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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 181942 matches for " Andrea E Price "
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Microarray analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from ALS patients and the SAFE detection of the KEGG ALS pathway
Jean-Luc C Mougeot, Zhen Li, Andrea E Price, Fred A Wright, Benjamin R Brooks
BMC Medical Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8794-4-74
Abstract: Differentially expressed genes were determined by LIMMA (Linear Models for MicroArray) and SAM (Significance Analysis of Microarrays) analyses. The SAFE (Significance Analysis of Function and Expression) procedure was used to identify molecular pathway perturbations. Proteasome inhibition assays were conducted on cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from ALS patients to confirm alteration of the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System (UPS).For the first time, using SAFE in a global gene ontology analysis (gene set size 5-100), we show significant perturbation of the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) ALS pathway of motor neuron degeneration in PBLs from ALS patients. This was the only KEGG disease pathway significantly upregulated among 25, and contributing genes, including SOD1, represented 54% of the encoded proteins or protein complexes of the KEGG ALS pathway. Further SAFE analysis, including gene set sizes >100, showed that only neurodegenerative diseases (4 out of 34 disease pathways) including ALS were significantly upregulated. Changes in UBR2 expression correlated inversely with time since onset of disease and directly with ALSFRS-R, implying that UBR2 was increased early in the course of ALS. Cultured PBMCs from ALS patients accumulated more ubiquitinated proteins than PBMCs from healthy controls in a serum-dependent manner confirming changes in this pathway.Our study indicates that PBLs from sALS patients are strong responders to systemic signals or local signals acquired by cell trafficking, representing changes in gene expression similar to those present in brain and spinal cord of sALS patients. PBLs may provide a useful means to study ALS pathogenesis.Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease causing muscle weakness and wasting resulting from the loss of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord characterized by ubiquitinated inclusions in brain and spinal cord of post mortem ALS patients [1]. Several
A test of financial incentives to improve warfarin adherence
Kevin G Volpp, George Loewenstein, Andrea B Troxel, Jalpa Doshi, Maureen Price, Mitchell Laskin, Stephen E Kimmel
BMC Health Services Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-272
Abstract: Volunteers from the University of Pennsylvania Anticoagulation Management Center who had taken warfarin for at least 3 months participated in either a pilot study with a lottery with a daily expected value of $5 (N = 10) or a daily expected value of $3 (N = 10). All subjects received use of an Informedix Med-eMonitor? System with a daily reminder feature. If subjects opened up their pill compartments appropriately, they were entered into a daily lottery with a 1 in 5 chance of winning $10 and a 1 in 100 chance of winning $100 (pilot 1) or a 1 in 10 chance of winning $10 and a 1 in 100 chance of winning $100 (pilot 2). The primary study outcome was proportion of incorrect warfarin doses. The secondary outcome was proportion of INR measurements not within therapeutic range. Within-subject pre-post comparisons were done of INR measurements with comparisons with either historic means or within-subject comparisons of incorrect warfarin doses.In the first pilot, the percent of out-of-range INRs decreased from 35.0% to 12.2% during the intervention, before increasing to 42% post-intervention. The mean proportion of incorrect pills taken during the intervention was 2.3% incorrect pills, compared with a historic mean of 22% incorrect pill taking in this clinic population. Among the five subjects who also had MEMS cap adherence data from warfarin use in our prior study, mean incorrect pill taking decreased from 26% pre-pilot to 2.8% in the pilot. In the second pilot, the time out of INR range decreased from 65.0% to 40.4%, with the proportion of mean incorrect pill taking dropping to 1.6%.A daily lottery-based financial incentive demonstrated the potential for significant improvements in missed doses of warfarin and time out of INR range. Further testing should be done of this approach to determine its effectiveness and potential application to both warfarin and other chronic medications.Medical conditions known to increase the risk of thromboembolism (TE) affect millions of
“Troping Prostitution: Jonson and the ‘Court Pucell'
Victoria E. Price
Nebula , 2007,
Abstract:
Welcome to Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Andrea Pieroni, Lisa Price, Ina Vandebroek
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-1-1
Abstract: Ethnobiology is a multidisciplinary field of study that draws on approaches and methods from both the social and biological sciences. "Ethnobiology" has proven a rather difficult term to define since the scope of ethnobiological studies has changed considerably throughout history. One of its more recent definitions refers to the study of the reciprocal relationships between human cultures and the natural world [1]. Reciprocal relationships here refer to the human perception of the biological environment, which will ultimately influence man's behaviour, while human behaviour in turn influences – or shapes – the biological environment. This broad definition of ethnobiology encompasses ethnotaxonomy (study of the classification principles of animals, plants, soils, and ecosystems according to local peoples), ethnomedicine (study of the cultural concepts of health, disease and illness, and of the nature of local healing systems), ethnoecology (study of traditional environmental knowledge and of anthropogenic effects on the environment), ethnoagronomy (study of subsistence economies and resource management), and material culture (study of biological resources used in art and technology).Ethnobiology aims at investigating culturally-based biological and environmental knowledge, cultural perception and cognition of the natural world, and associated behaviours and practices.Ethnomedicine is concerned with the cultural interpretations of health, disease and illness and also addresses the health care-seeking process and healing practices.In both ethnobiology and ethnomedicine, the documentation of the consequences of particular behaviours and practices is through cultural and biological expertise intrinsic to the fields of anthropology and biology/medicine.Research interest and activities in the areas of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine have increased tremendously in the last decade. The number of research publications has doubled and the three international, widely recognised
