Ochratoxin A (OTA) is among the most important mycotoxins, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies it as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B). A total of 121 samples of dried fruits from the central zone of Iran were analyzed for OTA by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The recovery percentages of OTA in spiked dried fruit samples at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 ng/g were found to be 84.9%, 89.3% and 90.4% as mean, respectively. OTA was found in 20.7% of the analyzed samples by average concentration of 6.7 ± 3.9 ng/g. The incidence rates of OTA contamination in dried fig, raising, apricots, and date samples were 10.4%, 44.7%, 6.7% and 10.0%, respectively. The concentrations of OTA in 7.9% of contaminated dried raising samples and 2.1% of dried fig samples were higher than maximum tolerance limit accepted by European Union (10 ng/g). This value reflects that the analyzed samples have a minimal contribution to toxicological risk. To our best knowledge, the present study is the first report of the presence of OTA by ELISA in dried fruit samples in Iran.

Abstract:
Sarcocyst species are intracellular protozoan parasites with an intermediate-definitive host life cycle based on a prey-predator relationship. A sexual stages develop in intermediate hosts after they ingest the oocyst stage from definitive-host feces and terminate with the formation of intramuscular cysts (Sarcocystis). The present study was carried out to find out the incidence of sarcocystosis (in sheep) in three slaughterhouses in Iran. A total of 650 muscle samples of 325 sheep from 4 different age groups were surveyed by the digestion and impression smear examination methods for the presence of Sarcocystis. After slaughtering, esophagus and diaphragm were examined for macroscopic cyst of Sarcocystis. For microscopic cysts, the samples were taken from each one of these tissues for impression smear (Dob smear) and digestion. Macrocysts were found in 4.3% (14/325) of sheep and the highest prevalence was detected in the diaphragm in all age groups. Microcysts were present in 92% (299/325) of sheep. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) statistically between sensitivities of two diagnostic methods (digestion and impression smear) in detecting Sarcocystis species. These results reveal the fact that the environment is heavily contaminated with sporocysts and the ingestion of sporocysts by sheep begins from the young ages in Iran.

Abstract:
We consider the problem of attainability of the best constant in the following critical fractional Hardy-Sobolev inequality: \begin{equation*} \mu_{\gamma,s}(\R^n):= \inf\limits_{u \in H^{\frac{\alpha}{2}} (\R^n)\setminus \{0\}} \frac{ \int_{\R^n} |({-}{ \Delta})^{\frac{\alpha}{4}}u|^2 dx - \gamma \int_{\R^n} \frac{|u|^2}{|x|^{\alpha}}dx }{(\int_{\R^n} \frac{|u|^{2_{\alpha}^*(s)}}{|x|^{s}}dx)^\frac{2}{2_{\alpha}^*(s)}}, \end{equation*} where $0\leq s<\alpha<2$, $n>\alpha$, ${2_{\alpha}^*(s)}:=\frac{2(n-s)}{n-{\alpha}},$ and $\gamma \in \mathbb{R}$. This allows us to establish the existence of nontrivial weak solutions for the following doubly critical problem on $\R^n$, \begin{equation*} \left\{\begin{array}{lll} ({-}{ \Delta})^{\frac{\alpha}{2}}u- \gamma \frac{u}{|x|^{\alpha}}&= |u|^{2_{\alpha}^*-2} u + {\frac{|u|^{2_{\alpha}^*(s)-2}u}{|x|^s}} & \text{in } {\R^n}\\ \hfill u&>0 & \text{in } \R^n, \end{array}\right. \end{equation*} where $2_{\alpha}^*:=\frac{2 n}{n-{\alpha}}$ is the critical $\alpha$-fractional Sobolev exponent, and $\gamma < \gamma_H:=2^\alpha \frac{\Gamma^2(\frac{n+\alpha}{4})}{\Gamma^2(\frac{n-\alpha}{4})}$, the latter being the best fractional Hardy constant on $\R^n$.

