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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19828 matches for " André "
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Post-Formal Thought in Gerontagogy or Beyond Piaget  [PDF]
André Lemieux
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.23046
Abstract: Jean Piaget, one of the most influential theorists in developmental psychology, assumed that formal thought, characterized by the development of an individual’s logical capacities, was the last stage of adult thinking. In this article, we review how the brain evolved, describing its main structures, and examining each cerebral hemisphere’s specific functions. Evidence is also provided for the production of new neurons and new connections between them, forcing a revision of old theories about the decline of intellectual functions in the elderly. We then consider Jones’ theories X and Y, and the different definitions of intelligence (fluid vs. crystallized, and qualitative vs. quantitative), and how these perspectives have influenced the way we see intelligence. Evidence supporting the addition of another stage, named post-formal thought, is examined in the context of gerontagogy. Dialectical thought characterizes this stage, and developing wisdom is its main goal. We examine the two basic principles of dialectical thought, namely the principle of contradiction and the principle of relativity of everything. It is suggested that the learning of wisdom should be the focus of future university programs to educate the elderly.
The History of the Basal Ganglia: The Contribution of Karl Friedrich Burdach  [PDF]
André Parent
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.34046

It took many centuries for the basal ganglia (BG) to be recognized as specific brain entities involved in the control of psychomotor behavior. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) was the first to delineate this set of structures, but he did not name them nor payany attention to their functional significance. This was left to the English physician Thomas Willis (1621-1675), who used the term corpus striatum (striated or chamfered body) to designate the largest BG constituent, which he considered a major sensorimotor integration center. Willis’s pioneering description influenced markedly some 18th and 19th centuries scholars, particularly the German physician and anatomist Karl Friedrich Burdach (1776-1847). Burdach’s insightful studies of the human brain are summarized in a three-volume treatise entitled Vom Baue und Leben des Gehirns (1819-1826). This landmark opus provides a description of the BGwhose originality has largely been overlooked. Burdach’s careful investigation allowed him to differentiate the caudate nucleus from the putamen, which he respectively termed Streifenhügel (elongated hillock) and Schale (shell). He also called the putamen Linsenkern (lens-shaped nucleus), a term that he admittedly borrowed from his compatriot Johann Christian Reil (1759-1813). He further identified a paler structure (blasser Klumpen) within the inner portion of the lentiform nucleus that he called globus pallidus, and correctly identified its inner and outer segments (innern und ?ussern Theil). He aptly pointed out that the major BG nuclei are separated from one another by fibers fascicles that he termed inner and ?ussre Capsel (internal and external capsules). Burdach also referred to the substantia nigra (schwarzgraue Schicht or stratum nigrum) and claustrum (Vormauer), but gave full credit to the French anatomist Félix Vicq-d’Azyr (1748-1794) for their discovery. Although Burdach did not comment much on BG function, his anatomical description was sufficiently cogent to be still in use two centuries after its inception.

Louis Pierre Gratiolet (1815-1865) and His Contribution to the Study of Cerebral Convolutions in Primates  [PDF]
André Parent
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2014.51001

Louis Pierre Gratiolet (1815-1865) was one of the first modern anatomists to pay attention to cerebral convolutions. Born in Sainte-Foy-la-Grande (Gironde), he moved to Paris in 1834 to study medicine, as well as comparative anatomy under Henri de Blainville (1777-1850). In 1842, he accepted de Blainville’s offer to become his assistant at the Muséum dhistoire naturelle and progressively abandoned medicine for comparative anatomy. He undertook a detailed study of brains of human and nonhuman primates and soon realized that the organizational pattern of cerebral convolutions was so predictable that it could serve as a criterion to classify primate groups. He noted that only the deepest sulci exist in lower primate forms, while the complexity of cortical folding increases markedly in great apes and humans. Gratiolet provided the first cogent description of the lobular organization of primate cerebral hemispheres. He saw the insula as a central lobe around which revolved the frontal, parietal, temporal (temporo-sphenoidal) and occipital lobes. He correctly identified most gyri and sulci on all brain surfaces, introduced the term plis de passage for some interconnecting gyri, and provided the first description of the optic radiations. In the early 1860s, Gratiolet fought a highly publicized battle against Paul Broca (1824-1880) on the relationship between brain and intelligence. Gratiolet agreed that the brain was most likely the seat of intelligence, but he considered human cognition far too subtle to have any direct relationship with

