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An Uncontested Party Period of the Turkey Republic  [PDF]
Elnur Hasan Mikail, AndaKarabulut
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.62023
Abstract: In an environment in which faction in the Turkish National Assembly increased and there occurred the need of political parties in politics, Mustafa Kemal announced a declaration to the press in 6 December 1922 that he would establish a political party named “People’s Party”. In 8 April 1923, Mustafa Kemal, in the capacity of the chairman of Anatolia and Rumelia Defense of Law Community, announced a declaration. This election declaration, at the same time, is in the form of a schedule preparation for the upcoming party. Later on, Mustafa Kemal and the congressmen in support of the establishment of the party started the preparations for the regulation.
The Political Developments in Turkey during Ataturk’s Period  [PDF]
Elnur Hasan Mikail, AndaKarabulut
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2017.74040
Abstract: It has been understood that during the Seyh Sait Rebellion in East Anatolia, the Prime Minister Fethi Bey had a talk with the Leaders of this Party, that he had warned them and suggested to moderate or totally remove the Party organizations there. As this revolt became a dangerous face, the Government legalized the proposed Law concerning “the Religion must not be an instrument for the Politics” on the 25th of February 1925. However, after the questioning proposal in the C.H.P group with 18 signs concerning the facts in the East, there was held a vote of confidence for the Government and the cabinet resigned as a mistrust result for Fethi Bey with 60 dissential votes from 94 total votes. Ismet Pasa was charged with the duty to set up a new cabinet. In view of the Seyh Sait Rebellion, it has been seen that the Progressive-minded Party supported the cabinet of Fethi Bey and moreover, that the Leader Kazim Karabekir Pasa responded the martial Law decision of this Government as constructive and that he condemned this Rebellion by saying that: those who put the national presence in danger by procuring the religion as an instrument are deserving curse. This behaviour is infidelity to the country about the Rebellion.
The Impact on the Level of Anxiety and Pain of the Training before Operation Given to Adult Patients  [PDF]
Neziha Karabulut, Funda Cetinkaya
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.26065
Abstract: Aim: The aim oh this study was to detrmine the effects of different training programs implemented before inguinal hernia operation on the pre- and post-operation anxiety level of and pain level the patient. Material and method: This quasi experimental study was carried out with inguinal hernia patients 18 - 60 years who were hospitalized in the General Surgery Clinic of Hospital of Atatürk University and Süleyman Demirel Medical Centre in Erzurum for inguinal hernia operation. The study data were collected between November 2007-May 2008 from a total of 90 patients. 30 patients were in the control group, 30 were in the video (VCD) training group, and 30 were in the booklet training group. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire about the patients and the inventory of state anxiety fort he adult. In collecting data, patient introduction form and Spielberger’in State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used. In data assessment, T-test, Pearson correlation test, Mauchly’s variance analysis, Anova for repeated measures tests and Bonferroni Correction Analysisi were used. Results: In control, booklet and VCD groups, In group Situational Constant Anxiety score average was found significant in each three time periods (p < 0.001). When the pain situations of the patients after operation was considered, the distinction in Visual Analogue Scale and Verbal Rating Scala values of two groups in all measurement times was found significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: In the conclusion of the study, it was found out that the given education effective on level of pain and anxiety score for experimental groups of patients.
Is the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder a New Cause of Cataract?  [PDF]
Mujdat Karabulut, Sinem Karabulut, Tolga Kocatürk, Seyhan Bahar Ozkan
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2018.81004
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder of childhood and it has 5% prevalence among children worldwide [1]. In the treatment of ADHD stimulant medications are recommended as the first choice of pharmacotherapy [2]. Methylphenidate-HCl is a sympathomimetic amine derivative pharmacological agent; and it is widely used in the treatment of ADHD. Although there are some articles showing that oral methylphenidate increases the risk of glaucoma [3], to the best of our knowledge, there is only one case report that indicates a possible relation of methylphenidate treatment and cataract formation [4].
Effects of Interferon Alpha 2b on VEGFR-2, VEGFA, MAPK-1 and ERK-1 Gene Expression in Corneal Neovascularization Models  [PDF]
Mujdat Karabulut, Harun Cakmak, Gokay Bozkurt, Sinem Karabulut
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2018.82014
AIM: To investigate effects of interferon alpha 2b on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA), mitogen activated protein kinase-1 (MAPK-1) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK 1) gene expression in corneal neovascularization (CNV) modelsbyreal time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: Thirty Wistar-Albino male rats were divided into three groups of ten rats each, and two corneas were obtained from each rat. CNV was induced by application of silver nitrate. In the first group one million IU/ml, in the second group three million IU/ml interferon-alfa 2b and in the third (control) group isotonic saline was applied to both eyes two times a day for two weeks. Rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and corneas were used for real time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: MAPK-1 gene expression levels were significantly higher in both first and second groups compared to the control group (p = 0.014 and p = 0.008, respectively). VEGFR-2 gene expression levels were found to be significantly higher in the second group than the control group (p = 0.028). VEGFA gene expression levels were also significantly higher in the second group than the control group, and there was no difference between the control and first group and between first and second groups (p > 0.05). ERK gene expression levels did not differ among all groups (p = 0.545). CONCLUSION: At the end of the study, it was shown that interferon-alfa 2b does not inhibit VEGFR-2, VEGFA, MAPK-1 or ERK 1 gene expression in CNV models despite its known anti-VEGF activities.
