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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23571 matches for " Andrew Anthony Adjei "
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Soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Expression in Pregnancy Success and Early Pregnancy Loss in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital  [PDF]
Abdul-Rahman Mubarak, Irene Sitsofe Blebu, Kareem Mumuni, Yao Tettey, Richard Kwasi Gyasi, Andrew Anthony Adjei, Michael Ofori
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2016.61001
Abstract: Introduction: Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib antigen characterized by a limited polymorphism. The expression of HLA-G at immune privileged sites and its ability to inhibit the effectors functions of immune cells has set HLA-G as a molecule of immune tolerance. This expression pattern is unique among HLA genes and suggests that HLA-G may be involved in interactions that are critical in establishing and/or maintaining pregnancy. Methods: Soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels were measured using a BioVendor sHLA-G ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s protocol. The study participants include women undergoing spontaneous abortion, non-pregnant women, males and an archive sample of women who had normal vaginal deliveries without any complications and any history of malaria infection from gestation to delivery. Results: Soluble HLA-G levels were higher among women undergoing spontaneous abortion as compared to women who had normal vaginal delivery and non-pregnant women. Soluble HLA-G levels were also higher in second trimester as compared to first trimester in both women who had spontaneous abortions and women who had normal delivery. Conclusion: Although sHLA-G levels were higher among women undergoing spontaneous abortion as compared to non-pregnant women and women who had normal delivery, this may be playing a role in the maintenance of maternal immune tolerance to fetal antigen, since plasma sHLA-G levels increased with increasing trimester in both women who had normal delivery and women undergoing spontaneous abortion.
Profiles of HIV-Affected Households in Ghana  [PDF]
Amos Laar, Daniel Fiaveh, Matilda Laar, Sandra Boatemaa, James Abugri, Richard Amenyah, Kyeremeh Atuahene, Andrew Anthony Adjei, Isabella Quakyi, Angela El-Adas
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.615235
Abstract: Background: To contribute to a fuller appreciation of Ghana’s HIV epidemic, this paper presents various profiles of the Ghanaian HIV-affected household. To comprehensively tackle the HIV epidemic in Ghana, the profiles would provide stakeholders with ready information for policy formulation. Methods: We used data from a nationally representative survey that measured livelihood activities, household asset wealth, household composition, health, and nutrition variables of 1745 HIV-affected households. From these emerged various profiles. Results: About 50% of the households are headed by females. Households headed by men have an average size of three members, compared to two for female-headed households. There are far more AIDS widows than widowers. The annual death rate among the surveyed households was about 1000 per 100,000-households. Relatively more deaths occurred in male-headed households. Two-thirds of the households were asset poor. Various coping strategies were instituted by the households in reaction to threat of food insecurity. The national prevalence of chronic energy deficiency is 16%. Conclusions: Our data show that age of household head, hosting of a chronically ill member, and average size of household differed by sex of household head. The annual death rate of 1000 per 100,000 households is very high.
Cytokines and Adhesion Molecules Expression in the Brain in Human Cerebral Malaria
Henry Armah,Edwin Kwame Wiredu,Alfred Kofi Dodoo,Andrew Anthony Adjei,Yao Tettey,Richard Gyasi
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph2005010123
Abstract: Although the role of systemic proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, and their up-regulation of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin, in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) is well established, the role of local cytokine release remain unclear. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to compare the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-Selectin, IL-1β, TNF-α and TGF- β at light microscopic level in cerebral, cerebellar and brainstem postmortem cryostat sections from 10 CM, 5 severe malarial anemia (SMA), 1 purulent bacterial meningitis (PBM), 2 non-central nervous system infections (NCNSI) and 3 non-infections (NI) deaths in Ghanaian children. Fatal malaria and Salmonella sepsis showed significantly higher vascular expression of all 3 adhesion molecules, with highly significant co-localization with sequestration in the malaria cases. However, there was negligible difference between CM and SMA. TGF-β showed intravascular and perivascular distribution in all cases, but expression was most intense in the PBM case and CM group. TNF-α and IL-1β showed prominent brain parenchymal staining, in addition to intravascular and perivascular staining, in only the PBM case and CM group. The maximal expression of all 6 antigens studied was in the cerebellar sections of the malaria cases. Endothelial activation is a feature of fatal malaria and Salmonella sepsis, with adhesion molecule expression being highly correlated with sequestration. IL-1β and TNF-α are upregulated in only cases with neurodegenerative lesions, whilst TGF-β is present in all cases. Both cytokines and adhesion molecules were maximally upregulated in the cerebellar sections of the malaria cases.
