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OALib Journal期刊

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EPQ Policies Considering the Holding Cost of Raw Materials with Two-Level Trade Credit under Alternate Due Date of Payment and Limited Storage Capacity  [PDF]
Ghi-Feng Yen, Shy-Der Lin, An-Kuo Lee
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105041
Abstract:
The traditional Economic Production Quantity (EPQ) model focused on production process, used the ordering cost that includes relevant costs during the pre-production process. But, the ordering cost comprises the holding of raw materials that would affected by other factors would increase the total relevant cost, it cannot simply use the ordering cost to cover all. Therefore, this paper presents a new inventory model by considering the holding of raw materials under conditions of two-level trade credit under alternate due date of payment and limited storage capacity. According to cost-minimization strategy it develops four theorems to characterize the optimal solutions. Finally, it executes the sensitivity analysis and investigates the effects of the parameters in the annual total relevant costs.
EPQ Policies Considering the Holding Cost of Raw Materials under Conditions of Two-Level Trade Credit and Limited Storage Capacity  [PDF]
Ghi-Feng Yen, Shy-Der Lin, An-Kuo Lee
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105140
Abstract:
The economic production quantity model is widely used as a decision making tool. However, climate change and energy supply instability have raised the transport costs of raw materials, thereby affecting production costs. Therefore, this paper presents a new model that considers the holding costs of raw materials under conditions of two-level trade credit and limited storage capacity. Four theorems are developed to characterize the optimal solutions according to a cost-minimization strategy. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs.
GSK3beta-Mediated Drp1 Phosphorylation Induced Elongated Mitochondrial Morphology against Oxidative Stress
Chia-Hua Chou, Ching-Chih Lin, Ming-Chang Yang, Chih-Chang Wei, Huei-De Liao, Run-Chin Lin, Wen-Yu Tu, Tsung-Chieh Kao, Ching-Mei Hsu, Jiin-Tsuey Cheng, An-Kuo Chou, Chu-I Lee, Joon-Khim Loh, Shen-Long Howng, Yi-Ren Hong
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049112
Abstract: Multiple phosphorylation sites of Drp1 have been characterized for their functional importance. However, the functional consequence of GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 remains unclear. In this report, we pinpointed 11 Serine/Threonine sites spanning from residue 634~736 of the GED domain and robustly confirmed Drp1 Ser693 as a novel GSK3beta phosphorylation site. Our results suggest that GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation at Ser693 does cause a dramatic decrease of GTPase activity; in contrast, GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation at Ser693 appears not to affect Drp1 inter-/intra-molecular interactions. After identifying Ser693 as a GSK3beta phosphorylation site, we also determined that K679 is crucial for GSK3beta-binding, which strongly suggests that Drp1 is a novel substrate for GSK3beta. Thereafter, we found that overexpressed S693D, but not S693A mutant, caused an elongated mitochondrial morphology which is similar to that of K38A, S637D and K679A mutants. Interestedly, using H89 and LiCl to inhibit PKA and GSK3beta signaling, respectively, it appears that a portion of the elongated mitochondria switched to a fragmented phenotype. In investigating the biofunctionality of phosphorylation sites within the GED domain, cells overexpressing Drp1 S693D and S637D, but not S693A, showed an acquired resistance to H2O2-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and ensuing apoptosis, which affected cytochrome c, capase-3, -7, and PARP, but not LC3B, Atg-5, Beclin-1 and Bcl2 expressions. These results also showed that the S693D group is more effective in protecting both non-neuronal and neuronal cells from apoptotic death than the S637D group. Altogether, our data suggest that GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation at Ser693 of Drp1 may be associated with mitochondrial elongation via down-regulating apoptosis, but not autophagy upon H2O2 insult.
Adenoviral-Mediated Glial Cell Line–Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Transfer Has a Protective Effect on Sciatic Nerve Following Constriction-Induced Spinal Cord Injury
An-Kuo Chou, Ming-Chang Yang, Hung-Pei Tsai, Chee-Yin Chai, Ming-Hong Tai, Aij-Li Kwan, Yi-Ren Hong
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092264
Abstract: Neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury may be associated with abnormal central nerve activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can help attenuate neuropathic pain in different animal models of nerve injury. However, whether GDNF can ameliorate neuropathic pain in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in constriction-induced peripheral nerve injury remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated GDNF on neuropathic pain behaviors, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and programmed cell death in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) nerve injury animal model. In this study, neuropathic pain was produced by CCI on the ipsilateral SCDH. Mechanical allodynia was examined with von Frey filaments and thermal sensitivity was tested using a plantar test apparatus post-operatively. Target proteins GDNF-1, GDNFRa-1, MMP2, MMP9, p38, phospho-p38, ED1, IL6, IL1β, AIF, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, SPECTRIN, cleaved SPECTRIN, Beclin-1, PKCσ, PKCγ, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS were detected. Microglial activity was measured by observing changes in immunoreactivity with OX-42. NeuN and TUNEL staining were used to reveal whether apoptosis was attenuated by GDNF. Results showed that administrating GDNF began to attenuate both allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7. CCI-rats were found to have lower GDNF and GDNFRa-1 expression compared to controls, and GDNF re-activated their expression. Also, GDNF significantly down-regulated CCI-induced protein expression except for MMP2, eNOS and nNOS, indicating that the protective action of GDNF might be associated with anti-inflammation and prohibition of microglia activation. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that GDNF reduced CCI-induced neuronal apoptosis. In sum, GDNF enhanced the neurotrophic effect by inhibiting microglia activation and cytokine production via p38 and PKC signaling. GDNF could be a good therapeutic tool to attenuate programmed cell death, including apoptosis and autophagy, consequent to CCI-induced peripheral nerve injury.