Impact of Simulated Airborne Soot on Maize Growth and Development  [PDF]
Angela Anda, Berndett Illes
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.38092
Abstract: Various effects of the dry deposition of soot on maize were investigated in Keszthely (Hungary) in two consecutive years. In order to be able to study a wider range of weather conditions, some of the plants were placed in a Thornthwaite-Matter type evapotranspirometer and given ad libitum water supplies. Pollution with airborne black carbon was simulated throughout the season by distributing rates of 3 g?m–2 a week using a motorised dust sprayer. Among the plant growth parameters, the leaf area index was increased by 3% - 14%, depending on the year, suggesting that the plants were able to absorb the carbon settling on the leaves. The black carbon reduced the albedo of the canopy by 17.5% - 21.8%, depending on the year, forcing the polluted maize to absorb more energy. Part of this surplus energy was utilised for increased evapotranspiration (3.9% and 11% in the two years) and to raise the surface temperature of the canopy by 1℃ - 2℃ during the mid-day hours. The effect of the contamination on maize was more intense in the hot, dry year. The unfavourable effect of soot on maize fertilisation could be observed as a significant increase in the number of deformed ears, leading to a reduction in grain dry matter. The reduction in dry matter yield for polluted maize grown with irrigation in the evapotranspirometer was far less severe than that on non-irrigated plots, suggesting that irrigation was the most obvious solution for mitigating the negative effects of contamination with airborne soot.
Analysis of Cardiotocogram Data for Fetal Distress Determination by Decision Tree Based Adaptive Boosting Approach  [PDF]
Esra Mahsereci Karabulut, Turgay Ibrikci
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.29005

Cardiotocography is one of the most widely used technique for recording changes in fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contractions. Assessing cardiotocography is crucial in that it leads to iden- tifying fetuses which suffer from lack of oxygen, i.e. hypoxia. This situation is defined as fetal dis- tress and requires fetal intervention in order to prevent fetus death or other neurological disease caused by hypoxia. In this study a computer-based approach for analyzing cardiotocogram in- cluding diagnostic features for discriminating a pathologic fetus. In order to achieve this aim adaptive boosting ensemble of decision trees and various other machine learning algorithms are employed.

Turkish Studies , 2010,
Abstract: In this study we will deal with passive structures without passive morphology in Turkic dialects. As is known there are two allomorfs using for transforming an active verb into a passive one in Turkic language. These mostly are –l- and –n-. On the other hand there are some typologies which carry passive voice without an active morphology like Turkic type participle constructions. In order to examine this kind of typology we will look at the deep structure and surface structure of Turkic dialects and make use of the rules called empty categories and government and binding principles. Bu al mada Türk dilinin yüklemi edilginle tirici bi imbirimleri olan –l- ve –n- olmadan da edilgen at olu turabildi ini g stermeye al aca z. zellikle s fat-fiilli yap larda ortaya kan etken morfolojili edilgen at lar Türk dilinin hemen bütün evrelerinde g rülebilmektedir. Etken yap l edilgen at tipolojisini ortaya koymak i in üretken D nü ümlü Dilbilgisi Kuram 'n n dilin iki düzlemi olarak tan mlad derin yap ve yüzey yap ba lant s na dikkat ekece iz. Buna ilave olarak bo luk kuram ve y netim ba lama ilkesinden de faydalanaca z.
Turkish Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Austrian physician Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) as a result of research and findings of 19 by the end of 20th century methods emerged early in the century of psychoanalysis, art and literature has come a significant distance. According to this theory that the subconscious mind accepts that human behavior on the basis of the artist's life, childhood, family, education, diseases and so on. significantly reflected in his work of art. Work in the subconscious of the artist-writer-in this case, reads the triangle is seen. Poets and writers, provide information about the works of psychological structures. Artists spokeswoman for the society in a way has to work through the repressed emotions and reveals. Cahit S tk Taranc poems of tragedy and chaotic discourse, bears the imprint of his psychology. Plane formed by the chaotic circumstances of his tragic poet's internal conflicts constitute an important aspect of poetic. Avusturyal hekim Sigmund Freud un (1856-1939) ara t rmalar ve bulgular neticesinde 19. yüzy l n sonu ile 20. yüzy l n ba lar nda ortaya kan psikanaliz y ntem, sanat ve edebiyatta nemli bir mesafe kat eder. nsan davran lar n n temelinde bilin alt n n bulundu unu kabul eden bu kurama g re, sanat n n hayat , ocuklu u, ailesi, e itimi, hastal klar vb. onun sanat eserine nemli l üde yans r. Bu durumda sanat n n bilin alt yazar-eser-okur ü geninde kar m za kar. air ve yazarlar, eserlerinde psikolojik yap lar hakk nda bilgiler verirler. Sanat bir bak ma toplumun s zcüsü durumundad r ve eseri vas tas yla bast r lm duygular ortaya koyar. Cahit S tk Taranc n n iirlerindeki trajedi ve kaotik s ylem, onun psikolojisinin izlerini ta r. airin i at malar n n kaotik düzlemde olu turdu u trajik durumlar onun poetikas n n nemli bir y nünü te kil eder.
Determination of diametral error using finite elements and experimental method
A. Karabulut
Metalurgija , 2010,
Abstract: This study concerns experimental and numerical analysis on a one-sided bound workpiece on the lathe machine. Cutting force creates deflection on workpiece while turning process is on. Deflection quantity is estimated utilizing Laser Distance Sensor (LDS) with no contact achieved. Also diametral values are detected from different sides of workpiece after each turning operation. It is observed that diametral error differs due to the quantity of the deflection. Diametral error reached a peak where deflection reached a peak. Model which constituted finite elements is verified by experimental results. And also, facts which caused diametral error are determined.
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