Procedural Utility in the Work Place, Evidence from Mexico  [PDF]
André Vargas
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.49104
Abstract: The concept of Utility usually refers to the satisfaction a person acquires by consuming, in general under circumstances bonded to income, and the price of goods. In a psychological vision of personal well-being, happiness and its components, consider the fact that people can value anything. This notion has led to the study of Procedural Utility, that means people not only value the outcome of something, but also values the process and conditions in which the outcome is achieved. Procedural Utility can be obtained from various economic procedures in which individuals are part of, e.g. Work and consumption among others. Evidence has been found that in the work place the fact of being attached to hierarchy generates negative Procedural Utility because it disrupts psychological precepts that determine happiness, well-being, or utility [1]. In other cases it has been found that the process on how a wage cut is done must be considered [2]. In the light of this phenomena, I’ll discuss the concept of Procedural Utility and analyze empirical evidence for the Mexican case with “Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografía” INEGI’s self-reported well-being survey (BIARE), with the finality to give suggestions on possible applications of processes to improve the worker’s satisfaction.
The Hydrogen Atom Fundamental Resonance States  [PDF]
André Michaud
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.95067
Abstract: In the 1920’s, Louis de Broglie’s observation that the integer sequence that could be related to the interference patterns produced by the various electromagnetic energy quanta emitted by hydrogen atoms was identical to those of very well known classical resonance processes, made him conclude that electrons were captive in resonance states within atoms. This led Schr?dinger to propose a wave function to represent these resonance states that still have not been reconciled with the electromagnetic properties of electrons. This article is meant to identify and discuss the electromagnetic harmonic oscillation properties that the electron must possess as a resonator in order to explain the resonance volume described by the wave function, as well as the electromagnetic interactions between the elementary charged particles making up atomic structures that could explain electronic and nucleonic orbitals stability. An unexpected benefit of the expanded space geometry required to establish these properties and interactions is that the fundamental symmetry requirement is respected by structure for all aspects of the distribution of energy within electromagnetic quanta.
The Mechanics of Conceptual Thinking  [PDF]
André Michaud
Creative Education (CE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.102028
Abstract: Description of the mechanics of conceptual thinking?that?stems?from interaction sequences between the limbic system and the verbal areas of the neocortex. Description of the rise of the attention level to full active awareness when a feeling of uneasiness due to a verbal stimulus is triggered by the amygdala, followed by an active cogitation process involving the verbal areas of the neocortex, ending in the strengthening in the neocortex by the hippocampus of a synaptic network corresponding to a modified verbal sequence that removes or reduces the feeling of uneasiness that initiated the sequence. Description of the generalization abilitythat?emerges from the use of articulated languages, acquired by education, from which conceptual thinking andalso?the collectively intelligible mathematical language emerge that also develops to various degrees in some individuals by education. Description of the mathematical thinking mode, about?whose engrams have been located in the neocortex in areas that do not overlap the verbal areas.
Educational Boxing Is Worth Becoming a Template for Building up Concussion Prevention Means in Children and Adolescents Sports  [PDF]
André Mukala Nsengu Tshibangu
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.31008
Abstract: After comparing the means of concussion prevention used in educational boxing with similar means used in other sports practiced by children and adolescents, we noted that the exclusive use of light touches instead of blows in competitions of educational boxing is an original means of preventing concussion, acting on the direct cause rather than on the possible victim of concussion. We have then predicted that educational boxing is possibly the concussion-free form of competition boxing and that it is possibly chronic damage-free. If our predictions are fulfilled, educational boxing may serve as a template for building up concussion prevention means in all sports. Moreover, we would better go on popularizing the practice of educational boxing which is less likely to induce concussion than amateur and professional boxing; which has had more license owners than the two latter the 2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 boxing seasons in France; and which is practiced almost exclusively by children and adolescents in France. Despite the fact that light touches force of impact is sub-concussive, we need research work be undertaken in order to know whether light touches are harmless in educational boxers having had many fights and to know the occurrence frequency of unexpected concussions from light touches that turn to unintentional counter- punches.

