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Systemic immune challenges trigger and drive Alzheimer-like neuropathology in mice
Dimitrije Krstic, Amrita Madhusudan, Jana Doehner, Prisca Vogel, Tina Notter, Claudine Imhof, Abigail Manalastas, Martina Hilfiker, Sandra Pfister, Cornelia Schwerdel, Carsten Riether, Urs Meyer, Irene Knuesel
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-151
Abstract: The viral mimic, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyI:C) was used to stimulate the immune system of experimental animals. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice were exposed to this cytokine inducer prenatally (gestation day (GD)17) and/or in adulthood. Behavioral, immunological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses of AD-associated neuropathologic changes were performed during aging.We found that a systemic immune challenge during late gestation predisposes WT mice to develop AD-like neuropathology during the course of aging. They display chronic elevation of inflammatory cytokines, an increase in the levels of hippocampal amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its proteolytic fragments, altered Tau phosphorylation, and mis-sorting to somatodendritic compartments, and significant impairments in working memory in old age. If this prenatal infection is followed by a second immune challenge in adulthood, the phenotype is strongly exacerbated, and mimics AD-like neuropathologic changes. These include deposition of APP and its proteolytic fragments, along with Tau aggregation, microglia activation and reactive gliosis. Whereas Aβ peptides were not significantly enriched in extracellular deposits of double immune-challenged WT mice at 15 months, they dramatically increased in age-matched immune-challenged transgenic AD mice, precisely around the inflammation-induced accumulations of APP and its proteolytic fragments, in striking similarity to the post-mortem findings in human patients with AD.Chronic inflammatory conditions induce age-associated development of an AD-like phenotype in WT mice, including the induction of APP accumulations, which represent a seed for deposition of aggregation-prone peptides. The PolyI:C mouse model therefore provides a unique tool to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the earliest pathophysiological changes preceding fibrillary Aβ plaque deposition and neurofibrillary tangle formations in a physiological context of
Ambient Air Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compound (NMVOC) Study Initiatives in India–A Review  [PDF]
Amrita Talapatra, Anjali Srivastava
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.21003
Abstract: Different aspects of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are being investigated in details by different research groups in Indian institutes. The spectrum covers measuring technologies, source apportionment and variability studies, all these are in due process of preparing a guideline for the sustainable development in terms of industrial, infrastructural as well as overall growth of the country. Both the outdoor and indoor air quality has significant impact on human health. With special concentration on BTEX and HAPs, the health related investigations are conducted as part of interdisciplinary studies of environmental science. Newer technologies to remove VOCs under specific industrial and practical conditions are getting emerged as a comparatively new era. It addresses fields like adsorption, condensation, pervaporation, biodegradation and catalytic combustion. Besides, different kinds of biofilters have drawn significant attention nowadays. The final selection of appropriate technology depends on type and concentrations of VOCs, extent of separation required and cost involved. All these technologies are although well studied, but could not be adopted for regular commercial usage till date. There is scope to explore new horizons as well as regular monitoring on the introduced pathways to limit VOC emission in the ambient air. This review aims at a concise discussion on all the areas that come under the umbrella of non-methane VOC technologies.
Mapping AADL to Petri Net Tool-Sets Using PNML Framework  [PDF]
Hassan Reza, Amrita Chatterjee
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.711082
Abstract: Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) has been utilized to specify and verify nonfunctional properties of Real-Time Embedded Systems (RTES) used in critical application systems. Examples of such critical application systems include medical devices, nuclear power plants, aerospace, financial, etc. Using AADL, an engineer is enable to analyze the quality of a system. For example, a developer can perform performance analysis such as end-to-end flow analysis to guarantee that system components have the required resources to meet the timing requirements relevant to their communications. The critical issue related to developing and deploying safety critical systems is how to validate the expected level of quality (e.g., safety, performance, security) and functionalities (capabilities) at design level. Currently, the core AADL is extensively applied to analyze and verify quality of RTES embed in the safety critical applications. The notation lacks the formal semantics needed to reason about the logical properties (e.g., deadlock, livelock, etc.) and capabilities of safety critical systems. The objective of this research is to augment AADL with exiting formal semantics and supporting tools in a manner that these properties can be automatically verified. Toward this goal, we exploit Petri Net Markup Language (PNML), which is a standard acting as the intermediate language between different classes of Petri Nets. Using PNML, we interface AADL with different classes of Petri nets, which support different types of tools and reasoning. The justification for using PNML is that the framework provides a context in which interoperability and exchangeability among different models of a system specified by different types of Petri nets is possible. The contributions of our work include a set of mappings and mapping rules between AADL and PNML. To show the feasibility of our approach, a fragment of RT-Embedded system, namely, Cruise Control System has been used.
