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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 320 matches for " Anette Hulth "
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GET WELL: an automated surveillance system for gaining new epidemiological knowledge
Anette Hulth, Gustaf Rydevik
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-252
Abstract: We built an application consisting of two conceptual parts. One part allows for trends, based on user specified requests, to be extracted from anonymous web query data from a Swedish medical web site. The second conceptual part permits tailored analyses of particular diseases, where more complex statistical methods are applied to the data. To evaluate the epidemiological relevance of the output, we compared Google search data and search data from the medical web site.In the paper, we give concrete examples of the output from the web query-based system. We also present results from the comparison between data from the search engine Google and search data from the national medical web site.The application is in regular use at the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control. A system based on web queries is flexible in that it can be adapted to any disease; we get information on other individuals than those who seek medical care; and the data do not suffer from reporting delays. Although Google data are based on a substantially larger search volume, search patterns obtained from the medical web site may still convey more information from an epidemiological perspective. Furthermore we can see advantages with having full access to the raw data.During the last couple of years, logs of queries submitted to web-based search engines have received attention as potential sources for infectious disease surveillance. There are several advantages with using web queries for epidemiological analyses:? We can get information on groups of individuals other than those who see a doctor.? The data are nearly real-time.? A system based on web queries can easily be adapted to various diseases.? The data reflect a point in time close to onset (provided that the person looking for information is actually ill).This paper describes a fully implemented surveillance system that can generate epidemiological trends from anonymous web query logs. We have named the application GET WELL: Genera
Web Queries as a Source for Syndromic Surveillance
Anette Hulth, Gustaf Rydevik, Annika Linde
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004378
Abstract: In the field of syndromic surveillance, various sources are exploited for outbreak detection, monitoring and prediction. This paper describes a study on queries submitted to a medical web site, with influenza as a case study. The hypothesis of the work was that queries on influenza and influenza-like illness would provide a basis for the estimation of the timing of the peak and the intensity of the yearly influenza outbreaks that would be as good as the existing laboratory and sentinel surveillance. We calculated the occurrence of various queries related to influenza from search logs submitted to a Swedish medical web site for two influenza seasons. These figures were subsequently used to generate two models, one to estimate the number of laboratory verified influenza cases and one to estimate the proportion of patients with influenza-like illness reported by selected General Practitioners in Sweden. We applied an approach designed for highly correlated data, partial least squares regression. In our work, we found that certain web queries on influenza follow the same pattern as that obtained by the two other surveillance systems for influenza epidemics, and that they have equal power for the estimation of the influenza burden in society. Web queries give a unique access to ill individuals who are not (yet) seeking care. This paper shows the potential of web queries as an accurate, cheap and labour extensive source for syndromic surveillance.
Head Lice Surveillance on a Deregulated OTC-Sales Market: A Study Using Web Query Data
Johan Lindh,M?ns Magnusson,Maria Grünewald,Anette Hulth
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048666
Abstract: The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC) treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and V?rdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on “huvudl?ss” (head lice) and “h?rl?ss” (lice in hair) were obtained. The analysis showed that both the V?rdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (p<0.001) when added separately, but if the Google series were already included in the model, the V?rdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689). In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures.
Detecting the Norovirus Season in Sweden Using Search Engine Data – Meeting the Needs of Hospital Infection Control Teams
Michael Edelstein, Anders Wallensten, Inga Zetterqvist, Anette Hulth
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100309
Abstract: Norovirus outbreaks severely disrupt healthcare systems. We evaluated whether Webs?k, an internet-based surveillance system using search engine data, improved norovirus surveillance and response in Sweden. We compared Webs?k users' characteristics with the general population, cross-correlated weekly Webs?k searches with laboratory notifications between 2006 and 2013, compared the time Webs?k and laboratory data crossed the epidemic threshold and surveyed infection control teams about their perception and use of Webs?k. Users of Webs?k were not representative of the general population. Webs?k correlated with laboratory data (b = 0.88-0.89) and gave an earlier signal to the onset of the norovirus season compared with laboratory-based surveillance. 17/21 (81%) infection control teams answered the survey, of which 11 (65%) believed Webs?k could help with infection control plans. Webs?k is a low-resource, easily replicable system that detects the norovirus season as reliably as laboratory data, but earlier. Using Webs?k in routine surveillance can help infection control teams prepare for the yearly norovirus season.
