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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14049 matches for " Andrea Marella "
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Amplification of Asynchronous Inhibition-Mediated Synchronization by Feedback in Recurrent Networks
Sashi Marella,Bard Ermentrout
PLOS Computational Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000679
Abstract: Synchronization of 30–80 Hz oscillatory activity of the principle neurons in the olfactory bulb (mitral cells) is believed to be important for odor discrimination. Previous theoretical studies of these fast rhythms in other brain areas have proposed that principle neuron synchrony can be mediated by short-latency, rapidly decaying inhibition. This phasic inhibition provides a narrow time window for the principle neurons to fire, thus promoting synchrony. However, in the olfactory bulb, the inhibitory granule cells produce long lasting, small amplitude, asynchronous and aperiodic inhibitory input and thus the narrow time window that is required to synchronize spiking does not exist. Instead, it has been suggested that correlated output of the granule cells could serve to synchronize uncoupled mitral cells through a mechanism called “stochastic synchronization”, wherein the synchronization arises through correlation of inputs to two neural oscillators. Almost all work on synchrony due to correlations presumes that the correlation is imposed and fixed. Building on theory and experiments that we and others have developed, we show that increased synchrony in the mitral cells could produce an increase in granule cell activity for those granule cells that share a synchronous group of mitral cells. Common granule cell input increases the input correlation to the mitral cells and hence their synchrony by providing a positive feedback loop in correlation. Thus we demonstrate the emergence and temporal evolution of input correlation in recurrent networks with feedback. We explore several theoretical models of this idea, ranging from spiking models to an analytically tractable model.
Drake, David, Sartre and Bernasconi, Robert, How to Read Sartre
Marella Ada Mancenido
Kritike : an Online Journal of Philosophy , 2008,
Abstract:
Variant of takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with sepsis and respiratory failure in an elderly female  [PDF]
Punnaiah Marella, Shantipriya Siripurapu, Hassan Hussein, Rajeev Garg
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.31003
Abstract:

Stress induced cardiomyopathy/Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TSO CMO) has been widely reported. It is characterized by apical hypokinesis or akinesis. Variants of this called as inverted/reverse cardiomyopathies have been reported and are characterized by basal hypokinesis/akinesis and hypercontractility of apex. These are more common in younger population. We present an elderly female who had a variant cardiomyopathy in association with sepsis and respiratory failure and this has been rarely reported. An 84 year old female presented with cough, dyspnea and fevers. She was treated for pneumonia but her respiratory failure worsened and she suffered a non ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization revealed normal coronaries but ejection fraction was low at 25% with basal hypokinesis and a hyperkinetic apex. She improved with diuresis and medical management of a variant of stress induced cardiomyopathy. Stress induced cardiomyopathies and its variants are reversible conditions and improve with conservative management. These entities should be kept in mind during investigation of any acute myocardial infarction.

Adiponectin, diabetes and ischemic heart failure: a challenging relationship
Samuele Baldasseroni, Alessandro Antenore, Claudia Di Serio, Francesco Orso, Giuseppe Lonetto, Nadia Bartoli, Alice Foschini, Andrea Marella, Alessandra Pratesi, Salvatore Scarantino, Stefano Fumagalli, Matteo Monami, Edoardo Mannucci, Niccolò Marchionni, Francesca Tarantini
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-151
Abstract: We evaluated the level of adiponectin in patients with ischemic HF, with and without type 2 diabetes, to elucidate whether the metabolic syndrome was able to influence the relationship between AD and HF.We demonstrated that AD rises in patients with advanced HF, but to a lesser extent in diabetics than in non-diabetics. Diabetic patients with reduced systolic performance orchestrated a slower rise of AD which began only in face of overt HF. The different behavior of AD in the presence of diabetes was not entirely explained by differences in body mass index. In addition, NT-proBNP, the second strongest predictor of AD, did not differ significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. These data indicate that some other mechanisms are involved in the regulation of AD in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.AD rises across chronic heart failure stages but this phenomenon is less evident in type 2 diabetic patients. In the presence of diabetes, the progressive increase of AD in relation to the severity of LV dysfunction is hampered and becomes evident only in overt HF.The adipose tissue should not be regarded as a simple site of lipid storage [1]; indeed it is able to secrete several peptides with hormonal properties that are involved in energy homeostasis as well as modulation of inflammation and regulation of many immunological mechanisms [2]. This heterogeneous group of hormones is named adipokines. Among these, adiponectin (AD) is by far the most abundant protein secreted by the adipose tissue [3]. Although it is produced almost exclusively by adipocytes, plasma levels of AD are found to be inversely correlated to visceral adiposity and body mass index (BMI) [3]. AD promotes peripheral insulin sensitivity [4] and inhibition of liver gluconeogenesis [5]. As a matter of fact, hypoadiponectinemia is known to be the molecular link between obesity and insulin-resistance, at the base of metabolic syndrome [2]. AD is able to predict diabetes ons
