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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 506 matches for " Anat Erdreich-Epstein "
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c-Abl Is an Upstream Regulator of Acid Sphingomyelinase in Apoptosis Induced by Inhibition of Integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5
Xiuhai Ren, Jingying Xu, Jason P. Cooper, Min H. Kang, Anat Erdreich-Epstein
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042291
Abstract: Inhibition of integrins αvβ3/αvβ5 by the cyclic function-blocking peptide, RGDfV (Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Val) can induce apoptosis in both normal cells and tumor cells. We show that RGDfV induced apoptosis in ECV-304 carcinoma cells, increased activity and mRNA expression of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), and increased ceramides C16, C18:0, C24:0 and C24:1 while decreasing the corresponding sphingomyelins. siRNA to ASM decreased RGDfV-induced apoptosis as measured by TUNEL, PARP cleavage, mitochondrial depolarization, and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities, as well as by annexinV in a 3D collagen model. These findings indicate a causal role for ASM in RGDfV-induced apoptosis in ECV-304. We have shown that c-Abl, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, also mediates RGDfV-induced apoptosis. However, c-Abl, has not been previously linked to ASM in any system. Here we show that STI-571 (imatinib, inhibitor of c-Abl) inhibited RGDfV-induced ASM activity. Furthermore, STI-571 and c-Abl-siRNA both inhibited RGDfV-induced increase in ASM mRNA, but ASM-siRNA did not affect c-Abl phosphorylation or expression, supporting that c-Abl regulates the RGDfV-induced increase in ASM expression. These studies implicate ASM as a mediator of apoptosis induced by inhibition of integrins αvβ3/αvβ5, and for the first time place c-Abl as an upstream regulator of ASM expression and activity.
Microdeletion del(22)(q12.2) encompassing the facial development-associated gene, MN1 (meningioma 1) in a child with Pierre-Robin sequence (including cleft palate) and neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2): a case report and review of the literature
Tom B Davidson, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, Linda M Randolph, Mark D Krieger, Shi-Qi Wu, Ashok Panigrahy, Hiroyuki Shimada, Anat Erdreich-Epstein
BMC Medical Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-13-19
Abstract: We report a female with PRS (micrognathia, cleft palate), microcephaly, ocular hypertelorism, mental retardation and bilateral hearing loss, who at age 15 was also diagnosed with severe NF2 (bilateral cerebellopontine schwannomas and multiple extramedullary/intradural spine tumors). This is the first published report of an individual with both diagnosed PRS and NF2. High resolution karyotype revealed 46, XX, del(22)(q12.1q12.3), FISH confirmed a deletion encompassing NF2, and chromosomal microarray identified a 3,693 kb deletion encompassing multiple genes including NF2 and MN1 (meningioma 1).Five additional patients with craniofacial dysmorphism and deletion in chromosome 22-adjacent-to or containing NF2 were identified in PubMed and the DECIPHER clinical chromosomal database. Their shared chromosomal deletion encompassed MN1, PITPNB and TTC28. MN1, initially cloned from a patient with meningioma, is an oncogene in murine hematopoiesis and participates as a fusion gene (TEL/MN1) in human myeloid leukemias. Interestingly, Mn1-haploinsufficient mice have abnormal skull development and secondary cleft palate. Additionally, Mn1 regulates maturation and function of calvarial osteoblasts and is an upstream regulator of Tbx22, a gene associated with murine and human cleft palate. This suggests that deletion of MN1 in the six patients we describe may be causally linked to their cleft palates and/or craniofacial abnormalities.Thus, our report describes a NF2-adjacent chromosome 22q12.2 deletion syndrome and is the first to report association of MN1 deletion with abnormal craniofacial development and/or cleft palate in humans.Pierre-Robin sequence (PRS) refers to a combination of micrognathia or retrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress, with or without cleft palate, named after the French stomatologist, Pierre Robin [1-5]. The incidence of PRS is estimated at 1 in 8,500-14,000 births and continues to be associated with high morbidity secondary to a compromised air
Gliovascular and cytokine interactions modulate brain endothelial barrier in vitro
Ganta V Chaitanya, Walter E Cromer, Shannon R Wells, Merilyn H Jennings, P Olivier Couraud, Ignacio A Romero, Babette Weksler, Anat Erdreich-Epstein, J Michael Mathis, Alireza Minagar, J Steven Alexander
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-162
Abstract: The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a unique astrocyte-capillary-endothelial complex which maintains CNS homeostatic fluid balance, and serves as a first line of defense protecting the brain and parenchyma against pathogens, as well as blood-borne leukocytes and hormones, neurotransmitters and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines [1,2]. The loss of BBB structural integrity and function plays a central role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, meningitis, brain tumors, intracerebral hemorrhage and stroke [3-10]. Many reports in the literature indicate that loss of BBB in neuroinflammation represents a result of complex often continuous interactions between the BBB and immune cells, adhesive determinants and inflammatory cytokines, all of which may be relevant targets for therapy [11-18]. While several studies have modeled interactions between astrocytes and brain endothelial cells, fewer studies have considered how this gliovascular unit might be dysregulated by the combined influences of metabolic stress and cytokine exposure.Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cells in the CNS, playing crucial roles in cerebral ion homeostasis, neuro-transmitter regulation, structural and metabolic support of neuronal and endothelial cells and BBB maintenance [19-21]. Furthermore, astrocytes provide an important link between neuronal and vascular units in the glucose-lactate shuttle and in modulating Ca2+ responses [22-29]. Importantly, astrocytes have been shown to play divergent roles in various pathologic conditions [29-32]. For example, following ischemic strokes, astrocytes protect neurons [33-35] by secreting several neurotrophic factors like glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor [36], neurotrophin-3 [37,38], transforming growth factor-β1 [39], and vascular endothelial growth factor [40]. Astrocytes can also secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 which would be anticipated to aggr
Les marranes du xxe siècle
Anat Plocker
Bulletin du Centre de Recherche Fran?ais de Jérusalem , 2012,
Abstract: Following the June 1967 War in the Middle East, the Polish communist regime launched an anti-Zionists campaign targeting the country’s Jews. In accordance with the Soviet position on the war, the Polish government severed relation with Israel and attacked Poland’s Jews, accusing them of supporting Israel against the official stance. The campaign intensified after student demonstrations in March 1968. As a result, thousands of Jews immigrated to Israel. This paper tells the story of the Israeli view on the anti-Zionist campaign and the new Polish-Jewish immigrants, or Olim, the Hebrew term. Relying on the Israeli press, the paper aims to reconstruct how mainstream Israel saw Polish Jewish relations and conceived of Polish Jews outraged the Israelis. It shows that Polish Jews, recently expelled from the country they considered home, received little sympathy in Israeli newspapers. The Hebrew press presented them as wayward sons of Israel, as men and women who had chosen the wrong path and betrayed their people. According to this narrative, Polish Jews should have foreseen that antisemitism would raise its head again in Poland. In some ways, the Israeli discourse mirrored the Polish one – in both cases Jews could not escape their natural-born identity and had only one homeland, the state of Israel.
