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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 244823 matches for " Andrew R. Scott "
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The Versatility of Acellular Fetal Bovine Dermal Matrix for Head and Neck Surgical Reconstruction in Children  [PDF]
Jeremiah C. Tracy, William S. Kim, Andrew R. Scott
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.518143
Abstract: Objectives: To describe the versatility of acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix as an alternative to human cadaveric allograft for head and neck reconstructive procedures in children. Study Design: Case series with chart review. Methods: A database of pediatric operative procedures was queried for the use of acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix over a 16-month period. Indications for reconstruction were assessed and initial parental and surgeon satisfaction with the product were noted. Results: During the time period of 3/2012 and 7/2013 a total of 8 reconstructive procedures were performed on pediatric patients using acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix. Indications for use varied and included open and transnasal endoscopic repair of encephaloceles and soft tissue reconstructions including lateral pharyngeal wall repair, cleft palate repair, and facial recontouring operations. Acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix had a subjectively increased ease of use as compared to the surgeon’s prior experience with human cadaveric acellular dermis. Every parent vocalized a greater comfort level with the use of a bovine product over the alternative of human cadaveric tissue. The cost of acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix is slightly lower than the cost of human cadaveric acellular dermis. Conclusions: Acellular fetal bovine dermal matrix appears to be an acceptable alternative to human cadaveric acellular dermis for various forms of head and neck soft tissue reconstruction in children. Further prospective studies are warranted to assess for any differences in the long-term efficacy of this product as compared to other forms of allograft reconstruction.
Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on LIBS Spectra
Andrew J. Effenberger,Jill R. Scott
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s100504907
Abstract: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is typically performed at ambient Earth atmospheric conditions. However, interest in LIBS in other atmospheric conditions has increased in recent years, especially for use in space exploration (e.g., Mars and Lunar) or to improve resolution for isotopic signatures. This review focuses on what has been reported about the performance of LIBS in reduced pressure environments as well as in various gases other than air.
Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Predictions for the Planck Surveyor Satellite using the Hubble Volume Simulations
Scott T Kay,Andrew R Liddle,Peter A Thomas
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04525.x
Abstract: We use the billion-particle Hubble Volume simulations to make statistical predictions for the distribution of galaxy clusters that will be observed by the Planck Surveyor satellite through their effect on the cosmic microwave background -- the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. We utilize the lightcone datasets for both critical density (tauCDM) and flat low-density (LambdaCDM) cosmologies: a `full-sky' survey out to $z \sim 0.5$, two `octant' datasets out to beyond $z=1$ and a 100 square degree dataset extending to $z \sim 4$. Making simple, but robust, assumptions regarding both the thermodynamic state of the gas and the detection of objects against an unresolved background, we present the expected number of SZ sources as a function of redshift and angular size, and also by flux (for both the thermal and kinetic effects) for 3 of the relevant HFI frequency channels. We confirm the expectation that Planck will detect around $5\times 10^4$ clusters, though the exact number is sensitive to the choice of several parameters including the baryon fraction, and also to the cluster density profile, so that either cosmology may predict more clusters. We also find that the majority of detected sources should be at $z<1.5$, and we estimate that around one per cent of clusters will be spatially resolved by Planck, though this has a large uncertainty.
Accounting for Baryons in Cosmological Constraints from Cosmic Shear
Andrew R. Zentner,Elisabetta Semboloni,Scott Dodelson,Tim Eifler,Elisabeth Krause,Andrew P. Hearin
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.043509
Abstract: One of the most pernicious theoretical systematics facing upcoming gravitational lensing surveys is the uncertainty introduced by the effects of baryons on the power spectrum of the convergence field. One method that has been proposed to account for these effects is to allow several additional parameters (that characterize dark matter halos) to vary and to fit lensing data to these halo parameters concurrently with the standard set of cosmological parameters. We test this method. In particular, we use this technique to model convergence power spectrum predictions from a set of cosmological simulations. We estimate biases in dark energy equation of state parameters that would be incurred if one were to fit the spectra predicted by the simulations either with no model for baryons, or with the proposed method. We show that neglecting baryonic effect leads to biases in dark energy parameters that are several times the statistical errors for a survey like the Dark Energy Survey. The proposed method to correct for baryonic effects renders the residual biases in dark energy equation of state parameters smaller than the statistical errors. These results suggest that this mitigation method may be applied to analyze convergence spectra from a survey like the Dark Energy Survey. For significantly larger surveys, such as will be carried out by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, the biases introduced by baryonic effects are much more significant. We show that this mitigation technique significantly reduces the biases for such larger surveys, but that a more effective mitigation strategy will need to be developed in order ensure that the residual biases in these surveys fall below the statistical errors.
