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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 61 matches for " Anelia;Stratakis "
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Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and Cushing's syndrome
Horvath, Anelia;Stratakis, Constantine;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302007000800009
Abstract: primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (ppnad) is a form of bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia that is often associated with corticotrophin (acth)-independent cushing's syndrome (cs) and is characterized by small to normal-sized adrenal glands containing multiple small cortical pigmented nodules (1,2). ppnad may occur in an isolated form or associated with a multiple neoplasia syndrome, the complex of spotty skin pigmentation, myxomas, and endocrine overactivity, or carney complex, in which cushing's syndrome is the most common endocrine manifestation (3). molecular studies have led to the identification of several genes, defects in which may predispose ppnad formation; all of these molecules play important role for the camp signaling pathway. this review intends to present the most recent knowledge of the pathology and molecular genetics of the benign bilateral adrenocortical lesions, as well as to discuss the modern tools for diagnostics and treatment of this condition.
Study of Acute Alcohol Poisoning in Children Admitted to a Emergency Hospital Pirogov in Sofia, Bulgaria
Anelia Loukova
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3889/MJMS.1857-5773.2011.0182
Abstract: Aim. The aim of the current study is to analyze the medical and social dimensions of acute alcohol poisoning in children with regard of improving prevention of addictive habitis and develop effective preventative strategies for reducing underage alcohol consumption. Methods. We have studied the patients at the age up to 18 years with acute alcohol poisoning hospitalized in the Children Toxicology Department of Emergency Hospital Pirogov, Sofia, Bulgaria, from January 1, 2007 to June 31, 2008. All of them were at teen years - between 12 and 17 years old. Data on children were retrived from hospital medical records (age, sex, level of consciousness, blood ethanol level). The initial blood ethanol level was measured on admission by thin-layer chromatography for each patient. We have used the inquiry method - specially created for the purpose of the survey questionnaire comprising 39 questions (location and the reason for drinking, type of alcoholic beverage, age at first drink, combination alcohol-illicit drug, type of family, education and employment of parents, frequency of alcohol consumption by parents, consecutiveness of the children in family, presence of siblings, presence of children in a single room, interests etc.). Psychiatric interview was used. Results. We have studied 137 children with acute alcohol poisoning. Average age of children intoxicated by alcohol was 14.91±1.45 years. 77 (56.2%) are boys and 60 (43.8%) girls. The results demonstrate tendency of increase of the poisonings in weekends and in late afternoon and evening. On admission to hospital most of them had different levels of depressed consciousness: 61.3% were somnolent, 28.5% were soporous and 5.1% were comatose. Blood ethanol level was over 2.00 mg/ml in 40.2%. In the 21 (15.3%) cases children have been poisoned at the first alcohol consumption. No repeated hospitalization for acute alcohol poisoning in the study group for that period has been registered. Combination alcohol-illicit drug was observed in 13 children (9.5%). Children most often used one type of alcoholic beverage. The most frequent alcoholic beverage leading to intoxication is the vodka (63.1%). 64% of the children come from complete families. Both parents have secondary education in 79.7% and in 53.3% both parents are employed. 60% were the first born child in the family. First alcohol consuption was at the 12 years and 10 months for boys, and at 13 years for girls. The most frequent reason for alcohol consumption was meeting and communicing with friends. The students have approximately 1.20 euro daily. Conclusion. Influence of "the group" is the main cause of alcohol consumption in adolescence. There is no increasing tendency for combining alcohol with other psychoactive drugs. We consider the brief intervention prior to hospital discharge as a preventive factor for repeated poisonings.