CASE: a framework for computer supported outbreak detection
Baki Cakici, Kenneth Hebing, Maria Grünewald, Paul Saretok, Anette Hulth
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-10-14
Abstract: Based on case information, such as diagnosis and date, different statistical algorithms for detecting outbreaks can be applied, both on the disease level and the subtype level. The parameter settings for the algorithms can be configured independently for different diagnoses using the provided graphical interface. Input generators and output parsers are also provided for all supported algorithms. If an outbreak signal is detected, an email notification is sent to the persons listed as receivers for that particular disease.The framework is available as open source software, licensed under GNU General Public License Version 3. By making the code open source, we wish to encourage others to contribute to the future development of computer supported outbreak detection systems, and in particular to the development of the CASE framework.In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a computer supported outbreak detection system called CASE (named after the protagonist of the William Gibson novel Neuromancer), or Computer Assisted Search for Epidemics. The system is currently in use at the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI) and performs daily surveillance using data obtained from SmiNet [1], the national notifiable disease database in Sweden.Computer supported outbreak detection is performed in two steps:1 A statistical method is automatically applied to a collection of case reports in order to detect an unusual or unexpected number of cases for a particular disease.2 An investigation by a human expert (an epidemiologist) is performed to determine whether the detected irregularity denotes an actual outbreak.The main function of a computer supported outbreak detection system is to warn for potential outbreaks. In some cases, the system might be able to detect outbreaks earlier than human experts. Additionally, it might detect certain outbreaks that human experts would have overlooked. However, the system does not aim to replace human experts
The Amanda Experiment
P. O. Hulth,:,The AMANDA Collaboration
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: At the AMANDA South Pole site, four new holes were drilled to depths 2050 m to 2180 m and instrumented with 86 photomultipliers (PMTs) at depths 1520-2000 m. Of these PMTs 79 are working, with 4-ns timing resolution and noise rates 300 to 600 Hz. Various diagnostic devices were deployed and are working. An observed factor 60 increase in scattering length and a sharpening of the distribution of arrival times of laser pulses relative to measurements at 800-1000 m showed that bubbles are absent below 1500 m. Absorption lengths are 100 to 150 m at wavelengths in the blue and UV to 337 nm. Muon coincidences are seen between the SPASE air shower array and the AMANDA PMTs at 800-1000 m and 1500-1900 m. The muon track rate is 30 Hz for 8-fold triggers and 10 Hz for 10-fold triggers. The present array is the nucleus for a future expanded array.
I am Recoding the Sound of My Speaking Voice. Enunciation in Alvin Lucier's I'm Sitting in a Room
Anette Vandsoe
SoundEffects , 2012,
Abstract: ‘I am sitting in a room different from the one you are in’, states the American sound artist and composer Alvin Lucier (1931-) in his canonical piece I am Sitting in a Room (1970), thereby emphasising the very act of enunciation in which someone is addressing someone else in an individual speech act. Though the question of enunciation has been touched upon in several analyses of this piece, none of them have connected it to the strong and vast theoretical field established by the French linguist émile Benveniste (1902-1976) and further developed by numerous phenomenologically-oriented analytical approaches, particularly in relation to literary and film studies. By shifting our attention from the statement to the very act in which it is produced, the article aims not only to shed light on an essential part of Lucier’s artwork, but also to show how the theory of enunciation can prove fruitful in relation to sound studies as such. In conclusion, the article suggests that in addition to the text, the vocal performance and the recording can also be seen as communicative acts.
Listening to the world. Sound, Media and Intermediality in Contemporary Sound Art.
Anette Vandsoe
SoundEffects , 2011,
Abstract: One of the newer tendencies in contemporary sound art is the use of scientific modes of data collection through laboratory set ups or field recordings, as it is for instance seen in media artist Anne Niemetz' and nano-scientist Andrew Pelling's The Dark Side of the Cell (2004) or Katie Egan and Joe Davies Audio Microscope (2000). This article tries to describe how the sound experience is conditioned by such art projects. The main argument in the article is that in such art projects we are not just experiencing ‘the world’, ‘the sound’, ‘the technology’ or ‘the listening’ but the mediating gesture happening between these positions. In order to describe this complex mediating operation the article uses a variety of media and intermedial theory particularly Lars Ellestr ms (Ellestr m, 2010) distinctions between qualified, basic and technical media. The latter is used to describe how the intermediality of such sound art projects is not just between conventional medias of art – as for instance text and sound – but between very different media aspects such as “sound” and “microphone” and “art”. On behalf of such an analysis the article claims that these art projects can be seen as an articulation of an auditory turn, in which sound no longer appears to be a transparent channel between us and the world, but rather a media conditioning that which is experienced.
'Reasonable' Women Who Kill: Re-Interpreting and Re-defining Women’s Responses to Domestic Violence in England and Wales 1900-1965
Anette Ballinger
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2005,
Abstract: This article makes a contribution to current debates about gender and punishment by providing an historical analysis of the judicial fate of female domestic abuse victims who eventually killed their male abusers between 1900-1965 in England and Wales. Utilising case-studies of women who stood trial for the murder of their abusive partner during this period when murder was still punishable by hanging – I argue that what at first glance appears to be a ‘lenient’ sentence, in fact came at a heavy price for which all women ultimately paid and still pay. That is the maintenance of a gender order which denied women the status of full citizenship. ‘Lenient’ sentencing is shown to be based on stereotypical images of femininity and while it may have appeared to benefit individual women it did nothing to improve the legal situation of battered women generally. These historical case-studies helpwiden our understanding of current debates about gender and punishment by re-interpreting the women’s act of violence. The paper seeks to shift the focus away from provocation, diminished responsibility and irrationality to issues of rationality and agency – without losing sight of the specific circumstances in which the killing took place, and therefore without inviting harsher punishment.
Working with Realia
Anette Kurz
Humanising Language Teaching , 2010, DOI: 17559715
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