Quantitative Objective Assessment of Websites by Neurocode-Tracking in Combination with Eye-Tracking  [PDF]
Wilfried Dimpfel, Andrè Morys
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.48037
Abstract: Assessment of websites remains a definite challenge within advertisement research. In order to gather objective information, one possibility exists in using Eye-Tracking. This method allows for determination of where and how long particular areas of a website are fixed. However, longer fixation values do not necessarily reflect higher attention or even memorizing of the content. It could also mean that the content is too complicated. Therefore more information can be obtained by addition of quantitative analysis of brain electricity. Following the changes of the frequency content of electric brain activity has been recently introduced as “Neurocode-Tracking”. In the present study, quantitative assessment of websites has been performed by the combination of Neuro-code-Tracking with Eye-Tracking. Fast dynamic quantitative EEG recording with a time resolution of nearly 3 images/second provided electric power values according to frequency analysis in 17 brain regions (electrode positions). Particular values represented changes of electric brain activity, which were interpreted to represent visual perception, mental activation, concentration, stimulation, memory and tension according to earlier experience. Eye-Tracking was performed in a conventional manner by defining special areas of interest for detection of fixation lengths and time to first awareness. Ten male subjects (aged 36 ± 4.4 years) entered the study. They were asked to view Internet landing pages of five bank institutions: ComDirect, DKB, INGDiBa, Postbank and Targo-Bank. According to Eye-Track analysis, ComDirect was recognized to have the shortest time-to-awareness with respect to conditions, bonus, faces and application or address form. With respect to region of interest “service”, INGDiBa showed the shortest time-to-awareness. Neurocode-Tracking provided best results for INGDiBa with respect to mental activation and concentration. Stimulation and memory values were headed by Targo-Bank. Lowest tension was observed by the landing page of the Postbank. In summary, the combination of Neurocode-Tracking and Eye-Tracking provided much more information than any one of the methods used in separate. We therefore recommend this combination for the assessment and optimizing of Internet websites.
Boxing Performance May Benefit from Pertaining of the Boxer to a Given Zodiacal Sign  [PDF]
André Mukala Nsengu Tshibangu
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2014.41005

The aim of the present study is not to provide the reader with a proof of astrology’s validity. The present study has been undertaken in the aim of providing the coach with an original tool for identification of the candidates more advantaged than others to boxing practice, in the case that the coach has too numerous candidates to deal with. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 program has been used in the analysis of data gathered from BoxRec.com, the web based database, about the World top 100 male boxers BoxRec.com-rated, retired on March 26th, 2013. The study has shown that boxing performance may be influenced by pertaining of the boxer to given zodiacal signs: 1) Regarding all victories pulled together, the most disadvantaged are Sagittarius signs. As other zodiacal signs related to the element Fire, they probably rarely display tactful behavior. Their resulting impulsiveness may make them neglectful of their defense. 2) Regarding all losses pulled together, the most disadvantaged are Aquarius signs. As other zodiacal signs related to the element Air, they probably think too much before they act; and they tend to rise above conflict and to float around it. All that may affect negatively their attack velocity and defense velocity. 3) Regarding non-KO victories and KO losses, the most advantaged are Scorpio signs. Contrary to other Water signs which are used to detest all form of conflict, they often seek out challenges and problems, subliminally realizing that such challenges call forth their greatest strength and resources. That may probably help them not to neglect their attack, what is expectable in other Water signs. 4) Regarding all victories pulled together, all losses pulled together, and non-KO losses, the most advantaged are Virgo signs. Regarding KO victories, the most advantaged are Taurus signs. As other Earth signs, when driven back against a wall, Virgo and Taurus signs are capable of hitting the obstacle hard with full force. That is particularly true of Taurus, the fixed Earth, who will never seek out conflicts but who is capable of surprising power. The known soundness of Earth signs may help Virgo and Taurus signs to control both their attack and defense actions, performing them only when they feel that they are going to be successful. 5) Regarding boxers life spans, the most advantaged are Libra and Sagittarius signs.

The Higher Education System in Argentina. Networks, Genealogies and Conflicts  [PDF]
Santos Sharpe Andrés
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.618200
Abstract: The present manuscript aims to identify the genealogies, understood in a Foucaultian perspective, which leads to the actual Higher Education System in Argentina, by distinguishing how series of events are organized, distributed, organized in terms of institutional relations, signifying chains in the social amalgam and educational networks. This analysis will allow understanding the hierarchical relationships between higher education institutions and how the differences on cultural and curricular traditions and history also motivate (though not impose) the differences on the students and on policies. Finally, it is as well an accurate description of the Higher Education System in Argentina with a strong emphasis on universities.
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