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purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome as a
cluster of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2
diabetes mellitus and its individual components in groups of men and women
with primary obesity having different types of fat distribution. The study
involved 142 men and 185 women with primary alimentary-constitutional
obesity. The study participants were divided into 2 groups depending on waist-to-hip
ratio value. Standardized criteria were used to determine the prevalence of
metabolic syndrome and its individual components
among the examined men and women. The ratios of the number of
participants with lower or upper type of fat
distribution in men and women were 28:114 and 84:101, respectively.
Hence the frequency of lower type of fat distribution was 19.7% in men and
45.4% in women (p < 0.000). Men with lower type of body fat distribution as
compared to upper type were characterized by a lower prevalence of abdominal
obesity (1.9 times), hypertriglyceridemia (1.4 times), low HDL-C (1.6 times),
and hypertension (2 times). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in men with
lower type of fat distribution was lower by 2.7 times than that of men with
upper type of fat distribution. Women with lower type of fat distribution as
compared to upper type had a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity (1.2
times), hypertriglyceridemia (1.8 times), low HDL-C (1.2-fold), and hypertension (in 1.5 times). The
frequency of metabolic syndrome in women with lower type of fat distribution
was lower by 1.9 times than that of women with upper type of fat distribution.
Both men and women in the groups with lower type of fat distribution were
missing such a component of metabolic
syndrome as hyperglycemia i.e. they
had the minimal risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
To the question,“what is sports”, or what is a good sports activity or event, I am sure Plato would know what to say, using references to his philosophical division of man into three parts, namely: the appetite soul; the emotional soul and the reasonable soul. Plato would have said that sports comes from the human person and being, and so, for any particular sports to be accorded the accolade of goodness it must have the correspondence of the three constituent parts of man’s true nature. The concept of the soul in Plato is what exploring just as that of Professor Maduabuchi Dukor’s expositions concerning the African philosophical concepts of soul, mind, spirit and body as they affect philosophy of sports and the discipline of physical education. The article will therefore analyze the link between Plato concept of the good sports, Professor Dukor’s ontological ideas about the African core values as they affect the balance, harmony and health both the mind and body of the human being. The central point here is the analytical framework of enquiry which Plato sustained in his Dialogues when he queries people:“what is this?”. By this he wants people to appreciate the fact that when they are in search of truth, they usually have the impression that they have all when, actually, they have only half-baked understanding of issues. It is important therefore to understand the issues involved in the disciplines of physical education, philosophy of sports, ethics and the ontological frame of African philosophy as profiled under Professor Dukor theistic humanism of African philosophy. Centrally, the dialectical link between Plato and Dukor will expose the ethical dimension to sports development since every thing is not wining and money or drugs should not be the ultimate motivation for sports and physical exercises. The exercise of sports should lead to the dual development and balance of both mind and body; the highest being the competition of the soul with itself and not with others in which laurels, gold or money is won or lost. The man who wins is the one, like in the communal spirit of the African ontology, who has conquered over his selfishness and sacrifices for the good of the community.
Having taken note of, and critically analyzed, Professor Maduabuchi Dukor’s epochal work entitled“Theistic Humanism of African philosophy-the great debate on substance and method of philosophy”(2010), I am much encouraged and rationally convinced that he has succeeded in building the core critical and essential foundational pillars of what can safely pass for professional African philosophy, though much remains to be done by way of further research from other scholars. Based upon that conviction and the great prospects that the African philosophy project breakthrough holds for every African philosopher in the global village, I am also motivated to take a closer look at, and carry out a critical exposition of the concept of justice in the context of African cultural values, using the propositions of what he calls the canons of cultural values that are native to African philosophy. These cultural values define African identity and delineateAfrica’s contributions to the advancement of the global ideas of justice, axiology, gender and globalization. The essence and methodology of this article, therefore, will lift the relevant thematic thrusts and arguments made by the erudite Professor of African philosophy to“properly locate African philosophy in the context of globalism, cosmopolitanism, science and what it could contribute to emerging global culture”(Dukor,2010:p.ix). The central point of this critical exposition is that his theistic inspired cultural humanism has enhanced the global understanding of not only justice but feminist rights and the urgent needs for African philosophy to make its contributions towards the emancipation of and empowerment of women both in the continent and globally. The feminist search for justice, according to Dukor, is“the current global pool where the African is needed urgently to intervene”, since“feminism and women liberation has truncated the equilibrium and balance of relations between man and woman. African contribution to this class struggle between man and woman is a neutral one that absorbs the man and woman to their respective natural places in the nature’s womb”. Women’s search for global justice and the struggle to have their human rights recognized as a part of mankind’s gender balancing process would be philosophically enriched by Professor Dukor’s cultural value propositions and canons of justice.