was an increase in severity of symptoms for people withMND, negative mood for people with HD and Parkinson’s, and social support satisfaction for people with MS. Regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of QOL for each group. Predictor variables were length of illness, symptoms (physical symptoms, control over body, cognitive symptoms and psychological symptoms), mood, relationship satisfaction and social support. Predictors of QOL were severity of symptoms for people withMND, HD and MS; negative mood for people withMNDand Parkinson’s; and social support satisfaction for people with MS. These results demonstrate the importance of illness severity and mood in predicting QOL, but also indicate differences between illness groups. The limited role played by social support and relationship is a surprising finding from the current study.

Effect of emotional valence on episodic memory stages as indexed by event-related potentials  [PDF]
Marc E. Lavoie, Kieron P. OConnor
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2013.34034

Several investigations have shown that emotional events show superior recall than non-emotional ones. However, the cortical mechanisms underlying the episodic recall of emotional scenes are still poorly understood. Our main aim was to compare the magnitude of the Event-Related brain Potentials (ERP) old-new effect related to emotionally unpleasant, pleasant and neutral photographic images. As expected, correct recognition of all types of images elicited three topographically distinct ERP components sensitive to the classical old-new recognition effect. The results revealed that the behavioral performances were mainly sensitive to arousal, while the ERP old/new effect over posterior regions (300 - 1000 ms) was exclusively affected by unpleasantness. A later component (1000 - 1400 ms) showed an inverted old/ new effect at parietal sites, which was also sensitive to unpleasantness. These results imply that ERP reflecting episodic conscious recollection and post-retrieval monitoring are clearly affected both by valence and arousal.

World Soybean Trade: Growth and Sustainability  [PDF]
Ian McFarlane, Ernesto A. OConnor
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.55054

Soybeans can be consumed directly as food, and in China they are the major ingredient in food products such as tofu and soy milk, but direct consumption is small relative to their wider use in animal feed, and it is the requirement for livestock feed that drives international trade. Rapid growth of economies and population, especially in Asia, has led to increased demand for animal protein and cooking oil. This paper analyses the recent growth in supply of soybeans from North and South America to China, and considers the factors that may affect this trade in future; a contrast is made with supply from North and South America to Europe, which has not been increasing. The constraints preventing an increase in supply of soybeans to Europe are reviewed. The paper concludes with brief discussion of the factors which will affect world markets for soybeans and soybean products in future.

Desarrollo desigual y combinado y crisis ecológica
O'Connor, James;
Ambiente & Sociedade , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-753X2003000300002
Abstract: the forms of combined and unequal development directly impact on the processes of contamination and exhaustion of natural resources in the globalized society. the countries in the south do not have institutions capable of resisting the socio-economic processes of capital accumulation, both at regional and global scale, and suffer the great effects of contemporary ecologic crisis.
The political economy of Colombia's cocaine industry
Papel Politico , 2009,
Abstract: this study provides up-to-date scientific estimates of annual revenues generated by colombia's illicit cocaine industry (1991-2007), imputed from data on coca production collected by the united nations office on drugs and crime. while colombian producers appropriate only a fraction of global revenues from cocaine trafficking and sales, control over production and appropriation of revenues is highly concentrated, suggesting a great capacity for illegal drug-firms to impact colombian economy and society. we compare narco-capital accumulation within the wider context of the colombian economy in terms of productivity, employment patterns, growth and concentration of wealth and power and find that narco-production ranks among the most productive and lucrative sectors of the economy. but while the potential for profits is high, the illegal nature of the industry means firms are prone to sabotage and violence from competitors and vulnerable to attempts at suppression of production by the state, making the industry highly volatile and risky. if illegally accumulated drug-money can serve as a source of financing for legal economic activities, thus propping up economic growth in the formal sector, it must also be said that illegally accumulated narco-dollars are used to finance illegal armed groups and contribute to violence and insecurity, particularly for rural peasants.
Improvement of 18 carat white gold alloys
Grahame P. OConnor
Gold Bulletin , 1978, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215446
Abstract: Although there appears to be scope for the improvement of existing white gold jewellery alloys, the discovery of a radically new alloy seems unlikely. In this article, details are given of one line of approach which resulted in an interesting 18 carat alloy containing nickel, cobalt, iron, chromium and indium.
Treatment with budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with asthma: a focus on patient-reported outcomes
Richard D O'Connor
Patient Related Outcome Measures , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PROM.S16159
Abstract: eatment with budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with asthma: a focus on patient-reported outcomes Review (3412) Total Article Views Authors: Richard D O'Connor Published Date January 2011 Volume 2011:2 Pages 41 - 55 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PROM.S16159 Richard D O'Connor Sharp Rees-Stealy Medical Group, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: In the United States, budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) is approved for treatment of asthma in patients aged ≥12 years whose asthma is not adequately controlled with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) or whose disease severity clearly warrants treatment with an ICS and a long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist. This article reviews studies of budesonide/formoterol pMDI in patients with persistent asthma, with a particular focus on patient-reported outcomes (eg, perceived onset of effect, patient satisfaction with treatment, health-related quality of life [HRQL], global assessments, sleep quality and quantity), as these measures reflect patient perceptions of asthma control and disease burden. A search of PubMed and respiratory meetings was performed to identify relevant studies. In two pivotal budesonide/formoterol pMDI studies in adolescents and adults, greater efficacy and similar tolerability were shown with budesonide/formoterol pMDI 160/9 μg and 320/9 μg twice daily versus its monocomponents or placebo. In those studies, improvements in HRQL, patient satisfaction, global assessments of asthma control, and quality of sleep also favored budesonide/formoterol pMDI compared with one or both of its monocomponents or placebo. Budesonide/formoterol pMDI has a rapid onset of effect (within 15 minutes) that patients can feel, an attribute that may have benefits for treatment adherence. In summary, budesonide/formoterol pMDI is effective and well tolerated and has additional therapeutic benefits that may be important from the patient’s perspective.
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