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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19947 matches for " Andrew Robinson "
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A Textbook on Biomaterials That Appeals to a Wide Readership from Undergraduate, via Instructor to Researcher  [PDF]
Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2015.63014
Abstract: Introduction to Biomaterials: Basic Theory with Engineering Applications is an expertly written and comprehensive textbook that comfortably fills a hole in the market for an up-to-date teaching resource on biomaterials. It covers a range of material types, processing options and characterizations, and describes in detail their multidisciplinary applications. It should appeal to not only undergraduate students of biomedicine and bioengineering but also postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers in material science related to human biological systems.
A review of the use of exemestane in early breast cancer
Andrew Robinson
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S3422
Abstract: review of the use of exemestane in early breast cancer Review (4663) Total Article Views Authors: Andrew Robinson Published Date December 2008 Volume 2009:5 Pages 91 - 98 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S3422 Andrew Robinson Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Regional Cancer Program of Sudbury Regional Hospital, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Exemestane is a third-generation aromatase inhibitor, which has proven to be a useful drug in the treatment of early stage breast cancer. Several clinical trials have been performed or are currently underway using exemestane as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women, which will be the indication reviewed here. A relative reduction in risk of breast cancer recurrence or death of 24% has been shown with exemestane compared with tamoxifen when given after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen. This corresponded to a 3.3% absolute reduction in recurrence or death at the end of 5 years, for a number needed to treat of 30. The main use of exemestane in the adjuvant setting is as an alternative to tamoxifen, and toxicities are discussed in relation to tamoxifen toxicities. In general, patients receiving exemestane experience less hot flashes and more arthralgias in comparison to tamoxifen, while there is also a reduction in venous thromboembolic events and vaginal bleeding. Patients on exemestane as a group do not appear to have a significantly changed quality of life in comparison to tamoxifen, while having a statistically significant benefit in preventing breast cancer recurrence.
A review of the use of exemestane in early breast cancer
Andrew Robinson
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2008,
Abstract: Andrew RobinsonNorthern Ontario School of Medicine, Regional Cancer Program of Sudbury Regional Hospital, Sudbury, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Exemestane is a third-generation aromatase inhibitor, which has proven to be a useful drug in the treatment of early stage breast cancer. Several clinical trials have been performed or are currently underway using exemestane as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women, which will be the indication reviewed here. A relative reduction in risk of breast cancer recurrence or death of 24% has been shown with exemestane compared with tamoxifen when given after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen. This corresponded to a 3.3% absolute reduction in recurrence or death at the end of 5 years, for a number needed to treat of 30. The main use of exemestane in the adjuvant setting is as an alternative to tamoxifen, and toxicities are discussed in relation to tamoxifen toxicities. In general, patients receiving exemestane experience less hot flashes and more arthralgias in comparison to tamoxifen, while there is also a reduction in venous thromboembolic events and vaginal bleeding. Patients on exemestane as a group do not appear to have a significantly changed quality of life in comparison to tamoxifen, while having a statistically significant benefit in preventing breast cancer recurrence.Keywords: breast cancer, exemestane, adjuvant
Laboratory Diagnosis of Dengue Infection: Current Techniques and Future Strategies  [PDF]
Dinesh Subedi, Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2014.41012
Abstract: Dengue is an increasingly significant vector-borne infectious disease, with over 50 million cases reported in more than half the world’s recognised independent states. Dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome are distinct clinical forms of an infection that is caused by Dengue Virus, a member of the Flaviviridae family. All four well characterized serotypes of the virus can cause the full spectrum of disease from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening symptoms. For effective prevention and/or treatment of disease symptoms, early and rapid detection of virus in specimens collected from clinically suspected persons is a requirement that remains challenging. A positive laboratory diagnosis is essential to confirm dengue virus infection and hence to inform patient therapy. Here, we consider the pros and cons of currently available methods for identification, ranging from conventional to sophisticated tests. Reports indicate the use of a variety of diagnostic methods of varying sensitivity, highlighting the necessity for standardisation and quality control. Several novel approaches are in development and demand further evaluation.
A Protocol for a Highly Consistent, High Level Production in Vivo of Plasmodium falciparum Oocysts and Sporozoites  [PDF]
Martin Looker, Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2014.513112
Abstract: Investigation of the intimate relationship between the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its Anopheles vector requires the reliable production and isolation of successive sexual stages of the parasite from infected mosquitoes. Such an advance in propagation would benefit a range of molecular, cellular, immunochemical and transmission-blocking research studies. Parasite cultivation, mosquito rearing, infection and subsequent dissection of mosquitoes are all highly technical procedures that require both skill and experience to perform with competence. Furthermore, to produce mosquitoes of an appropriate age to infect during the short period in which parasites are viable for infection demands precise planning in order to coordinate the interacting life cycles of the parasite and vector. Here, a protocol is described for the complete development of P. falciparum within Anopheles stephensi. A very consistent, high level production in vivo of P. falciparum oocysts and sporozoites is demonstrable by dissection of the mosquito midgut and salivary glands, respectively.