Growth and subsidence of carbonate platforms: numerical modelling and application to the Dolomites, Italy
C. Marella,R. Caputo,A. Bosellini
Annals of Geophysics , 2004, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3361
Abstract: The phenomenon of subsidence induced by the growth of carbonate platforms has been investigated with the aid of numerical modelling. The research aimed to quantify the relative contribution of this process in the creation of the accommodation space required to pile up thick neritic bodies. We analysed two end-member deformation styles, namely the elastic behaviour of the lithosphere when locally loaded and the plastic-like reaction of a sedimentary succession underlying a growing carbonate buildup. The former process, analysed using a modified flexural model, generates a regional subsidence. In contrast, the latter process, simulated by considering the compaction occurring in soft sediments, generates a local subsidence. We attempted to quantify the amount and distribution of subsidence occurring below and surrounding an isolated platform and in the adjacent basin. The major parameters playing a role in the process are discussed in detail. The model is then applied to the Late Anisian-Early Ladinian generation of carbonate platforms of the Dolomites, Northern Italy, where they are spectacularly exposed. Taking also into account the Tertiary shortening that occurred in the area, both local and regional subsidence contributions of major platform bodies have been calculated aimed at a reconstruction of the map of the induced subsidence. A major outcome of this study is that the accommodation space, that allowed the accumulation of very thick shallow-water carbonate successions in the Dolomites, was only partially due to lithospheric stretching while the contribution given by the 'local' overload is as high as 20-40% of the total subsidence. Our results also shed some light on the water-depth problem of the Triassic basins as well as on the basin-depth to platform-thickness relationships.
The LUX Score: A Metric for Lipidome Homology
Chakravarthy Marella,Andrew E. Torda?,Dominik Schwudke
PLOS Computational Biology , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004511
Abstract: A lipidome is the set of lipids in a given organism, cell or cell compartment and this set reflects the organism’s synthetic pathways and interactions with its environment. Recently, lipidomes of biological model organisms and cell lines were published and the number of functional studies of lipids is increasing. In this study we propose a homology metric that can quantify systematic differences in the composition of a lipidome. Algorithms were developed to 1. consistently convert lipids structure into SMILES, 2. determine structural similarity between molecular species and 3. describe a lipidome in a chemical space model. We tested lipid structure conversion and structure similarity metrics, in detail, using sets of isomeric ceramide molecules and chemically related phosphatidylinositols. Template-based SMILES showed the best properties for representing lipid-specific structural diversity. We also show that sequence analysis algorithms are best suited to calculate distances between such template-based SMILES and we adjudged the Levenshtein distance as best choice for quantifying structural changes. When all lipid molecules of the LIPIDMAPS structure database were mapped in chemical space, they automatically formed clusters corresponding to conventional chemical families. Accordingly, we mapped a pair of lipidomes into the same chemical space and determined the degree of overlap by calculating the Hausdorff distance. We named this metric the ‘Lipidome jUXtaposition (LUX) score’. First, we tested this approach for estimating the lipidome similarity on four yeast strains with known genetic alteration in fatty acid synthesis. We show that the LUX score reflects the genetic relationship and growth temperature better than conventional methods although the score is based solely on lipid structures. Next, we applied this metric to high-throughput data of larval tissue lipidomes of Drosophila. This showed that the LUX score is sufficient to cluster tissues and determine the impact of nutritional changes in an unbiased manner, despite the limited information on the underlying structural diversity of each lipidome. This study is the first effort to define a lipidome homology metric based on structures that will enrich functional association of lipids in a similar manner to measures used in genetics. Finally, we discuss the significance of the LUX score to perform comparative lipidome studies across species borders.