EU Parliament vote on genetic modification
Andrew Scott
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030703-02
Abstract: The proposals are being presented by the European Commission as the latest step in building a clear regulatory system to allow new approvals for the import and production of GM crops and foods. They would impose strict labeling and traceability requirements. All foods containing more that 0.9% GM ingredients would have to declare the use of GM materials on the label. To ensure the traceability of GM materials, business operators using or handling GM products will be required to transmit and retain information at each stage between production and placing of products on the market. So systems will need to be devised to identify to whom and from whom GM products are made available.The European Commission says the proposals "will ensure full traceability of GMOs throughout the chain from farm to table and will provide consumers with comprehensive information by labeling all food and feed consisting of, containing or produced from a GMO." Such requirements have in the past been criticized as unnecessary and likely to deter consumers from buying foods containing GM ingredients and hence deter producers from manufacturing them.There has been a de facto moratorium on new GMO approvals in Europe since mid-1998. This issue is at the center of a trade dispute between the European Union and the United States and some other countries, who have taken their complaint to the World Trade Organization for resolution."Today's vote is a very important step forward towards full implementation of the EU legislation on GMOs," said European Environment Commissioner Margot Wallstr?m in a statement. "It will reinforce our international credibility and will certainly help in building public confidence in new technologies."The proposals must now be confirmed by the European Council, and the de facto moratorium will only be lifted for certain when specific new GM approvals are given the go ahead. The moratorium arose when certain member countries of the European Union vetoed such approvals, as
The human genome on a chip
Andrew Scott
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20031003-01
Abstract: The chip, from gene technology firm Affymetrix, is about the size of a dime and carries over 1 million oligonucleotide probes, allowing analysis of the expression of nearly 50,000 RNA transcripts from the 30,000 or so genes in the human genome."The 'Human Plus' array represents a leap in array technology data capacity," said Trevor J. Nicholls, chief commercial officer at Affymetrix, in the Affymetrix press release."The idea of probing the human genome's expressed genes on a single chip is an exciting concept," Larry Thompson, spokesman for the US National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), told us. He added: "The announcement of Affymetrix's new chip appears to be an important step toward that goal, but NHGRI is unable to comment on it until scientists have had an opportunity to work with the chip and observe its capabilities."The powerful symbolism of analyzing the entire human genome on a single chip is undoubted. The practical advantages may be less dramatic but are still significant. "Before they had the genome on a couple of chips, but now they've got it on one chip, it does make things easier." Andrew Dearlove of the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) told us. He referred to the key advantages of savings in time and cost.The MRC offer gene analysis services using a variety of such chips. On October 1, MRC geneservice announced its own latest step forward, using another new Affymetrix chip to improve their gene mapping service. Overall, these developments are "bringing the researcher closer to finding their gene," Dearlove said.The Affymetrix gene expression chip will soon be challenged in the marketplace by similar whole human genome chips being developed by other companies, including Applied Biosystems and Agilent Technologies."We are on track to commercialize our product by the end of the year," Lori Murray of Applied Biosystems told us. Commenting on the forthcoming battle for market share, she said: "What's most important is the quality of data and t
Bioinformatics network cheered
Andrew Scott
Genome Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20040216-02
Abstract: "This helps to meet the world's scientific need for coordinated efforts in bioinformatics and computational biology," Eric Jakobsson, director of the Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology at the US National Institute of General Medical Sciences, told us.The European Commission has awarded €12 million ($15.4 million) to allow 24 bioinformatics groups in 14 countries to form a pan-European 'BioSapiens Network of Excellence in Bioinformatics'. The network will create a virtual institute for research on genome annotation, the process in which information from gene and protein databases is extracted, analyzed, and interpreted. The network will also set up a European school for training in bioinformatics."Research bioinformaticians developing new methods are in their own labs