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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 216216 matches for " Andrew P. Negri "
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Water Contamination Reduces the Tolerance of Coral Larvae to Thermal Stress
Andrew P. Negri,Mia O. Hoogenboom
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019703
Abstract: Coral reefs are highly susceptible to climate change, with elevated sea surface temperatures (SST) posing one of the main threats to coral survival. Successful recruitment of new colonies is important for the recovery of degraded reefs following mortality events. Coral larvae require relatively uncontaminated substratum on which to metamorphose into sessile polyps, and the increasing pollution of coastal waters therefore constitutes an additional threat to reef resilience. Here we develop and analyse a model of larval metamorphosis success for two common coral species to quantify the interactive effects of water pollution (copper contamination) and SST. We identify thresholds of temperature and pollution that prevent larval metamorphosis, and evaluate synergistic interactions between these stressors. Our analyses show that halving the concentration of Cu can protect corals from the negative effects of a 2–3°C increase in SST. These results demonstrate that effective mitigation of local impacts can reduce negative effects of global stressors.
Crustose Coralline Algae and a Cnidarian Neuropeptide Trigger Larval Settlement in Two Coral Reef Sponges
Steve Whalan, Nicole S. Webster, Andrew P. Negri
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030386
Abstract: In sessile marine invertebrates, larval settlement is fundamental to population maintenance and persistence. Cues contributing to the settlement choices and metamorphosis of larvae have important implications for the success of individuals and populations, but cues mediating larval settlement for many marine invertebrates are largely unknown. This study assessed larval settlement in two common Great Barrier Reef sponges, Coscinoderma matthewsi and Rhopaloeides odorabile, to cues that enhance settlement and metamorphosis in various species of scleractinian coral larvae. Methanol extracts of the crustose coralline algae (CCA), Porolithon onkodes, corresponding to a range of concentrations, were used to determine the settlement responses of sponge larvae. Cnidarian neuropeptides (GLW-amide neuropeptides) were also tested as a settlement cue. Settlement in both sponge species was approximately two-fold higher in response to live chips of CCA and optimum concentrations of CCA extract compared to 0.2 μm filtered sea water controls. Metamorphosis also increased when larvae were exposed to GLW-amide neuropeptides; R. odorabile mean metamorphosis reached 42.0±5.8% compared to 16.0±2.4% in seawater controls and in C. matthewsi mean metamorphosis reached 68.3±5.4% compared to 36.7±3.3% in seawater controls. These results demonstrate the contributing role chemosensory communication plays in the ability of sponge larvae to identify suitable habitat for successful recruitment. It also raises the possibility that larvae from distinct phyla may share signal transduction pathways involved in metamorphosis.
Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses
Florita Flores, Catherine J. Collier, Philip Mercurio, Andrew P. Negri
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075798
Abstract: Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zostera muelleri and Halodule uninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (?F/Fm′), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows of the GBR from further decline.
Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts
Florita Flores, Mia O. Hoogenboom, Luke D. Smith, Timothy F. Cooper, David Abrego, Andrew P. Negri
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037795
Abstract: Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l?1 TSS (25 mg cm?2 day?1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l?1 TSS (83 mg cm?2 day?1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue.
Additive Pressures of Elevated Sea Surface Temperatures and Herbicides on Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera
Joost W. van Dam, Andrew P. Negri, Jochen F. Mueller, Rolf Altenburger, Sven Uthicke
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033900
Abstract: Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte) of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F′m), while elevated temperatures (>30°C, only 2°C above current average summer temperatures) were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced Fv/Fm and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥1 μg L?1). The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA) described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures.
Induction of Larval Metamorphosis of the Coral Acropora millepora by Tetrabromopyrrole Isolated from a Pseudoalteromonas Bacterium
Jan Tebben,Dianne M. Tapiolas,Cherie A. Motti,David Abrego,Andrew P. Negri,Linda L. Blackall,Peter D. Steinberg,Tilmann Harder
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019082
Abstract: The induction of larval attachment and metamorphosis of benthic marine invertebrates is widely considered to rely on habitat specific cues. While microbial biofilms on marine hard substrates have received considerable attention as specific signals for a wide and phylogenetically diverse array of marine invertebrates, the presumed chemical settlement signals produced by the bacteria have to date not been characterized. Here we isolated and fully characterized the first chemical signal from bacteria that induced larval metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae (Acropora millepora). The metamorphic cue was identified as tetrabromopyrrole (TBP) in four bacterial Pseudoalteromonas strains among a culture library of 225 isolates obtained from the crustose coralline algae Neogoniolithon fosliei and Hydrolithon onkodes. Coral planulae transformed into fully developed polyps within 6 h, but only a small proportion of these polyps attached to the substratum. The biofilm cell density of the four bacterial strains had no influence on the ratio of attached vs. non-attached polyps. Larval bioassays with ethanolic extracts of the bacterial isolates, as well as synthetic TBP resulted in consistent responses of coral planulae to various doses of TBP. The lowest bacterial density of one of the Pseudoalteromonas strains which induced metamorphosis was 7,000 cells mm?2 in laboratory assays, which is on the order of 0.1 –1% of the total numbers of bacteria typically found on such surfaces. These results, in which an actual cue from bacteria has been characterized for the first time, contribute significantly towards understanding the complex process of acroporid coral larval settlement mediated through epibiotic microbial biofilms on crustose coralline algae.