More than skin deep: moisturizing body milk and Burkholderia cepacia
Amy E Irwin, Connie Price
Critical Care , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/cc6781
Abstract: It appears that the potentially fatal pathogen Burkholderia cepacia has taken hold of another reservoir for transmission – in the form of moisturizing body milk [1]. B. cepacia, a Gram-negative rod bacterium known for its affinity towards and its virulence in moist environments, presents a clinical challenge in the treatment and management of susceptible populations and in the subsequent identification of causative sources during nosocomial outbreaks. Capable of person-to-person transmission and transmission through contact with surfaces such as medical devices and medicines, B. cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen highly resistant to most antimicrobial agents and it possesses a 42% mortality rate [2]. The need for all clinicians to examine more closely their environments in an effort to halt the spread of B. cepacia is therefore critical.Alvarez-Lerma and colleagues observed over an 18-day period that five critically ill patients admitted to a multidisciplinary 18-bed intensive care unit contracted the nosocomial infection B. cepacia [1]. Microbiologic analysis was performed on the collected oropharyngeal mucosa, urine, and bronchial aspirates from all patients in the intensive care unit and on samples of antiseptics, eau de Cologne, and moisturizing body milk used in routine nursing care. It was determined that the strains of B. cepacia isolated from the patients and from the moisturizing body milk were of the same clone, indicating the lotion was the source of the outbreak. Upon this discovery, the hospital immediately withdrew the product from routine nursing care hospital wide and notified the manufacturing company about the B. cepacia contamination.Alvarez-Lerma and colleagues strongly recommend cosmetic products that do not guarantee sterilization during the manufacturing process should not be used in critical care settings [1]. From an all or nothing perspective and within the context that B. cepacia only survived in moisturizing body milk, this approach wou
Health, wellbeing and nutritional status of older people living in UK care homes: an exploratory evaluation of changes in food and drink provision
Andrea Kenkmann, Gill M Price, Joanne Bolton, Lee Hooper
BMC Geriatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-10-28
Abstract: We measured health, wellbeing and nutritional status of 120 of 213 residents of six care homes in Norfolk, UK. An intervention comprising improved dining atmosphere, greater food choice, extended restaurant hours, and readily available snacks and drinks machines was implemented in three care homes. Three control homes maintained their previous system. Outcomes were assessed in the year before and the year after the changes.Use of routinely collected data was partially successful, but loss to follow up and levels of missing data were high, limiting power to identify trends in the data.This was a frail older population (mean age 87, 71% female) with multiple varied health problems. During the first year 60% of residents had one or more falls, 40% a wound care visit, and 40% a urinary tract infection. 45% were on diuretics, 24% antidepressants, and 43% on psychotropic medication.There was a slight increase in falls from year 1 to year 2 in the intervention homes, and a much bigger increase in control homes, leading to a statistically non-significant 24% relative reduction in residents' rate of falls in intervention homes compared with control homes (adjusted rate ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.02, p = 0.06).Care home residents are frail and experience multiple health risks. This intervention to improve food and drink provision was well received by residents, but effects on health indicators (despite the relative reduction in falls rate) were inconclusive, partly due to problems with routine data collection and loss to follow up. Further research with more homes is needed to understand which, if any, components of the intervention may be successful.Trial registration: ISRCTN86057119.Four percent of older people in the UK live in a care home or long-stay hospital, rising to 21% of those aged at least 85[1]. Fifteen percent of the 486,000 places offered are run by Local Authorities (local government) or the National Health Service (NHS)[2]. Malnutrition is common in older p
Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin
Hannah E John, Richard D Price
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S3183
Abstract: spectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin Review (5084) Total Article Views Authors: Hannah E John, Richard D Price Published Date July 2009 Volume 2009:3 Pages 225 - 230 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S3183 Hannah E John, Richard D Price Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the overall trend remains upward. Although popular television programs espouse the benefits of surgery, it is nonsurgical procedures that account, numerically, for the majority of procedures performed; in the USA, there was a 48% growth from 2000 to 2008 in nonsurgical treatments undertaken by women, and 64% in men and while the average surgeon might perform 60 blepharoplasty operations in 2007, (s)he would also undertake 375 botulinum injections, and almost 200 filler injections of varying sorts. Clearly there is enthusiasm for nonsurgical treatments, and this trend appears to be rising. With this in mind, we present an overview of the commonest filler injection material, hyaluronic acid. We present the mechanism of action, the purported risks and benefits, and briefly discuss technique.
Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin
Hannah E John, Richard D Price
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2009,
Abstract: Hannah E John, Richard D PriceDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Cambridge, UKAbstract: Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the overall trend remains upward. Although popular television programs espouse the benefits of surgery, it is nonsurgical procedures that account, numerically, for the majority of procedures performed; in the USA, there was a 48% growth from 2000 to 2008 in nonsurgical treatments undertaken by women, and 64% in men and while the average surgeon might perform 60 blepharoplasty operations in 2007, (s)he would also undertake 375 botulinum injections, and almost 200 filler injections of varying sorts. Clearly there is enthusiasm for nonsurgical treatments, and this trend appears to be rising. With this in mind, we present an overview of the commonest filler injection material, hyaluronic acid. We present the mechanism of action, the purported risks and benefits, and briefly discuss technique.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, filler injection, nonsurgical procedures, technique
Simulation of permafrost and seasonal thaw depth in the JULES land surface scheme
R. Dankers,E. J. Burke,J. Price
The Cryosphere Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/tcd-5-1263-2011
Abstract: Land surface models (LSMs) need to be able to simulate realistically the dynamics of permafrost and frozen ground. In this paper we evaluate the performance of the LSM JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator), the stand-alone version of the land surface scheme used in Hadley Centre climate models, in simulating the large-scale distribution of surface permafrost. In particular we look at how well the model is able to simulate the seasonal thaw depth or active layer thickness (ALT). We performed a number of experiments driven by observation-based climate datasets. Visually there is a very good agreement between areas with permafrost in JULES and known permafrost distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, and the model captures 97% of the area where the permafrost coverage is at least 50% of the grid cell. However, the model overestimates the total extent as it also simulates permafrost where it occurs sporadically or only in isolated patches. Consistent with this we find a cold bias in the simulated soil temperatures, especially in winter. However, when compared with observations on end-of-season thaw depth from around the Arctic, the ALT in JULES is generally too deep. Additional runs at three sites in Alaska demonstrate how uncertainties in the precipitation input affect the simulation of soil temperatures by affecting the thickness of the snowpack and therefore the thermal insulation in winter. In addition, changes in soil moisture content influence the thermodynamics of soil layers close to freezing. We also present results from three experiments in which the standard model setup was modified to improve physical realism of the simulations in permafrost regions. Extending the soil column to a depth of 60 m and adjusting the soil parameters for organic content had relatively little effect on the simulation of permafrost and ALT. A higher vertical resolution improves the simulation of ALT, although a considerable bias still remains. Future model development in JULES should focus on a dynamic coupling of soil organic carbon content and soil thermal and hydraulic properties, as well as allowing for sub-grid variability in soil types.
Simulation of permafrost and seasonal thaw depth in the JULES land surface scheme
R. Dankers,E. J. Burke,J. Price
The Cryosphere , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/tc-5-773-2011
Abstract: Land surface models (LSMs) need to be able to simulate realistically the dynamics of permafrost and frozen ground. In this paper we evaluate the performance of the LSM JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator), the stand-alone version of the land surface scheme used in Hadley Centre climate models, in simulating the large-scale distribution of surface permafrost. In particular we look at how well the model is able to simulate the seasonal thaw depth or active layer thickness (ALT). We performed a number of experiments driven by observation-based climate datasets. Visually there is a very good agreement between areas with permafrost in JULES and known permafrost distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, and the model captures 97% of the area where the spatial coverage of the permafrost is at least 50%. However, the model overestimates the total extent as it also simulates permafrost where it occurs sporadically or only in isolated patches. Consistent with this we find a cold bias in the simulated soil temperatures, especially in winter. However, when compared with observations on end-of-season thaw depth from around the Arctic, the ALT in JULES is generally too deep. Additional runs at three sites in Alaska demonstrate how uncertainties in the precipitation input affect the simulation of soil temperatures by affecting the thickness of the snowpack and therefore the thermal insulation in winter. In addition, changes in soil moisture content influence the thermodynamics of soil layers close to freezing. We also present results from three experiments in which the standard model setup was modified to improve physical realism of the simulations in permafrost regions. Extending the soil column to a depth of 60 m and adjusting the soil parameters for organic content had relatively little effect on the simulation of permafrost and ALT. A higher vertical resolution improves the simulation of ALT, although a considerable bias still remains. Future model development in JULES should focus on a dynamic coupling of soil organic carbon content and soil thermal and hydraulic properties, as well as allowing for sub-grid variability in soil types.
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