scattered around Europe, [and] the best methods for different aspects tend to be developed in different laboratories," Janet Thornton, director of the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and coordinator of the BioSapiens network, told us. "Getting the best methods applied to particular genes is quite difficult. The idea is to bring the laboratories and methods together, so that by submitting one query over the Web, you can get back all the best information from all the laboratories at the same time."The EBI manages some of the world's major bioinformatics databases, holding protein and DNA sequences and gene structure and expression data. "We feel it is very important to involve those data resources in the BioSapiens network," Thornton explained. A specialized software system will integrate the information in the existing databases with the research work of the network.Although a European initiative, the output of the BioSapiens network will be freely available to researchers worldwide. This is typical of what Thornton described as an excellent system of global data sharing in this field. That sentiment is echoed by Eric Jakobsson, who said, "I regard the work of BioSapiens and of o
European Research Council doubts
Andrew Scott
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20040123-01
Abstract: An expert group reporting to the European Council of Ministers recently recommended that the ERC be set up within the budget of the next European Commission (EC) Framework Programme, the main source of centralized European research funding. This is generating worries that the ERC will become entangled in EC bureaucracy and politics.Chris Leaver, vice chairman and chairman-elect of the UK Biochemical Society told us he was seriously troubled by the plans due to the way the existing Framework Programme is run. He believes many scientists across Europe feel the same way."If the ERC is run along the same lines as the Framework Programme, it will be a complete disaster and nobody will sign up to it," he said. "One senses there is a lack of scientific coordination and planning within the EC itself."Leaver's comments were made in the light of a report from the UK Royal Society, which described current developments to set up an ERC as premature. The Royal Society called for a rigorous analysis of how science is funded in the EU member states before a decision is taken establishing the ERC.The report warns: "Without a significant improvement in the information available across the European Union, central policy at best will be difficult to develop and at worse the decisions taken may be counter-productive.""Different people have different expectations of what an ERC would deliver, and that's very muddling," Julia Higgins, vice president of the Royal Society, told us. "There is just not clarity of thinking yet, about exactly how you would do it and how you would fund it."Higgins accepts that if European Commission money is to support the ERC, then the commission must be involved in administering it. "The Royal Society would not say the commission must not run it, but we would say if it is going to, it cannot be run like the previous Framework Programmes," said Higgins. The key issue for Higgins is that ERC grants would need to be distributed solely on the basis of scientific
A Focused and Efficient Genetic Screening Strategy in the Mouse: Identification of Mutations That Disrupt Cortical Development
Konstantinos Zarbalis,Scott R. May,Yiguo Shen,Marc Ekker,John L. R. Rubenstein,Andrew S. Peterson
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020219
Abstract: Although the mechanisms that regulate development of the cerebral cortex have begun to emerge, in large part through the analysis of mutant mice (Boncinelli et al. 2000; Molnar and Hannan 2000; Walsh and Goffinet 2000), many questions remain unanswered. To provide resources for further dissecting cortical development, we have carried out a focused screen for recessive mutations that disrupt cortical development. One aim of the screen was to identify mutants that disrupt the tangential migration of interneurons into the cortex. At the same time, we also screened for mutations that altered the growth or morphology of the cerebral cortex. We report here the identification of thirteen mutants with defects in aspects of cortical development ranging from the establishment of epithelial polarity to the invasion of thalamocortical axons. Among the collection are three novel alleles of genes for which mutant alleles had already been used to explore forebrain development, and four mutants with defects in interneuron migration. The mutants that we describe here will aid in deciphering the molecules and mechanisms that regulate cortical development. Our results also highlight the utility of focused screens in the mouse, in addition to the large-scale and broadly targeted screens that are being carried out at mutagenesis centers.
美国圣胡安盆地的次生生物成因和热成因煤层气
Andrew R.Scott,W.R.Kaiser,Walter B.AyersJr,吴新年
天然气地球科学 , 1997,
Abstract: 描述了圣胡安盆地次生生物成因煤层气和热成因煤层气(Thermogenicgases)的生成,运移和聚集成藏过程以及这两种气体的主要组成部分,分析了影响这两种煤气产能的主导因素。
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