Study of Acute Alcohol Poisoning in Children Admitted to a Emergency Hospital Pirogov in Sofia, Bulgaria
Anelia Loukova
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Aim. The aim of the current study is to analyze the medical and social dimensions of acute alcohol poisoning in children with regard of improving prevention of addictive habitis and develop effective preventative strategies for reducing underage alcohol consumption.Methods. We have studied the patients at the age up to 18 years with acute alcohol poisoning hospitalized in the Children Toxicology Department of Emergency Hospital Pirogov, Sofia, Bulgaria, from January 1, 2007 to June 31, 2008. All of them were at teen years – between 12 and 17 years old. Data on children were retrived from hospital medical records (age, sex, level of consciousness, blood ethanol level). The initial blood ethanol level was measured on admission by thin-layer chromatography for each patient. We have used the inquiry method - specially created for the purpose of the survey questionnaire comprising 39 questions (location and the reason for drinking, type of alcoholic beverage, age at first drink, combination alcohol-illicit drug, type of family, education and employment of parents, frequency of alcohol consumption by parents, consecutiveness of the children in family, presence of siblings, presence of children in a single room, interests etc.). Psychiatric interview was used. Results. We have studied 137 children with acute alcohol poisoning. Average age of children intoxicated by alcohol was 14.91±1.45 years. 77 (56.2%) are boys and 60 (43.8%) girls. The results demonstrate tendency of increase of the poisonings in weekends and in late afternoon and evening. On admission to hospital most of them had different levels of depressed consciousness: 61.3% were somnolent, 28.5% were soporous and 5.1% were comatose. Blood ethanol level was over 2.00 mg/ml in 40.2%. In the 21 (15.3%) cases children have been poisoned at the first alcohol consumption. No repeated hospitalization for acute alcohol poisoning in the study group for that period has been registered. Combination alcohol-illicit drug was observed in 13 children (9.5%). Children most often used one type of alcoholic beverage. The most frequent alcoholic beverage leading to intoxication is the vodka (63.1%). 64% of the children come from complete families. Both parents have secondary education in 79.7% and in 53.3% both parents are employed. 60% were the first born child in the family. First alcohol consuption was at the12 years and 10 months for boys, and at 13 years for girls. The most frequent reason for alcohol consumption was meeting and communicing with friends. The students have approximately 1.20 euro daily.Conclusion.
Adrenocortical Causes of Hypertension
Andreas Moraitis,Constantine Stratakis
International Journal of Hypertension , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/624691
Abstract: Primary aldosteronism is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. In the past, screening for primary aldosteronism was offered only in patients with hypertension associated with hypokalemia. Recent studies showed that hypokalemia is seen in only 25% of the patients with primary aldosteronism, which has increased the prevalence of primary aldosteronism to 10–15% of all cases with new onset hypertension.
Clinical and molecular genetics of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease
Sandrini, Fabiano;Stratakis, Constantine;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302004000500007
Abstract: carney complex (cnc) is a multiple endocrine neoplasia (men) syndrome associated with other, non-endocrine manifestations such as lentigines, cardiac myxomas and schwannomas. primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (ppnad), leading to corticotrophin-independent cushing's syndrome is the most frequent endocrine lesion in cnc. the complex has been mapped to 2p16 and 17q22-24, although additional heterogeneity may exist. the gene coding for the protein kinase a (pka) type i-a regulatory subunit (ria), prkar1a, had been mapped to 17q. cloning of the prkar1a genomic structure and its sequencing showed mutations in cnc-, cnc with ppnad- and sporadic ppnad-patients. in cnc tumors, pka activity showed increased stimulation by camp, whereas pka activity ratio was decreased, and in cnc tumors, there is loh of the normal allele, suggesting that normal prkar1a may be a tumor suppressor in these tissues. cnc is the first human disease caused by mutations of one of the subunits of the pka enzyme, a critical component of the camp signaling system and a potential participant in many other signaling pathways.
Adrenocortical Causes of Hypertension
Andreas Moraitis,Constantine Stratakis
International Journal of Hypertension , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/624691
Abstract: Primary aldosteronism is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. In the past, screening for primary aldosteronism was offered only in patients with hypertension associated with hypokalemia. Recent studies showed that hypokalemia is seen in only 25% of the patients with primary aldosteronism, which has increased the prevalence of primary aldosteronism to 10–15% of all cases with new onset hypertension. 