Construction and Evaluation of a Combined Cyclophosphamide/Nanoparticle Anticancer Vaccine  [PDF]
Kurt Andrew Yaeger, Robert Anthony Kurt
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.23053
Abstract: Tumor immunotherapy is a rapidly emerging form of cancer treatment. In the current study, a nanoparticle-based vaccine was constructed and the efficacy was assessed through analysis of immune cell populations, tumor growth rates, and metastasis. The vaccine was fabricated through encapsulation of plasmid DNA encoding the tumor-associated antigen Mage-b, and the TLR9 agonist CpG oligodeoxynucleotides by a biodegradable polymer, poly(L,D-lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA). The size and shape of the nanoparticles suggested that they were an appropriate size for uptake by professional antigen presenting cells; dendritic cells. Furthermore, effects of the immunopotentiating drug cyclo-phosphamide was included to decrease systemic populations of regulatory T cells (Treg); immune system sentinels that down-regulate immune responses. The vaccine was assessed using the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model which is a model for stage IV breast cancer. The combined cyclophosphamide/nanoparticle vaccine was shown to significantly reduce 4T1 tumor growth rates and lung metastasis in female BALB/c mice.
Identification of Intrinsic Airway Acidification in Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Lina Ngamtrakulpanit,Yuanlin Yu,Andrew Adjei,George Amoah
Global Journal of Health Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v2n1p106
Abstract: Exhaled breath condensate acidification reflects the presence of airway acidification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an organism particularly sensitive to acidity. We aimed to determine if there is evidence of airway acidification in a cross section of patients with active tuberculosis. We enrolled 51 subjects with active tuberculosis in Ghana and Thailand, and compared them to control subjects. We collected exhaled breath condensate, and assayed for pH after gas standardization. Exhaled breath condensate pH from the control group revealed a median of 7.9 (7.7 - 8.0, n = 21), significantly higher than the active pulmonary tuberculosis patients who had a median pH of 7.4 (7.0 – 7.7; n = 51; p=0.002). Presence or absence of antibiotic therapy did not affect EBC pH values. These exhaled breath condensate data support the theory that airways become acidic in active tuberculosis infection. This may be a mechanism of immune response and pathology not previously considered.
Linearization of homogeneous, nearly-isotropic cosmological models
Andrew Pontzen,Anthony Challinor
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/28/18/185007
Abstract: Homogeneous, nearly-isotropic Bianchi cosmological models are considered. Their time evolution is expressed as a complete set of non-interacting linear modes on top of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background model. This connects the extensive literature on Bianchi models with the more commonly-adopted perturbation approach to general relativistic cosmological evolution. Expressions for the relevant metric perturbations in familiar coordinate systems can be extracted straightforwardly. Amongst other possibilities, this allows for future analysis of anisotropic matter sources in a more general geometry than usually attempted. We discuss the geometric mechanisms by which maximal symmetry is broken in the context of these models, shedding light on the origin of different Bianchi types. When all relevant length-scales are super-horizon, the simplest Bianchi I models emerge (in which anisotropic quantities appear parallel transported). Finally we highlight the existence of arbitrarily long near-isotropic epochs in models of general Bianchi type (including those without an exact isotropic limit).
Empirical Modeling of Annual Fishery Landings  [PDF]
Eric Adjei Lawer
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.74018
Abstract: Forecasting plays an essential role in policy formulation and implementation especially in the management of fisheries resources. In this paper, various techniques of forecasting using time series analysis were evaluated on annual fishery production data. In addition to the Box-Jenkins approach, other methods such as the feed forward neural network and exponential smoothing approaches were also examined. A parsimonious model for each forecasting approach was then selected using penalized likelihoods. The chosen models were then evaluated based on their ability to produce accurate forecasts. Implications of the findings as discussed revealed that no particular method was ideal for modeling all landings. Hence when forecasting fishery landings, it is recommended that different structural approaches be compared before selecting an appropriate one for use.