Book Review —Immunology of Infectious Diseases
Andrew Taylor-Robinson
The Scientific World Journal , 2002, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2002.807
Abstract:
Cosmic string formation and the power spectrum of field configurations
James Robinson,Andrew Yates
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.54.5211
Abstract: We examine the statistical properties of defects formed by the breaking of a U(1) symmetry when the Higgs field has a power spectrum $P(k) \propto k^n$. We find a marked dependence of the amount of infinite string on the spectral index $n$ and empirically identify an analytic form for this quantity. We also confirm that this result is robust to changes in the definition of infinite string. It is possible that this result could account for the apparent absence of infinite string in recent lattice-free simulations.
Hypothesis Testing for Topological Data Analysis
Andrew Robinson,Katharine Turner
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: Persistence homology is a vital tool for topological data analysis. Previous work has devel- oped some statistical estimators for characteristics of collections of persistence diagrams. However, tools that provide statistical inference for scenarios in which the observations are persistence diagrams are not developed. We propose the use of randomization-style null hypothesis significance tests (NHST) for these situations. We demonstrate this method to analyze a range of simulated and experimental data.
Heat-Shocking of Murine Malignant Mesothelioma Cells Enhances Their Effectiveness as an Autologous Anti-Tumour Vaccine  [PDF]
Scott Fisher, Steve Broomfield, Robbert van Der Most, Richard Lake, Bruce Robinson, Andrew Currie
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.31007
Abstract: Background: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive, incurable asbestos-induced cancer for which treatment options are limited. Surgical resection can reduce tumour burden, but patients ultimately succumb to disease due to reoccurrence of unresectable tumour, highlighting the need for new treatment modalities. In this study we describe the use of an easily translatable heat shock (HS) treated autologous tumour lysate vaccine and discus its potential application as an adjunct therapy for treating MM. Methods: Heat shocked autologous tumour lysate (HSL) vaccine was generated from AE17sOVA mesothelioma cells and tested for its ability to act as a protective or therapeutic vaccine in a murine tumour model. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by tumour growth/survival of vaccinated mice and FACS analysis used to assess DC maturation and trafficking from vaccine site to draining lymphnodes (dLN). Results: Mice vaccinated prior to tumour challenge with HS lysate induced protection in 40% of mice and caused a significant delay in tumour progression in remaining mice. Vaccine dose-response experiments showed that HS lysate was at least a log more efficient at retarding tumour growth and promoting survival than untreated lysate. HS and untreated lysate were equally effective at maturating DCs, but HS lysate improved trafficking of vaccine-site DCs to draining lymph nodes (dLN). Direct intratumoural injection of HS lysate significantly delayed tumour progression. Conclusions: HS treatment of tumour lysate improved vaccine immunogenicity, was associated with DC maturation, increased DC trafficking to dLNs and delayed tumour growth, particularly when administered intratumourally. Heat shocking autologous tumour cells is a simple and easily translatable approach to generate an immunogenic lysate vaccine with significant prophylactic and therapeutic effects. Coupling intratumoural HS vaccines with conventional therapies such as surgery may improve patient responses for otherwise refractive tumours.
Promiscuity and preferences of metallothioneins: the cell rules
Andrew W Foster, Nigel J Robinson
BMC Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-9-25
Abstract: See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/9/4 webciteMetals are essential to the structure and function of many proteins, from DNA-binding zinc fingers to respiratory proteins that require iron or copper. It has been estimated that nearly half of all enzymes are metalloproteins [1], although vast numbers of metalloproteins may remain uncharacterized [2]. A fundamental question about all such proteins is what determines which metals they bind. In some cases metals are delivered to the metalloproteins by specialized metallochaperones. But for most metalloproteins, a critical factor is thought to be the availability of the appropriate metal species in the buffered pools in the cell. These vital buffered metal pools need to be somehow measured.Metallothionein proteins provide cysteine thiolate ligands for metals and constitute a part of the metal-buffer in cells, both for storing biologically important metals and for sequestering toxic ones. These proteins usually show similar preferences to each other in the metals that they bind. In a recent paper in BMC Biology, Dallinger and colleagues (Palacios et al. [3]) report investigations on two metallothionein isoforms of snails that, despite having an identical number and arrangement of cysteine residues, seem to differ in their choice of copper or cadmium. The authors conclude that a high degree of metal selectivity is conferred by the inherent properties of the proteins.The two metallothionein isoforms studied by Palacios et al. [3] are HpCuMT and HpCdMT from the Roman snail Helix pomatia. HpCuMT is constitutively expressed in snails in a specialized molluscan cell type, the rhogocyte, which is the site of synthesis of the copper protein hemocyanin [3]. As its name suggests, HpCuMT has always been recovered from the snail tissue as a homometallic copper protein. In contrast, HpCdMT is induced in many cell types in snails exposed to cadmium, and is recovered as a homometallic cadmium protein.To find out
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