Madhusudan Karmakar
Tourismos : an International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism , 2011,
Abstract: Ecotourism, the nature based travel with emphasis on education, management, development of sustainable tourism product and activity and wellbeing of the local people is not simply a marginal activity to finance protection of the environment but it has proved to be an engine of growth in many economies of the world. Eco tourism has been recognized as the backbone of economies of many countries. North Bengal being the northern territory of West Bengal of India is fortunate for its rich ecotourism destinations. The present paper will explore the ecotourism landscape of this tract of India. It will also reflect an overview of its impact on the regional economy with six case studies. The paper will be concluded with some problems and management strategies of ecotourism activity of the area.
Aromatic Plant Trade and Livelihood Strategies in Rural Nepal: A Case of Wintergreen in Dolakha District
Madhusudan Subedi
Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/opsa.v11i0.3032
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to assess opportunities for Wintergreen, a natural product's intervention on poverty reduction, strengthening local governance, and improving resource management. DOI: 10.3126/opsa.v11i0.3032 Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology Vol.11 2009 84-103
Changes in Livelihood and Caste Relations in Udipur
Madhusudan Subedi
Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/hjsa.v6i0.10690
Abstract: There have been changes in the economic and social relations in Nepal. The market has been providing opportunities for choosing livelihood options. Livelihood diversification, particularly non-farm, appears to be growing in extent and importance in recent years. Although local wage labor has increased in farm sector, agriculture is not a path out of poverty. The relationship between caste and hereditary occupations has been less significant and there has occurred a significant shift in the bases of power. There is an increase in class consciousness and a decrease in caste consciousness; wealth is replacing birth as the basis of social power and prestige. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hjsa.v6i0.10690 ? Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.6 2014: 86-102
Challenges to Measure and Compare Disability: A Methodological Concern
Madhusudan Subedi
Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8476
Abstract: Disability is a complex multidimensional condition and poses a number of challenges for measurement. Operational measures of disability vary according to the purpose and application of the data and the aspects of disability examined. Various sources can be used to examine the prevalence of disability, but they are not directly comparable because they use different approaches to estimating and measuring disability. The definitional issues underlie some of the difficulties in statistical analysis, and to understand the conceptual questions shaping the efforts of those working in the various fields relating to disability. Disability data of Nepal is no exception, and researchers and organizations that have been working for people with disabilities have questioned the reliability of such data. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8476 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 1-24
Caste System: Theories and Practices in Nepal
Madhusudan Subedi
Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/hjsa.v4i0.4672
Abstract: There has been a long debate in the literature over whether the caste system is a unique social phenomenon or simply one manifestation of processes of social stratification which have a wider generality. New divisions and differentiations have been giving rise to new antagonism and social norms. Caste is not today what it was before 1950; and it has not become completely class or replica of it in Nepal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hjsa.v4i0.4672 Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.IV (2010) 134-159 ?
Uterine Prolapse, Mobile Camp Approach and Body Politics in Nepal
Madhusudan Subedi
Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4511
Abstract: Various studies show that more than 600,000 women in Nepal are suffering from prolapsed uterus and that 200,000 of those needed immediate surgery. Many of the women with prolapse could recall the exact moment they first felt the prolapse and found difficulty to share the problems due to fear of stigma. Stories ranged from seven days immediately after the first delivery to after the birth of the fifth or sixth child; during cooking rice to sneezing and long coughing; fetching water in a big bucket to working in the field. If detected at an early stage, uterine prolapse (UP) can be controlled by pelvic exercises. For severe cases, the remedy is to insert a ring pessary to stop it from descending which has to be changed every four months. In extreme cases, uterine tissue protrudes from the vagina causing extreme discomfort. The only remedy is hysterectomy in which the uterus is surgically removed. The operation costs are about NRs 20,000. The Government of Nepal and other donor organizations have allocated funds to provide services to about 10,000 to 12,000 women suffering from uterine prolapse as humanitarian support each year and services are likely to be expanded in future. Women suffering from UP have not been able to get benefit from such assistance due to deep rooted socio-cultural perceptions and practices. The number of suffering women, on the other hand, would not decrease from existing curative management policy without hammering the root causes of UP. Moreover, a clear vision and strategy is needed to shift from humanitarian aid to a more sustainable public health intervention. Keywords : Camp Approach; Humanitarian Aid; Socio-cultural Practices; Sustainable Policy; Uterine Prolapse DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4511 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.21-40
Afno Manchhe: Unequal Access to Public Resources and Institutions in Nepal
Madhusudan Subedi
Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v8i0.10722
Abstract: This paper highlights the informal inner circle network approach to maintaining relationships and reciprocating favors within a system that significantly affect the performance of incumbents in formal bureaucratic organizations. While this is a general sociological problem in any society, this article deals with how afno manchhe behavior is manifested in Nepal. Without afno manchhe relations, one risks marginalization, disappointments and failures in one’s struggle to realize important goals in life. In such a situation, the malfunctioning of administration and dissatisfaction arise at every level. There is thus a significant relationship between one’s position in afno manchhe networks and inclusion-exclusion processes. This of course has consequences for the widespread practice of corruption in Nepal.
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