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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 140985 matches for " Amy K Wesa "
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Visualizing arthritic inflammation and therapeutic response by fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging (19F MRI)
Anthony Balducci, Brooke M Helfer, Eric T Ahrens, Charles F O'Hanlon, Amy K Wesa
Journal of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-9-24
Abstract: Collagen-induced arthritis in rats, a model with many similarities to human RA, was used to study the ability of the PFC contrast agent to reveal the accumulation of inflammation over time using 19F MRI. Disease progression in the rat hind limbs was monitored by caliper measurements and 19F MRI on days 15, 22 and 29, including the height of clinically symptomatic disease. Na?ve rats served as controls. The capacity of the PFC contrast agent and 19F MRI to assess the effectiveness of therapy was studied in a cohort of rats administered oral prednisolone on days 14 to 28.Quantification of 19F signal measured by MRI in affected limbs was linearly correlated with disease severity. In animals with progressive disease, increases in 19F signal reflected the ongoing recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site, while no increase in 19F signal was observed in animals receiving treatment which resulted in clinical resolution of disease.These results indicate that 19F MRI may be used to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate longitudinal responses to a therapeutic regimen, while additionally revealing the recruitment of monocytic cells involved in the inflammatory process to the anatomical site. This study may support the use of 19F MRI to clinically quantify and monitor the severity of inflammation, and to assess the effectiveness of treatments in RA and other diseases with an inflammatory component.
Increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced T cell responses after activation of human dendritic cells with IL-1 and CD40 ligand
Amy Wesa, Anne Galy
BMC Immunology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-3-14
Abstract: Human DC co-activated in vitro by CD40L and IL-1β expressed numerous cytokine genes including IL-12β, IL-23 p19, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-1Ra, IL-10, IL-6, IL-18 and IFN-γ. These DC produced high levels of IL-12 protein and appeared capable of producing IFN-γ. Potent CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-stimulatory properties were acquired by DC under conditions that also induced IL-12. Notably, these DC induced rapid differentiation of fluMP-specific CD8+ T cells. Molecules related to IL-1β, like IL-1α, co-induced IL-12 secretion whereas IL-18 did not. Conversely, the inhibitor IL-1Ra, produced endogenously by DC curtailed IL-12 production in response to CD40L.IL-1 and IL-1Ra play a biologically-relevant role in the positive and negative regulation of DC activation. In conjunction with CD40L, IL-1 sends a powerful activation signal to DC that could be distinguished from other modes of activation. This signal enables the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by DC, and enhances the differentiation of na?ve T cells into effectors of type-1 cellular immune responses.Dendritic cells (DC) are highly effective antigen presenting cells (APCs) capable of stimulating the differentiation of na?ve lymphocytes into effector cells (reviewed in [1]). Specific properties of the DC determine the quality of immune responses that they initiate. These properties are determined by complex and dynamic changes both in the DC and in its environment. Notably, DC undergo a so-called process of maturation that changes migratory properties, diminishes antigen uptake, enhances antigen processing and presentation and induces the production of an array of cytokines (reviewed in [2]). The qualitative, quantitative and temporal regulation of cytokines produced by DC is thought to be a determining factor in the development of immune responses initiated by these APCs but molecules and mechanisms that regulate such process are not entirely understood.Activated T cells provide strong stimuli that activate cytokine produc
‘”A heuristic event”: reconsidering the problem of the Johnsian conversation
Amy K. Hamlin
Journal of Art Historiography , 2012,
Abstract: The contemporary American artist Jasper Johns is notorious for being difficult to interview. Frustrated by his resistance to the kind of interpretive strategies his artwork seems to invite, critics and art historians have fueled the myth of the Johnsian conversation. This essay is based on a careful reconsideration of the many interviews that Johns has given in the course of his career and asks: what is to be learned from Johns’ interviews? It offers analysis of several interviews as sites of ‘a heuristic event’. A phrase borrowed from Leo Steinberg’s groundbreaking essay on Johns, ‘a heuristic event’ offers the reader an opportunity to reevaluate her interpretation of the interview, to learn from it something about how meaning is generated and operates in Johns’ work.
Vision Screening in the Pediatrician’s Office  [PDF]
Natario L. Couser, Fatema Q. Esmail, Amy K. Hutchinson
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2012.22003
Abstract: Objective: To assess current practices, attitudes, and perceived barriers toward pediatric vision screening. Patients and Methods: A link to a 9-question survey was electronically distributed to a national sample of 6000 pediatricians through Medical Marketing Services Inc. Data were collected using Survey Monkey. Results: Email open rate was 11%; 37% of those who opened the email responded (225 respondents). Over ninety percent of respondents perform some type of vision screening at least yearly, although age at which screening began varied, with two thirds of respondents instituting formal vision screening after three years. Fifty eight percent of respondents were either extremely unsatisfied, unsatisfied or only somewhat satisfied with their current screening method. Preferred methods of screening and confidence of pediatricians in their ability to detect pathology varied for children under versus over age three. The least frequently used methods for all age groups were autorefraction and photoscreening. The most commonly reported barriers to screening were inadequate training (48%), time required for exam (42%), and inadequate reimbursement (32%). Conclusions: Perceived barriers to vision screening in the pediatrician office have been previously identified, and photoscreening and autorefraction have been identified as a possible means to circumvent them. In spite of the addition of new procedural codes, pediatricians continue to report similar barriers to screening.
Hormonally modulated migraine is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms within genes involved in dopamine metabolism  [PDF]
Amy K. Sullivan, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, F. Michael Cutrer
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2013.32A3006
Abstract: Migraine is a complex trait in which multiple genetic loci, as well as environmental factors, likely contribute to its clinical manifestation. Many genetic associations reported in previous studies either have not been replicated to date or showed only marginal statistical significance, possibly due to the genetic heterogeneity of the common forms of migraine. One major phenotypic and possibly genetically identifiable migraine subgroup consists of women whose attacks are influenced by fluctuation in gonadal hormones. We hypothesized that for these women, the association between migraine attacks and the menstrual cycle might be attributable to an increased prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. We selected 21 such polymerphisms previously reported to be associated with the common forms of migraine and genotyped 1740 individuals (1132 migraineurs) to determine whether any of these selected polymorphisms occurred more frequently in females with hormonally modulated migraine. We were able to confirm the association of migraine with 3 genetic polymorphisms seen in previous studies (rs4680 [COMT], rs2283265 [DRD2], and rs7131056 [DRD2]). Interestingly, we found 2 additional genetic polymorphisms (rs2070762 [TH] and rs6356 [TH]) to be associated with migraine when defining the phenotype as hormonally modulated migraine.

