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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 224118 matches for " Andrew P. Smith "
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Positive Well-Being and Work-Life Balance among UK Railway Staff  [PDF]
Jialin Fan, Andrew P. Smith
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.56001
Failure to manage the well-being and work-life balance of railway workers may result in an increased risk to train safety and employees’ health. This article reports the findings of a study that measured positive well-being and work-life balance, and identified the factors affecting these among UK railway staff. On the whole, staff who perceived high levels of control and support had a better work-life balance and an increased sense of well-being. A positive personality was associated with positive well-being both at work and outside of work.
The Mediating Effect of Fatigue on Work-Life Balance and Positive Well-Being in Railway Staff  [PDF]
Jialin Fan, Andrew P. Smith
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.66001
Both fatigue and negative work-life balance can be influenced by job characteristics and individual differences, while fatigue is associated with reduced positive well-being. This paper reports a study that investigated the mediation effect of fatigue between those stressors and well-being outcomes among UK railway staff. A large number of significant mediation effects of fatigue were found in this study, and as a result, the process by which job demands, job support and control influence major positive well-being outcomes can be partially explained by fatigue.
Nationality, Ethnicity and the Well-Being Process in Occupational Samples  [PDF]
Omolaso Omosehin, Andrew P. Smith
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.75011
Well-being has been defined as optimal functioning and experience. In order to get a balanced picture of an individual’s well-being, approaches that integrate both its positive and negative aspects have been suggested. One framework that allows for this integrated approach to well-being is the Demands-Resources Individual Effects (DRIVE) model. The current study was a cross-cultural study of 316 adults in paid employment from three distinct cultural backgrounds: White British, Ethnic Minorities (in the United Kingdom) and Nigerian. The aims of the study were to confirm the established effects of the DRIVE model and to investigate if cultural/ethnic background accounted for any differences in well-being across the three groups. The findings show that the established effects were observed in all groups. This suggests that cultural/ethnic background does not have much effect on well-being outcomes when controlling for established psychosocial predictors such as personality, job characteristics, social support and negative coping. These results support an objective well-being process rather than subjective well-being, which may be defined by a person’s culture.
Using Single-Item Measures to Examine the Relationships between Work, Personality, and Well-Being in the Workplace  [PDF]
Gary M. Williams, Andrew P. Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76078

Measuring the well-being of employees through questionnaire measures can give a useful indication of the positive or negative mental health of a workforce along with their satisfaction with their circumstances. Furthermore, measuring the antecedents of these outcomes provides a basis for reducing negative outcomes and promoting positive mental health and satisfaction within an organization. This endeavour can quickly become impractical, however, as taking into account the range of possible environmental or personal factors, can lead to a lengthy and burdensome measurement tool. The current paper examines the use of single-items for this purpose, demonstrating that single-item measures of work-related and personality factors exhibit relationships with each other and with outcomes that the literature on well-being predicts. Using multiple-regression analysis, the results show that work related factors such as control and reward provide significant predictors of well-being outcomes including job satisfaction, while personality factors such as self-esteem and self-efficacy are significant predictors of all outcome measures. Furthermore, variations in the relationships with specific outcomes and interaction effects are found. The results suggest that using single-item measures may provide a valid approach to investigating well-being in the workplace in circumstances that may require very brief scales.

Stress and Well-Being of University Staff: An Investigation Using the Demands-Resources-Individual Effects (DRIVE) Model and Well-Being Process Questionnaire (WPQ)  [PDF]
Gary Williams, Kai Thomas, Andrew P. Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.812124
Abstract: Research suggests that university staff have high stress levels but less is known about the well-being of this group. The present study used an adapted version of the Demands-Resources-Individual Effects (DRIVE) model to investigate these topics. It also used the Well-Being Process Questionnaire (WPQ) which consists of single items derived from longer scales. One hundred and twenty university staff participated in an online survey. The single items had good concurrent validity and estimated reliability. Factor analyses showed that single items and the longer scales loaded on the same factor. Work characteristics could be sub-divided into two factors (resources and demands), as could personality (positive personality and openness/agreeable/conscientious), coping (positive and negative coping) and outcomes (positive well-being and negative outcomes such as stress and anxiety). Results from regressions showed that positive well-being was predicted by positive personality and positive coping. Negative outcomes were predicted by job demands and negative coping. Overall, the study has demonstrated the utility of the adapted DRIVE model and shown that a short single item measuring instrument can quickly capture a wide range of job and psychosocial characteristics.