Prevalence of low dietary calcium intake in patients with epilepsy: A study from South India
Menon Bindu,Harinarayan Chittari,Raj Marella,Vemuri Swapna
Neurology India , 2010,
Abstract: Background: The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AED) on bone health are well documented. Inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D plays a vital role and further compromises the bone health. Objective: To assess the dietary pattern with special reference to calcium and related minerals in people with epilepsy (PWE) on AED. Materials and Methods: The dietary assessment in PWE was documented by dietary recall method. Patients were categorized according to age: group I: < 14 years; group II: between 15-20 years; group III: between 21-45 years; group IV:> 46 years. From the raw weights, total energy, dietary calcium, dietary phosphorous intake and phytate calcium ratio was calculated using a food composition table by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and analyzed statistically. Results: A total of 362 patients with mean age of 29 + 15 years were studied. There were 190 women. The mean duration of AED treatment was 4 + 3 yrs, 64% on monotherapy 64% and 36% on polytherapy. The mean dietary intake of the total chohort was 2,007 + 211 Kcal/day, carbohydrate 335 + 33 gm/day; protein 31 + 7 gm/day; fat 18+2 gm/day; calcium 294 + 40 mg/day; phosphorus 557 + 102; phytates 179 + 30 mg/day; and phytate/calcium ratio 0.56+0.2. Milk and milk products were consumed by 42% of the total cohort. The daily dietary calcium (301 + 40 mg/day) intake of men was significantly higher than women (287 + 39 mg/day) (P < 0.001). This was more evident in group II (P < 0.01) and group III (P < 0.03). There was a positive correlation between dietary calcium and dietary phytates (P < 0.001), dietary proteins (P < 0.001), dietary fat (P < 0.001), and total energy (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The dietary consumption of calcium of all the patients was far below the recommended daily dietary allowance (RDA) by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). Low dietary calcium could have a confounding effect on PWE on AED in all age groups. There is a need to formulate consensus guidelines to supplement dietary calcium to PWE.
EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA
Sharma Satish Kumar,Sharma Seshasai Marella,Saini Vipin,Mohapatra Sharmistha
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: In Indian System of Medicine the bark of Symplocos racemosa belonging to family Symplocaceae is used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, dropsy, arthritis, inflammation, ulcers, menorrhagia and hepatic ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of the bark of Symplocos racemosa. The formalin induced paw licking and tail flick models were used to study the analgesic activity and carrageenan induced hind paw edema model was used to study anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the bark. Wistar strain albino rats with 200 mg/kg dose were used for both studies. Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. In tail flick test the increase in the reaction time was significant (P < 0.01) with ethanolic extract of the bark of Symplocos racemosa as compared to the control group. Acute edema in the left hind paw of the animals was induced by sub plantar injection of 0.1 ml (1%) carregeenan suspension in normal saline. The ethanolic extract of the bark of Symplocos racemosa very significantly (P <0.001) reduced the paw edema in carrageenan treated rats. The effect was maximum at 3 hr after the carrageenan injection. The significant suppression of inflammation during the whole experimental period indicates the long duration of action of the ethanolic extract of the bark.
EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCEROGENIC POTENTIAL OF ABUTILON INDICUM
Sharma Satish Kumar,Sharma Seshasai Marella,Saini Vipin,Mohapatra Sharmistha
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013, DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.04350
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of Abutilon indicum (AI). Ethanolic (AIE) and aqueous extracts (AIA) of AI were studied for their ability to inhibit the gastric lesions in pylorus ligation, aspirin and alcohol induced ulcer models in rats. In addition their effects on pH, wall mucus, total acidity and gastric acid output were recorded. The test drugs in the dose of 200 mg/kg were administered twice daily orally at 10:00 h and 16:00 h respectively for five days for gastro protective studies. Ranitidine was used as reference drug. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Abutilon indicum significantly inhibited the gastric lesions induced by pylorus ligation, aspirin and alcohol. The gastric volume and total acidity were found to be significantly reduced while the gastric pH and mucus contents were found to be increased as compared to control group. The present findings suggest that the antiulcer properties of Abutilon indicum may be due to its effect on both offensive and defensive factors. These results support the ethno medical uses of Abutilon indicum in the treatment of ulcer.
Genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis of lowland rice genotypes
Bose Lotan Kumar,Nagaraju Marella,Singh Onkar Nath
Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/jas1201001b
Abstract: Twenty-one lowland rice genotypes were evaluated for their stability parameters with respect to grain yield in a multi-locational trial at five different sites of Eastern India viz. Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack (Orissa); OUAT, Bhubaneswar (Orissa); CRS, Masodha (UP); RAU, Pusa (Bihar) and RARS, North Lakhimpur (Assam). Pooled analysis of variance reflects existence of genotype x environment interactions and contribution of both linear and non-linear components to genotype x environment interactions. Through stability parameter analysis, it was found that Rayda B3, CR 778-95 and CR 661- 236 were suitable for all environments. The genotypes Sabita and OR 1358-RGA-4 were suitable for better environments. PSR 1209-2-3-2, CR 780-1937, Ambika, OR 877-ST-4-2, NDR 40055-2-1 and CR 662-2211 were identified for poor environments.
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