Monitoring Heavy Metals near Wastewater Facility in Delaware Inland Bays Tidal Canal  [PDF]
Amy C. Cannon, Lathadevi K. Chintapenta, Gulnihal Ozbay
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.98065
Abstract: NOAA National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Report indicate the Delaware Bay has regionally medium levels of Cd and high levels of Pb. Environment New Jersey, a non-profit environmental group, reported the Delaware River, providing drinking water to millions, as the fifth most-polluted river in the country. These concerns resulted in this study monitoring water quality conditions near a wastewater facility in Delaware. Physical water quality parameters were measured, along with heavy metals Cd and Pb. Mean metal levels were consistently low at the wastewater discharge (1.3 μg/L Cd, 5.1 μg/L Pb), and high at the control location (9.2 μg/L Cd and 11.5 μg/L of Pb). Relationships were observed between heavy metals, salinity and pH levels. Results suggest water treated by the facility does not pose heavy metal contamination risks to the Lewes Rehoboth Canal. Further studies are warranted to seek heavy metal sources at the control point, farthest from the waste water treatment facility.
Crystal structure of subunit VPS25 of the endosomal trafficking complex ESCRT-II
Amy K Wernimont, Winfried Weissenhorn
BMC Structural Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6807-4-10
Abstract: Here we report the crystal structure of Vps25 at 3.1 ? resolution. Vps25 crystallizes in a dimeric form and each monomer is composed of two winged helix domains arranged in tandem. Structural comparisons detect no conformational changes between unliganded Vps25 and Vps25 within the ESCRT-II complex composed of two Vps25 copies and one copy each of Vps22 and Vps36 [1,2].Our structural analyses present a framework for studying Vps25 interactions with ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III partners. Winged helix domain containing proteins have been implicated in nucleic acid binding and it remains to be determined whether Vps25 has a similar activity which might play a role in the proposed transcriptional control exerted by Vps25 and/or the whole ESCRT-II complex.Endosomal compartments receive membrane bound cargo from both the biosynthetic and the endocytic pathways. Receptor downregulation by endocytosis includes transport to early endosomes and either recycling or sorting into late endosomes. The latter have the morphological characteristics of multivesicular bodies (MVB) [3] that can undergo homotypic fusion or heterotypic fusion with lysosomes, which deliver MVB cargo for proteolytic degradation [4]. In addition to receptor downregulation, MVB formation has been implicated in antigen presentation [5] and in the release of enveloped viruses [6,7].Gene deletion and inactivation studies in yeast have identified 17 proteins that directly affect MVB formation (yeast class E compartment) by resulting in aberrant endosomal/vacuolar morphology [4]. All proteins are required for vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) into the class E compartment and are recruited to endosomal membranes from the cytosol in order to assemble into three ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complexes Requited for Transport) complexes that function in MVB formation [8-11]. Receptor mono-ubiquitinylation has been shown to serve as a signal to enter the MVB pathway [12]. Initial recognition of ubiquitinated cargo by Vps27 recruits t
The Impact of Volunteering on Seniors’ Health and Quality of Life: An Assessment of the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program  [PDF]
Theodore W. McDonald, Erica L. Chown, Jordan E. Tabb, Amy K. Schaeffer, Elsa K. M. Howard
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A042