Abstract:
In this paper two favorite artificial intelligence methods: ANN and SVM are proposed as a means to achieve accurate question level diagnosis, intelligent question classification and updates of the question model in intelligent learning environments such as E-Learning or distance education platforms. This paper reports the investigation of the effectiveness and performances of two favorite artificial intelligence methods: ANN and SVM within a web-based environment (E-Learning) in the testing part of an undergraduate course that is “History of Human Civilizations” to observe their question classification abilities depending on the item responses of students, item difficulties of questions and question levels that are determined by putting the item difficulties to Gaussian Normal Curve. The effective nesses of ANN and SVM methods were evaluated by comparing the performances and class correct nesses of the sample questions using the same 3 inputs as: item responses, item difficulties, question levels to 5018 rows of data that are the item responses of students in a test composed of 13 questions. The comparative test performance analysis conducted using the classification correctness revealed yielded better performances than the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM).

Abstract:
This research investigated whether number of siblings in the family facilitates theory of mind (ToM) understanding. A battery of tests was administered to measure ToM and VA (verbal ability) on 163 3.6 to 5.6 years-old children. No significant difference was found between ToM and number of siblings. In contrast, in a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, it was found out that, over and above age and VA, a significant contribution for birth order on ToM development was observed.

Abstract:
This article reviews six decades of studies regarding the presentation of violent crime on American television, and its impact. We critically discuss the major findings and analyze the political-public discourse regarding the macro-social effects of fictional and non-fictional televised violent crime. The claim made here is that this discourse created “too much fuss over not too much blame” in order to mark television as the agent in responsibility for social atrocities.

Abstract:
Emergency-vehicle drivers who aim to reach their destinations through the fastest possible routes cannot rely solely on expected average travel times. Instead, the drivers should combine this travel-time information with the characteristics of data variation and then select the best or optimal route. The problem can be formulated on a graph in which the origin point and destination point are given. To each arc in the graph a random variable is assigned, characterized by the expected time to traverse the arc and the variance of that time. The problem is then to minimize the total origin-destination expected time, subject to the constraint that the variance of the travel time does not exceed a given threshold. This paper proposes an exact pseudo-polynomial algorithm and an ε-approximation algorithm (so-called FPTAS) for this problem. The model and algorithms were tested using real-life data of travel times under uncertain urban traffic conditions and demonstrated favorable computational results.

Abstract:
Low noise amplifier (LNA) performs as the initial amplification block in the receive path in a radio frequency (RF) receiver. In this work an ultra-wideband 3.1 10.6-GHz LNA is discussed. By using the proposed circuits for RF CMOS LNA and design methodology, the noise from the device is decreased across the ultra wide band (UWB) band. The measured noise figure is 2.66 3 dB over 3.1 10.6-GHz, while the power gain is 14 ± 0.8 dB. It consumes 23.7 mW from a 1.8 V supply. The input and output return losses (S11 & S22) are less than –11 dB over the UWB band. By using the modified derivative superposition method, the third-order intercept point IIP3 is improved noticeably. The complete circuit is based on the 0.18 μm standard RFCMOS technology and simulated with Hspice simulator.

Abstract:
It is
well known that the matrix equations play a significant role in engineering and
applicable sciences. In this research article, a new modification of the
homotopy perturbation method (HPM) will be proposed to obtain the approximated
solution of the matrix equation in the form AX = B. Moreover, the conditions are
deduced to check the convergence of the homotopy series. Numerical
implementations are adapted to illustrate the properties of the modified
method.

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of one session running training on dehydration in the morning and evening on Khuzestan elite speed and endurance runners. Therefore,-- ten speed and five endurance runner in preparing period; which they were the selection of Khuzestan track and field team are assigned. Because of the elite runners and few subjects all of the runners were selected as samples. In this study performed semi empirically the variation of circadian rhythm with pre-test and post test was evaluated. The training programs of the runners were include one session speed and endurance which designed by their coaches and were done with the same condition in morning and evening. The temperature of the training hall was about 32 0 C in both morning and evening. Then data analyzed by paired sample t-test in meaningful level 0.05(p≤0.05). Results showed that in spite of significantly reduction of water in morning and evening there was no significantly different in dehydration level between morning and evening.