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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17251 matches for " Andrew Ukegbu "
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Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and Practice of Pap Smear Testing among Secondary School Teachers in Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Chika Ubajaka, Andrew Ukegbu, Samuel Ilikannu, Christian Ibeh
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2015.52003
Abstract: Introduction: Cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers of the female genital tract and accounts for about a hundred and ninety thousand deaths each year, most of which occur in developing countries. Early cervical screening methods have contributed to the fall of cervical cancer deaths in the developed world. This is different in developing countries where people have limited knowledge about this disease condition and the screening methods for prevention. This study determined the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female secondary school teachers in Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State. Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which self-administered questionnaires were returned by 142 respondents and results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 35.6 ± 1.76 years. A high proportion of the respondents were aware of cervical cancer 106 (74.6%). About 44 (41.5%) knew of cervical cancer screening by Pap smear, out of which only 20.5% had done a pap smear. The most common reasons given for not doing the test were; not deeming the test necessary, not knowing where the test could be done and feeling of not being at risk of developing cervical cancer. Conclusion/Recommendation: Though the level of awareness of cervical cancer screening was high, the level of uptake of Pap smear was still very low. A national cervical cancer Pap smear campaign should be intensified to change the negative perception towards Pap smear test.
Nutritional Status and Energy Intake of Adolescents in Umuahia Urban, Nigeria
Ukegbu Patricia Ogechi,Onimawo Ignatius Akhakhia,Ukegbu Andrew Ugwunna
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide information on anthropometry, body composition and energy intake of adolescents South Eastern Nigeria. The participants were 190 apparently healthy adolescent boys and girls aged 15-18 years with equal sex distribution. Participants were subjected to anthropometric measurements viz: height, weight, arm circumference and skinfold thickness. Energy intake was determined from individual weighed inventory for three consecutive days including a week-end day; part of the food sample was subjected to chemical analysis. According to the results, all measurements except BMI and arm circumference had significant differences (p<0.05). Approximately 50% girls and well over 70% boys failed to meet the recommended weight and height standards. Over 20% of the adolescents were thin (BMI<18.5kg/m2). The prevalence of overweight indicated that about 4% of boys and 2% of girls were at risk of becoming overweight. Similarly the prevalence of stunting was found to be 67.3% and 57.8% for boys and girls, respectively. In addition, body fat percent was significantly higher in girls (p<0.05). The mean intakes for fat, carbohydrate and energy was significantly higher in males compared to females (p<0.05). This research provides information concerning anthropometry, body composition and energy intake of adolescents, South East Nigeria. The result shows that there was under nutrition among the adolescents though the extent was higher among adolescent boys than girls, body composition of the adolescents was equally low. Also protein intake was grossly inadequate in both sexes. Therefore there is a need for improvement in the nutritional status among these adolescents.
Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants attending child welfare clinics of a teaching hospital in Nigeria
AU Ukegbu, EU Ebenebe, PO Ukegbu
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To determine the breastfeeding pattern and its relationship with the physical growth and health status of infants aged 0–24 weeks. Design and setting: A prospective cohort study was carried out at three comprehensive health centres of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Anambra State (Nigeria) from September 2006 to June 2007. The feeding pattern, body weight, length and morbidity of 228 infants were assessed at birth, 6, 10, 14, 20 and 24 weeks when they visited the child welfare clinics for routine immunisations or on appointment. The infants were recruited from the immunisation registers by a systematic random sampling method. Based on their current feeding pattern during the period under study, infants were classified into exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and non-exclusive breastfeeding (non-EBF) groups. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS and Epi Info statistical computer software. A probability value (p-value) of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The EBF rate declined progressively from 64.9% at birth to 37.3% at 24 weeks of age. Maternal older age, multiparity and delivery at a government health facility were positively associated with higher rates of EBF (p < 0.05). Only 110 (48.2%) babies were put to the breast immediately (≤ 1 hour) after delivery. The numbers that received colostrum and prelacteal feed were 118 (82.5%) and 59 (25.9%), respectively. On-demand breastfeeding was more popular than timed feeding (95.5% vs 7.5%; p < 0.05). At 24 weeks of age EBF males and females achieved a better and more rapid growth in weight and length compared to those in the non-EBF group (p = 0.000). Episodes of diarrhoea and fever were significantly associated with non-EBF (p = 0.000). Conclusion: The study revealed that EBF had a positive effect on the physical growth and health status of infants, but the rate of EBF was low. It is suggested that activities that promote appropriate breastfeeding practices should be targeted at mothers and locations in which poor breastfeeding practices exist.
Determinants of breastfeeding patterns among mothers in Anambra State, Nigeria
AU Ukegbu, PO Ukegbu, UU Onyeonoro, CF Ubajaka
South African Journal of Child Health , 2011,
Abstract: Objectives. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life is still rare among nursing mothers. This study aimed to identify the factors influencing breastfeeding practices among mothers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted in three comprehensive health centres of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Anambra State, between September 2006 and June 2007. The breastfeeding practices of 228 nursing mothers were assessed at enrolment when attending the maternal and child welfare clinics for BCG immunisation, and at follow-up visits at 6, 10, 14, 20 and 24 weeks. In addition, four focus group discussion sessions (one in each centre) were held, involving a total of 35 nursing mothers. Results. Most mothers 190 (83.3%) were aged between 20 and 34 years. The majority (208, 91.2%) had good or very good knowledge of breastfeeding. The main source of breastfeeding education was government health facilities (80.85%), but only 110 mothers (48.2%) initiated breastfeeding immediately (<1 hour) after delivery. The exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate fell from 143 (62.7%) at birth to 85 (37.3%) at 24 weeks. EBF was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, delivery at a government facility, a positive family attitude towards EBF, and breastfeeding education from a government health facility (p<0.05). Focus group discussion showed that mothers believed that adequate nutrition and physical, financial and emotional support to them would increase EBF practice. Conclusion. The rate of EBF was low among the mothers, and the factors identified that may influence its practice have important implications for breastfeeding intervention programmes. Activities to promote EBF should be focused on specific groups of women and locations in which it is poorly practised. In addition, support to the mothers is necessary.