1. Introduction Approximately 85 million people in the United States are estimated to be hypertensive. In the majority, the hypertension is “essential” or “idiopathic,” but a subgroup of approximately 15% has secondary hypertension. The secondary causes of hypertension can be divided into renal (e.g., renovascular or renal parenchymal disease) and endocrine causes. There are at least 14 endocrine disorders in which hypertension may be the initial clinical presentation (Table 1). Table 1: Endocrine causes of hypertension. A further classification of the adrenocortical causes of hypertension based on the levels of renin and aldosterone can be used for the diagnostic approach of a patient with suspected endocrine hypertension (Table 2). Table 2: Adrenocortical causes of hypertension. An accurate diagnosis of endocrine hypertension provides the clinician with a unique treatment opportunity, that is, to render a surgical cure or to achieve a dramatic response with pharmacologic therapy. Primary hyperaldosteronism, which represents the most common cause of endocrine resistant hypertension, is reviewed here. 2. Aldosterone Biosynthesis and Control of Secretion The differentiation of the adrenal cortex into distinct zones has important functional consequences. The zona glomerulosa comprises approximately 15% of the cortex (depending upon sodium intake). Cells are clustered in spherical nests and are small with smaller nuclei in comparison to other zones. The zona fasciculata comprises the 75% of the cortex; in this zone, the cells are large and lipid laden and form radial cords between the fibrovascular radial network. The innermost zona reticularis is sharply demarcated from both zona fasciculata and the adrenal medulla; cells are irregular with little lipid content. Three main types of hormone are produced by the adrenal cortex-glucocorticoids (cortisol, corticosterone), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone), and sex steroids (mainly androgens). Aldosterone is synthesized from cholesterol in a series of six biosynthetic steps [1]. The first four steps are also involved in the synthesis of cortisol, whereas the last two pertain only to
Methodical Review of the Research about the Cave Fauna in Western Rhodopes Mts. (Bulgaria)
Anelia Sl. Pavlova
Ecologia Balkanica , 2009,
Abstract: A review is presented of the existing information about cave fauna in Western Rhodopes. For simplicity, data about local caves and species in the karst forms are presented in two tables. The caves support abiodiverse ecology and are an important Bulgarian natural resource. The taxonomy will be a useful foundation for the development of further research in this or another cave, not only in this mountain, but also and in whole country. The information presented will be supplemented by further research in the field. Records about cave fauna are gathered by different sources – catalogues, articles, books and web-adresses, which are for the moment the most valued base of information in the biospeleology in Bulgaria.
On Achievable Rates for Channels with Mismatched Decoding
Anelia Somekh-Baruch
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: The problem of mismatched decoding for discrete memoryless channels is addressed. A mismatched cognitive multiple-access channel is introduced, and an inner bound on its capacity region is derived using two alternative encoding methods: superposition coding and random binning. The inner bounds are derived by analyzing the average error probability of the code ensemble for both methods and by a tight characterization of the resulting error exponents. Random coding converse theorems are also derived. A comparison of the achievable regions shows that in the matched case, random binning performs as well as superposition coding, i.e., the region achievable by random binning is equal to the capacity region. The achievability results are further specialized to obtain a lower bound on the mismatch capacity of the single-user channel by investigating a cognitive multiple access channel whose achievable sum-rate serves as a lower bound on the single-user channel's capacity. In certain cases, for given auxiliary random variables this bound strictly improves on the achievable rate derived by Lapidoth.
Real-Time Grasp Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Joseph Redmon,Anelia Angelova
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We present an accurate, real-time approach to robotic grasp detection based on convolutional neural networks. Our network performs single-stage regression to graspable bounding boxes without using standard sliding window or region proposal techniques. The model outperforms state-of-the-art approaches by 14 percentage points and runs at 13 frames per second on a GPU. Our network can simultaneously perform classification so that in a single step it recognizes the object and finds a good grasp rectangle. A modification to this model predicts multiple grasps per object by using a locally constrained prediction mechanism. The locally constrained model performs significantly better, especially on objects that can be grasped in a variety of ways.
A General Formula for the Mismatch Capacity
Anelia Somekh-Baruch
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The fundamental limits of channels with mismatched decoding are addressed. A general formula is established for the mismatch capacity of a general channel, defined as a sequence of conditional distributions with a general decoding metrics sequence. We deduce an identity between the Verd\'{u}-Han general channel capacity formula, and the mismatch capacity formula applied to Maximum Likelihood decoding metric. Further, several upper bounds on the capacity are provided, and a simpler expression for a lower bound is derived for the case of a non-negative decoding metric. The general formula is specialized to the case of finite input and output alphabet channels with a type-dependent metric. The closely related problem of threshold mismatched decoding is also studied, and a general expression for the threshold mismatch capacity is obtained. As an example of threshold mismatch capacity, we state a general expression for the erasures-only capacity of the finite input and output alphabet channel. We observe that for every channel there exists a (matched) threshold decoder which is capacity achieving. Additionally, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for a channel to have a strong converse. Csisz\'{a}r and Narayan's conjecture is proved for bounded metrics, providing a positive answer to the open problem introduced in [1], i.e., that the "product-space" improvement of the lower random coding bound, $C_q^{(\infty)}(W)$, is indeed the mismatch capacity of the discrete memoryless channel $W$. We conclude by presenting an identity between the threshold capacity and $C_q^{(\infty)}(W)$ in the DMC case.
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