The management of chronic pain in rheumatic diseases
P. De Negri,T. Tirri,P. Modano,R. Amodio
Pathos : Trimestrale di Algologia , 2010,
Abstract: Rheumatic diseases are a group of pathologies that usually affectthe joints or adjacent anatomical structures or functionally related such as bones, muscles, tendons, bursa, fascia, ligaments, and whose main symptom is the pain. Optimal pain control is a prerequisite for successful therapy of many rheumatic diseases. Many patients may present many difficulties in terms of pain relief and therefore must be addressed at an appropriate pain treatment center.
Tissue engineering: chondrocyte cultures on type I collagen support. Cytohistological and immunohistochemical study
S. Negri,S. Farinato,A. Bellomi,C. Fila,P. Pagliaro
Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s10195-007-0169-6
Abstract: Cartilaginous tissue has limited capacity for regeneration after damage, since the natural repair process leads to the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue which does not have the resistance and capability of deformation under load, typical of hyaline cartilage which covers the articular surfaces. The possibility of transplanting human chondrocytes for cartilage reconstruction has been demonstrated in orthopaedics. The scope of our study was to evaluate the possibility of cultivating and expanding human chondrocytes seeded on a pure equine type I collagen support. Human articular cartilaginous cells multiplied and grew on a type I collagen substrate with production of extracellular matrix. This chondrocyte culture showed a correct morphology and phenotype as shown by alcian-PAS staining to indicate the presence of mucopolysaccharides and by immunohistochemical methods to identify type II collagen. The use of scaffolds may lead to improvement in the surgical technique, by making it possible to hold the cells physically in the area to be repaired and by allowing optimum spatial adaptation inside injuries of all shapes.
Paleoecological interpretation of a Holocene sand body in the coastal area of Phetchaburi, Gulf of Thailand
Elio Robba,Mauro P. Negri,Italo Di Geronimo,Niran Chaimanee
Museologia Scientifica e Naturalistica , 2005,
Abstract: Faunal examination is made of 4 samples, 2 from the Recent Ban Laem Phak Bia sand spit, and 2 from the Holocene sand body of Ban Bang Ket. Fossil and modern assemblages are compared on the basis of overall composition, taxa abundances, and of autoecological investigation on life habit, substrate preference, feeding type, depth range and ecological meaning of the identified species. The Holocene assemblage of Ban Bang Ket, compared to the Recent one of Ban Laem Phak Bia, 1) exhibits generally similar overall composition and ecological structure, 2) contains much of the dominant species characterizing the modern assemblage, and 3)includes all taxa that are members of the living molluscan community. On this basis, the molluscan assemblage of Ban Bang Ket results to be the Holocene counterpart of the modern one of Ban Laem Phak Bia, and reflects the same environmental conditions recorded for the latter. Thus, the sand body near Ban Bang Ket is interpreted as a Holocene equivalent of the sand spit of Ban Laem Phak Bia.
Does the use of playback affect the estimated numbers of red–legged partridge Alectoris rufa?
Tizzani, P.,Negri, E.,Silvano, F.,Malacarne, G.
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation , 2012,
Abstract: The red–legged partridge Alectoris rufa lives in a situation of potential conservation risk for its long–term preservation in Italy as its habitat is increasingly threatened by the disappearance of traditional agriculture–related environments. In such a situation, it is important to use effective and appropriate monitoring methods to assess population changes over time and to identify potential conservation threats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the playback method to estimate the density of calling males. We compared playback method with spontaneous calling of males at dawn and direct observations along transects. The results on raw count data of playback counts revealed a strong underestimation rate compared to the method that gave the best results: count of spontaneous calls at dawn. Our study provides a critical evaluation of a method that is widely used even though data about its effectiveness are scarce. Our data do not evaluate detection probability of the three methods. Our aim was only to evaluate which methods give the best results in term of population size estimation under the same field condition (same population density, same period, same monitoring area). The results raise some doubts about the ability of the playback method to monitor red–legged partridge populations. The implications of our results for red–legged population management are discussed.
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