Impacts of Changing Climate on Maize Production in the Transitional Zone of Ghana  [PDF]
Victor Adjei, Rosina Kyerematen
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2018.73028
Abstract: This study sought to assess the challenges and opportunities that come with climate change and variability impacts on maize farming in the Nkoranza South Municipality in the Transitional Zone of Ghana. The mixed method approach (qualitative and quantitative) was used in collecting the data. Rainfall data obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency (GMet) indicated that the dry cell between the major and minor rainy seasons was getting wetter and the two seasons were gradually merging whereas the first and last quarters of the year were getting drier over the last couple of decades. The situation over the last five years (2010-2015) had worsened as the amount of total rainfall had reduced by 22% compared to the 30 year period between 1960 and 1982. The results of the study showed that farmers had perceived changes in climate in the form of decreasing rainfall, rising air temperatures and seasonal changes in rainfall pattern which were affecting their maize farming operations. The major setbacks within the area were deficit in rainy days and intermittent erratic rainfall affecting maize production. The major opportunity available to farmers in the face of changing climate in this agroecological zone was cashew production. About 76.8% of the respondents had diversified into cashew farming as a result of rainfall failure and strong resistance of the cashew trees to changing and variable climate.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Syphilis Prevalence and Risk Factors among Migrant Workers in Konongo, Ghana  [PDF]
Andrew A. Adjei, James Brandful, Mark Lurie, Margaret Lartey, Francis Krampa, Awewura Kwara, Theophilus K. Adiku, Yao Tettey, Richard K. Gyasi, Aaron L. Lawson, Timothy Flanigan
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2014.43020
Abstract: Migrant workers, particularly gold mining workers, have been identified as a group at risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). A cross-sectional study was undertaken on the correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis infections in a sample of migrants (Ghanaian citizens [156] and non-Ghanaian citizens [8]) working in a gold mining centres in Konongo, Ghana. The study was conducted between the months of January 2013 to December 2013. Of a total of 600 eligible migrant workers, only 164 (27.33%; males 114, females 50) of the eligible migrants took part in the study. Subjects voluntarily completed a risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimen for testing for the presence of antibodies to HIV and Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis. These data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. The median age of the participants was 29.0 years (range 18 - 62 years). Of the 164 migrant workers tested, HIV and syphilis seroprevalence were 6.7% and 3.7% respectively. On multivariate analysis, the independent determinants for HIV infection were being female [odds ratio (OR) 2.94; 95% confidence interval (95% CI 0.86 - 10.0); unmarried (OR 10.13; 95% CI 1.2 - 81.09); drug use (OR 3.76; 95% CI 0.38 - 36.3); and blood transfusion (OR 2.45; 95% CI 0.27 - 22.37). Similarly, on multivariate analysis, the independent determinants for syphilis infection were having concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.16; 95% CI 0.38 - 12.12); and blood transfusion (OR 5.07; 95% CI 0.51 - 50.37). Consistent with similar studies worldwide, our results suggest high prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections among migrant workers who work in gold mining centres in Ghana.
Surgical Knot Strength in Continuous Wound Closures  [PDF]
Anthony Nigliazzo, Rodrigo Arrangoiz, Richard Hutchison, Marc Basson, Andrew Saxe
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.24043
Abstract: Background: Forces applied to knots used for interrupted vs. continuous closures are very different. We studied the knot strength and knot security of three knots when simulating a continuous wound closure: the square, the sliding, and a hybrid constructed using a surgeon’s square knot followed by a sliding knot. Mate-rials and Methods: Knot holding capacity (KHC) of single-strand 1-0 polypropylene was determined by slow distraction on a horizontal testing sled of the strand that would be used to complete a continuous (“running”) closure following placement of an anchoring knot with six throws. Distraction continued until failure of the knot defined as breakage or slippage of the knot. Results: The mean and standard deviation of KHC meas-ured in pounds was determined (n = 30 for each knot): standard square 8.94 +/– 1.04; sliding 10.72 +/– 1.35; and hybrid 10.95 +/– 1.10. For each knot the relative knot security [(KHC of the knot/Tensile strength of untied strand) x 100] was calculated: standard square 69.5%; sliding 83.4%; hybrid 85.2%. Significant dif-ferences (p < 0.0001) in KHC exist between square and sliding knots (favoring sliding knots) and between square and hybrid knots (favoring hybrid knots). Hybrid and sliding knots were not statistically different. Conclusion: Sliding knots and hybrid knots are superior to square knots as anchoring knots for single-strand continuous wound closure.
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