Can a Massive Graviton be a Stable Particle  [PDF]
Andrew Beckwith
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.25043
Abstract: This document is based on a question asked in the Dark Side of the Universe 2010 conference in Leon, Mexico, when a researcher from India asked the author about how to obtain a stability analysis of massive gravitons. The answer to this question involves an extension of the usual Pauli_Fiertz Langrangian as written by Ortin, with non- zero graviton mass contributing to a relationship between the trace of a revised GR stress-energy tensor (assuming non- zero graviton mass), and the trace of a revised symmetric tensor times a tiny mass for a 4 dimensional graviton. The resulting analysis makes use of Visser’s treatment of a stress en-ergy tensor, with experimental applications discussed in the resulting analysis. If the square of frequency of a massive graviton is real valued and greater than zero, stability can be possibly confirmed experimentally.
Octonionic Gravity Formation, Its Connections to Micro Physics  [PDF]
Andrew Beckwith
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2011.11002
Abstract: We ask if Octonionic quantum gravity is a relevant consideration near the Planck scale. Furthermore, we examine whether gravitational waves would be generated during the initial phase, , of the universe when triggered by changes in spacetime geometry; i.e. what role would an increase in degrees of freedom have in setting the conditions during , so that the result of these conditions can be observed and analyzed by a gravitational detector. The micro physics interaction is due to the formation of a pre Planckian to Planckian space time transition in spatial dimensions at and near the Planck dimensional values, i.e. 10–33 centimeters in spatial dimensions. This transition would be abrupt and arising in micro physics regimes of space time.
Detailing Coherent, Minimum Uncertainty States of Gravitons, as Semi Classical Components of Gravity Waves, and How Squeezed States Affect Upper Limits To Graviton Mass  [PDF]
Andrew Beckwith
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.27086
Abstract: We present what is relevant to squeezed states of initial space time and how that affects both the composition of relic GW, and also gravitons. A side issue to consider is if gravitons can be configured as semi classical "particles", which is akin to the Pilot model of Quantum Mechanics as embedded in a larger non linear "deterministic" background.
What the Null Energy Condition (and When It May Be Violated) Tells Us about Gravitational Wave Frequencies in/for Relic Cosmology?  [PDF]
Andrew Beckwith
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.29118
Abstract: We introduce a criterion as to the range of HFGW generated by early universe conditions. The 1 to 10 Giga Hertz range is constructed initially starting with what Grupen writes as far as what to expect of GW frequencies which can be detected assuming a sensitivity of 7×h~10-27 . From there we examine the implications of an earlier Hubble parameter at the start of inflation, and a phase transition treatment of pre to post Planckian inflation physics via use of inflatons. We close with an analysis of how gravitational constant G may vary with time, the tie in with the NEC condition and how to select a range of relic GW frequencies. The gravitational frequencies in turn may enable resolving a mis match between the datum that the entropy of the center of the galaxy black hole is greater than the entropy of the present four dimensional universe as we can infer and measure.
Result-Based Management in the Public Sector: A Decade of Experience for the Tanzanian Executive Agencies  [PDF]
Andrew Sulle
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2011.44057
Abstract: One element of the NPM-inspired reforms is the adoption of result-based management in the Tanzanian public sector. This paper examines the implementation of this type of reform by focusing on executive agencies. Executive agencies were especially created to be result-oriented public organizations. Our empirical question is whether or not and to what extent the management of executive agencies has shifted to result-based approach as promised by NPM-reform doctrine. Our findings indicate that result-based approach has only been partially implemented in the Tanzanian public sector. There is less emphasis on managing for results and management processes have continued to be predominantly based on inputs and processes.
Can We Form Gravitinos by Something Other Than a Higgs Boson in the Electro-Weak Era?  [PDF]
Andrew Beckwith
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.329162
Abstract: What is the physical nature of gravitinos? As asked before, this question was the template of how to introduce Machian Physics as a way to link gravitinos in the electro weak era and gravitons as of the present. What we wish to do now is to ask how a flaw in the Higgs equation as brought up by Comay shows a branch off from orthodox quantum physics, leading to, with the Machs principle application done earlier a way to embed the beginning of the universe as a semi classical superstructure of which Quantum Mechanics is a subset of. We argue that this will necessitate a review of the Higgs equation of state for reasons stated in the manuscript. We also finally review a proprosal for another form of mass formation mechanism as a replacement for the Higgs mass as introduced by Glinka and Beckwith, 2012, with commentary as to how suitable it may be to get a gravitino mass in fidelity to the Machian proposal introduced by Beckwith previously, to get linkage between electroweak era gravitinos and present day gravitons.
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