L’immigration juive et l’établissement de la communauté nationale hébra que dans la ville mixte de Ha fa
Anat Kidron
Bulletin du Centre de Recherche Fran?ais de Jérusalem , 2011,
Abstract: La communauté nationale hébra que de Ha fa s’est développée au fil de l’immigration sioniste en Isra l. Jusqu’à présent, la recherche historique a essentiellement porté sur l’intégration des immigrés au sein des institutions sionistes. La recherche sur le secteur urbain s’est penchée sur Tel Aviv et sur les colonies juives, et des études ont été faites sur Jérusalem, centre du Yichouv. Cet article examine l’influence de l’immigration sur le développement de communautés hébra ques dans les vil...
Jewish Immigration and the Establishment of the National Hebrew Community in the ‘Mixed City’ of Haifa L’immigration juive et l’établissement de la communauté nationale hébra que dans la ville mixte de Ha fa
Anat Kidron
Bulletin du Centre de Recherche Fran?ais de Jérusalem , 2011,
Abstract: The national Hebrew community of Haifa developed as a result of the Zionist immigration to Israel. To date, the historic research has dealt mainly with the integration of immigrants at the Zionist central institutions. Urban research focused on Tel Aviv and on the Hebrew colonies. Papers have also been written about Jerusalem, the center of the Jewish Yishuv. This paper examines the influence of immigration on the developing Hebrew communities in ‘mixed cities,’ and the nature of the relation...
Sharpness of Zapolsky inequality for quasi-states and Poisson brackets
Anat Amir
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Zapolsky inequality gives a lower bound for the L1 norm of the Poisson bracket of a pair of C1 functions on the two-dimensional sphere by means of quasi-states. Here we show that this lower bound is sharp.
Learning from the problems of problem-based learning
Richard Epstein
BMC Medical Education , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-4-1
Abstract: Analysis of the literature indicates that the recent rapid rise of PBL has closely paralleled the timing of the information explosion. The growing dominance of PBL could thus worsen the problems of information management in medical education via several mechanisms: first, by creating the impression that a defined spectrum of core factual knowledge suffices for clinical competence despite ongoing knowledge expansion (quality cost); second, by dissuading teachers from refining the educational utility of didactic modalities (improvement cost); and third, by reducing faculty time for developing reusable resources to impart factual knowledge more efficiently (opportunity cost).These costs of PBL imply a need for strengthening the knowledge base of 21st-century medical graduates. New initiatives towards this end could include the development of more integrated cognitive techniques for facilitating the comprehension of complex data; the design of differentiated medical curricula for producing graduates with defined high-priority skill sets; and the encouragement of more cost-effective faculty teaching activities focused on the prototyping and testing of innovative commercializable educational tools.Many doctors have commented that their medical education began in earnest on the first day that they entered the hospital wards as a hands-on practitioner. Claims of this kind support the view that the apprenticeship model of professional learning – which has been the backbone of training in the healing arts for thousands of years [1] – remains as central to medical career development today as ever [2]. A perennial complaint of the medical apprentice-in-training is that there are too few structured teaching activities within the busy world of postgraduate work [3], a concern which many institutions have addressed by developing formalised continuing education initiatives reminiscent of medical school courses [4-6]. Predictably, different complaints prevail at the pre-licensure ph
O dilema do prisioneiro e a ética
Epstein, Isaac;
Estudos Avan?ados , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-40141995000100010
Abstract: historically the words altruism and ethics ocurre rather in religious or philosophical discourses than in texts about behavioral sciences. recently, however, a theoretical approach of one kind of human interaction called prisioner's dilemma generated softwares designed by researchers in the field that simulate this situation. the results of computer tournamentes among different designs of softwares reveals that those strategies based in cooperation gave to their performers a better chance of survival then the softwares based on predatory or competitive strategies.
Chronic idiopathic constipation
D Epstein
Continuing Medical Education , 2009,
Abstract: The function of the colon is to conserve water, split dietary fibre by the action of colonic bacteria and allow the expulsion of residue at a convenient time.
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