Past research suggests that senior citizens often face challenges related to deteriorating physical and mental health, and the quality of their lives may suffer as a result. Past research also suggests that volunteering can improve the health and quality of life for seniors. In the present study, 451 volunteers enrolled in the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) completed surveys including questions regarding their volunteer experiences and how these experiences have affected their health and quality of life. The results suggest that volunteering through RSVP is associated with improvements in health and quality of life across a variety of dimensions. Furthermore, these improvements may be particularly greater for women, current volunteers, and older seniors. These findings may help guide interventions designed to enhance the health and well-being of senior citizens in a variety of settings.

Motor-vehicle crashes during pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study  [PDF]
Harold B. Weiss, Erin K. Sauber-Schatz, Amy H. Herring
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2011.14039
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of motor-vehicle pregnant driver crashes in Pennsylvania using vital statistics linked to police and ambulance reports. This was supplemented with a review of national age and sex specific crash and fertility data to put this risk into perspective and rank the likelihood for pregnancy-related crashes in other states. Methods: Motor vehicle police crash reports from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation were probabilistically linked to four years of birth and fetal death data and five years of infant death records and ambulance reports. State specific motor-vehicle traffic injury rates (fatal and non-fatal) were compared to birth rates, by age, for women ages 15 - 34. Results: 5929 (1.1%) of the women with a birth or fetal death linked to a police reported motor vehicle driver crash during pregnancy. One-third (32.5%) of these crashes resulted in minor maternal injuries and 7.5% resulted in moderate to fatal maternal injuries. Crashes were evenly distributed across gestational ages. Young drivers (20 - 24) were at highest risk. Police reported non-belt use was 10%. Conclusions: This study quantifies the risk of motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy in Pennsylvania and offers a perspective on potential variations in other states. Pregnancy related crashes occur at a higher rate than infant related crashes with a concomitant threat to the fetus and new-born not usually tracked within current crash data systems.
SWAT Model Prediction of Phosphorus Loading in a South Carolina Karst Watershed with a Downstream Embayment  [PDF]
Devendra M. Amatya, Manoj K. Jha, Thomas M. Williams, Amy E. Edwards, Daniel R. Hitchcock
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.47A010

The SWAT model was used to predict total phosphorus (TP) loadings for a 1555-ha karst watershed—Chapel Branch Creek (CBC)—which drains to a lake via a reservoir-like embayment (R-E). The model was first tested for monthly streamflow predictions from tributaries draining three potential source areas as well as the downstream R-E, followed by TP loadings using data collected March 2007-October 2009. Source areas included 1) a golf course that received applied wastewater, 2) urban areas, highway, and some agricultural lands, and 3) a cave spring draining a second golf course along with agricultural and forested areas, including a substantial contribution of subsurface water via karst connectivity. SWAT predictions of mean monthly TP loadings at the first two source outlets were deemed reasonable. However, the predictions at the cave spring outlet were somewhat poorer, likely due to diffuse variable groundwater flow from an unknown drainage area larger than the actual surface watershed, for which monthly subsurface flow was represented as a point source during simulations. Further testing of the SWAT model to predict monthly TP loadings at the R-E, modeled as a completely mixed system, resulted in their over-predictions most of the months, except when high lake water levels occurred. The mean monthly and annual flows were calibrated to acceptable limits with the exception of flow over-prediction when lake levels were low and surface water from tributaries disappeared into karst connections. The discrepancy in TP load predictions was attributed primarily to the use of limited monthly TP data collected during baseflow in the embayment. However, for the 22-month period, over-prediction of mean monthly TP load (34.6 kg/mo) by 13% compared to measured load (30.6 kg/mo) in the embayment was deemed acceptable. Simulated results showed a 42% reduction in TP load due to settling in the embayment.

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