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Although numerous studies have examined the relationship between family and religion on delinquency, there have not been studies of the relationship between parents, friends, and religion on substance use among adults. The analysis for this study was based on two waves of data (Wave 1, 1986 and Wave 2, 1989) of the Americans’ Changing Lives Survey. The results revealed that social relationships, social integration and attendance at religious services influence the number of drinks and cigarettes smoked per day among adults. Parental influence varies by gender. The implications for social control, social networks and gender perspectives are discussed.