Behavioral Effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses: A Consideration of Possible Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms
Andrew P. Smith
Behavioral Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/bs2010038
Abstract: Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47) had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54). Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility) or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these?effects.
The Student Well-Being Process Questionnaire (Student WPQ)  [PDF]
Gary M. Williams, Hannah Pendlebury, Kai Thomas, Andrew P. Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.811115
Abstract: Recent research has used short questionnaires based on single item versions of psychosocial concepts to assess well-being. This has largely been confined to occupational samples and the present article describes the extension of this process to university students. The Student Well-being Process Questionnaire (Student WPQ) was used to examine predictors of positive well-being, negative mental health and cognitive function. An online survey was used with 478 first and second year undergraduates as participants. Regression analyses showed that positive well-being (e.g. happiness, positive affect and life satisfaction) was predicted by positive personality (high optimism, self-esteem and self-efficacy), high social support and low stressors and low negative coping scores. Negative outcomes (e.g. perceived stress, anxiety and depression) were predicted by high stressor, coping and conscientiousness scores, and low positive personality and social support scores. Cognitive problems were predicted by high stressor and negative coping scores and low positive personality scores. A MANOVA showed that there were no significant interactions between the predictor variables. The best predictor of all outcomes was a combined score including all predictor variables. Overall, the present study shows that the Student WPQ can provide useful information on predictors of different aspects of well-being. Future research can include additional potential predictors and other outcomes to determine whether other factors are significant when established predictors are adjusted for.
Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress
Katherine Chaplin,Andrew P. Smith
Nutrients , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/nu3050515
Abstract: One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit) provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits). A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal) was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.
An International Survey of the Wellbeing of Employees in the Business Process Outsourcing Industry  [PDF]
Andrew Smith, Hugo Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.81010
Abstract: The project described in this article was part of a larger program on wellbeing at work and involved an international survey of staff in the business process outsourcing industry. The survey used the Smith Wellbeing Questionnaire (SWELL) and the results showed that this measured both positive and negative aspects of wellbeing. The sample reported high levels of stress which was predicted by job demands and lack of control and support. High levels of control/support were associated with greater job satisfaction.
Primary healthcare provision and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: a survey of patients' and General Practitioners' beliefs
Marie A Thomas, Andrew P Smith
BMC Family Practice , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-6-49
Abstract: 197 survey booklets were sent to CFS sufferers from an existing research panel. The patients approached for the purpose of the study had been recruited onto the panel following diagnosis of their illness at a specialised CFS outpatient clinic in South Wales. A further 120 booklets were sent to GP surgeries in the Gwent Health Authority region in Wales.Results from the study indicate that the level of specialist knowledge of CFS in primary care remains low. Only half the GP respondents believed that the condition actually exists.Steps are recommended to increase the knowledge base by compiling helpful and informative material for GPs and patient groups.A patient with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is described as one suffering unrelenting, debilitating fatigue (for a period of six months or more) which is unresolved by rest. This fatigue is not the result of normal physical activity and can cause both mental and physical impairment to the sufferer. Furthermore, the fatigue experienced is not as a result of an ongoing medical condition. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome remains a poorly understood condition and still poses problems in terms of causality, diagnosis and management for clinicians and researchers alike [1]. The myriad symptoms of the syndrome also present major diagnostic problems for primary healthcare providers. Unfortunately, lack of specialised knowledge (within the healthcare system) and scepticism on the part of some often leads to a breakdown in trust and confidence between patient and physician. This problem was highlighted in an investigation of perceptions in patients with CFS who had been referred to a specialised clinic [2]. 68 patients completed a survey assessing their satisfaction with the medical care offered at the clinic. Two-thirds of the sample expressed feeling dissatisfied with the quality of care received during their illness. Furthermore, these patients were more likely to describe delay, dispute or confusion over diagnosis. Many of these s
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