Inverse Scattering from a Sound-Hard Crack via Two-Step Method
Kuo-Ming Lee
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/810676
Abstract: We present a two-step method for recovering an unknown sound-hard crack in ?2 from the measured far-field pattern. This method, based on a two-by-two system of nonlinear integral equations, splits the reconstruction into two consecutive steps which consists of a forward and an inverse problems. In this spirit, only the latter needs to be regularized.
AN OVERVIEW OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES
CHIEN KUO LEE
Annual Review of Education, Communication and Language Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: This paper aims to talk about the development of language learning strategy since the 1970s. It will provide information about of the use of language learning strategies, which will enhance English learning for non-native learners. Further, the betterunderstanding of language learning strategies for English teachers can help students to learn more successfully and develop their learning autonomy. To this end, this paper can also serve as a research reference in the field of language learning strategies, particularly the relationship between a different language learning cultural background and the use of strategy as well as leading us to the current status of learning strategies and learning strategies instruction.
Ionic Liquid as Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitor for Flow Assurance in Pipeline
Lee Kuo Chun,Azuraien Jaafar
Asian Journal of Scientific Research , 2013,
Abstract: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIM BF4) was explored in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas mixture for its potential application as gas hydrate inhibitors for CO2 hydrate (Type I). Induction time was the parameter obtained using High Pressure Kinetics Measurement (HPKM) for a bulk volume of 130 mL. The temperature for all the experiments was kept constant at 275.0 K (2°C) with the pressure varied at 25, 30 and 35 bar. The ionic liquid was tested as a kinetic inhibitor as well as thermodynamic inhibitor. In practice, kinetic inhibitors are typically used at concentrations of 1 wt.% or less, thus, the experiment was conducted for three different concentrations of the ionic liquid; 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% at varying pressures. EMIM BF4 at a concentration of 10.0 wt.% was also tested but at 30 bar only to study the effectiveness of ionic liquid as thermodynamic inhibitors. It was found that the induction time for CO2 hydrate formation increases in the presence of more highly concentrated ionic liquid. However, at high concentration of 10.0 wt.%, EMIM BF4 does not show significant changes in the induction time as CO2 hydrate inhibitor.
Rapidity Gap of Weakly Coupled Leptoquark Production in ep Collider
T. K. Kuo,Taekoon Lee
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1142/S0217732397002454
Abstract: We show that the current bounds on the leptoquark couplings imply that if leptoquarks are produced in e p collisions, a significant fraction of them could form a leptoquark-quark bound state. The decay of the bound state has a distinct event shape with rapidity gap. A possible application of this observation in the leptoquark search at HERA is discussed.
Effect of Gold Nanoparticle Conjugation on Peptide Dynamics and Structure
Kuo Hao Lee,F. Marty Ytreberg
Entropy , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/e14040630
Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations were used to characterize the structure and dynamics for several peptides and the effect of conjugating them to a gold nanoparticle. Peptide structure and dynamics were compared for two cases: unbound peptides in water, and peptides bound to the gold nanoparticle surface in water. The results show that conjugating the peptides to the gold nanoparticle usually decreases conformational entropy, but sometimes increases entropy. Conjugating the peptides can also result in more extended structures or more compact structures depending on the amino acid sequence of the peptide. The results also suggest that if one wishes to use peptide-nanoparticle conjugates for drug delivery it is important that the peptides contain secondary structure in solution because in our simulations the peptides with little to no secondary structure adsorbed to the nanoparticle surface.
Assessing Measurement Noise Effect in Run-to-Run Process Control: Extends EWMA Controller by Kalman Filter
Tzu-Wei Kuo, An-Chen Lee
International Journal of Automation and Smart Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.5875/ausmt.v1i1.71
Abstract: Recently, the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) controller has become a popular control method in Run-to-Run (RtR) process control, but the issue of measurement noise from metrology tools has not been addressed in RtR EWMA controllers yet. This paper utilizes a Kalman Filter (KF) controller to deal with measurement noise in RtR process control and investigates the output properties for steady-state mean and variance, and for closed-loop stability. Five disturbance models modeling semiconductor process disturbances are investigated. These disturbance models consist of Deterministic Trend (DT), Random Walk with Drift (RWD), Integrated Moving Average process (IMA(1,1)), AutoRegressive Moving Average (ARMA(1,1)), and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA(1,1,1)). Analytical results show that a KF controller can be considered as an extended version of a RtR EWMA controller. In particular, the EWMA controller is a special case of KF in a filtering form without the capability of measuring noise. Simulation results also show that the KF has a better ability to deal with measurement noise than the EWMA controller.
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