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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Schooled Adolescents in Detention  [PDF]
Khalid Astitene, Amina Barkat
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104929
Abstract:
Objective: The detention have a negative impact on the psychological well-being of adolescents in detention; the purpose of our study is to assess the post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD in a incarcerated adolescents in school at the level of the centre of reform and discipline of the prefecture of Salé in Morocco, to evaluate comorbid disorders and thus to study the effect of PTSD on their social and school life. Method and measures: Regarding to 52 adolescents, incarcerated male in school who have complemented the objectives of the study, their age varies between 13 and 17 years old and they supplemented by themselves successively questionnaires concerning sociodemographic data, a list of life events score, the CPTS-RI (Children Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Index) to assess the symptoms of PTSD, the STAIY (State Trait anxiety Inventory) and CDI (Children Depression Inventory). Results: A high proportion of post-traumatic stress disorder was found among students with 78.85% but with different levels (23.08% PTSD low, 28.85% PTSD moderate and 26.92% PTSD severe). 84.62% of students are anxious and 82.7% of students experience depression. In the event the main traumatic condition that caused the post-traumatic stress disorder was detention with 44.2% followed by a road accident with 15.4%. PTSD, anxiety and depression have a negative effect on students’ school life; therefore, 90.4% of students have poor grades. Conclusion: Given this specific category of students who are in detention and who are in deficit serious school, we have this high rate of post-traumatic stress disorder. There are the practical implications for the support and care for these adolescents.
Pre-Operative Assessment and Education  [PDF]
Rozina Barkat Ali, Nasreen S. Lalani, Amina Malik
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.31002
Abstract: Introduction: Surgery is a major event in an individual’s life. The complete surgical episode is known as perioperative period. Perioperative nursing in general includes three phases; pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative. The first and initial phase (pre-operative) involves the rendering of nursing care to the patients who are planned to undergo surgery (Spry, 2005) [1]. It was evident through literature that during this phase, assessment and education of the patient is the prime responsibility of health care providers to minimize the risk during the surgery and to have better outcomes of the patients. Hence, a seven weeks project was initiated at surgical care units of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. In this project, based on the need assessment, education sessions were conducted for the health care workers which were followed by the distribution of flash cards for their references. In addition, file review and pre operative patient’s interview was conducted for the outcome evaluation. Purpose: To create awareness among healthcare workers to minimize the risk of morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing surgery and to reinforce nurses of surgical areas for the accurate assessment and education of patients, undergoing surgery. Methodology: All three surgical care units of the University teaching hospital were selected as project site and to conduct the project, permission and verbal consent was obtained from manager of these units. A total of 30 patients undergoing surgery were included in the project and were followed for their complete pre-operative assessment and education by nurses and other health care workers. For the data collection, a tool for pre operative assessment and education was developed. Based on the assessment, altogether three educational sessions were conducted for all health care workers working in the surgical care areas. Data was tabulated in Excel and percentages were calculated to analyze the data of before and after the education sessions. Results: Results revealed that education sessions increased the health care worker’s knowledge for assessing all the necessary components of a patient before surgery. Additionally, these sessions enhanced nurses’ awareness regarding the risks the patients might undergo before and after the surgery and how to prevent those risks through a thorough assessment and education of preoperative patients. Conclusion: Nurses and other health care providers should perform a complete and thorough assessment and provide necessary education to patients’ undergoing surgery
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer of Different Age Groups: Moroccan Data?  [PDF]
Fatima Zahra Laamiri, Abdellatif Bouayad, Nadia Hasswane, Samir Ahid, Mustapha Mrabet, Barkat Amina
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.52011
Abstract:

Background: Several epidemiological studies have been carried to identify the risk factors for developing breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with breast cancer in different age groups in the Moroccan women and to determine susceptible and protective factors. Methods: This was?a case control study?including 400 women with breast cancer and 400 controls of the National Institute of Oncology Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdallah, Rabat, Morocco from 2008 to 2010. These women were interviewed for epidemiological information and risk factor for breast cancer. Results: Early age at menarche, late menopause, oral contraceptive and family history with first degree were positively associated with breast cancer in all the series and in the age group between 22 and 34 years. In the age group between 44 and 34 years, a risk of breast cancer was associated only with a family history of breast cancer. In the age group of 45 years or older, the factors which seem to influence a breast cancer are: late menopause, oral contraceptive and family history in the first degree. In contrast, early childbearing, multiparity and lactation were negatively associated with breast cancer. Conclusion: This study is rather in favour of positive association between hormonal factors and breast cancer, and confirms the protective role of multiparity and lactation.

Establishment of Growth Curves to Full Term Newborns: A Moroccan Study  [PDF]
Mohamed Amine Radouani, Salem Ananou, Mustapha Mrabet, Aicha Kharbach, Hassan Aguenaou, Amina Barkat
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.53040
Abstract: Neonatal anthropometric data is an important reflection of the growth and fetal development. Objective: Knowing the anthropometric standards of Moroccan newborns according to sex, gestational age, parity, age and corpulence of women. Materials and Methods: Prospective and cross-sectional study. The information forward newborns alive, healthy, Moroccan parents, from normal pregnancies, born in Rabat Souissi’s maternity between January 2008 and December 2013, was gathered. Results: 5000 births were recruited. The ratio was balanced. Anthropometric standards identified according to gestational age and gender were lower than the Frenchs (AUDIPOG) and Tunisians. With our curves, we determined new thresholds for SGA and macrosomia. Factors influencing fetal growth, it was verified, in addition to sex and gestational age of the newborn, age, parity and maternal body mass index (BMI), that have proven determinants of fetal growth in our context. Conclusion: The curves of birth weight, height and head circumference of Moroccan newborns recruited have determined a new thresholds for hypotrophy and macrosomia.
Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia Pregnancy in a Group of Moroccan Pregnant Women  [PDF]
Nadia Hasswane, Amal Bouziane, Mustapha Mrabet, Fatima Zahra Laamiri, H. Aguenaou, Amina Barkat
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.310012
Abstract: Background: Pregnancy is typically accompanied by an increase of micronutrient requirements in general and especially iron. This increased need may be an additional risk factor for developing anemia. Purpose of the study: The aim of this study is to provide data on the prevalence of anemia of pregnancy in the maternity ward of the regional hospital in the city of Temara, and examine risk factors that may expose women to anemia during pregnancy. Materiel and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of a year was conducted to the hospital Sidi Lahcen in the city of Temara. Sociodemographic and nutritional data were collected through a questionnaire, obstetric and medical histories of women in labor and the results of biological tests were recorded from the patient obstetric file. Results: Among the 849 women surveyed, 690 (82%) had performed a blood count, and among these 117 (16.8%) were found anemic, with the following proportions: 57.6% had mild anemia, 41.5% had moderate anemia and a minority (0.8%) had severe anemia. The pregnant women aged over 35 years were the most exposed to anemia during pregnancy (47%) compared with younger women (p < 0.001). Women who had a history of anemia aside from pregnancy and those who had anemia in earlier pregnancies were more prone to developing anemia in the current pregnancy with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). The number of pregnancies, number of previous abortions and place of residence had no influence on the occurrence of anemia of pregnancy. The consumption of fortified flour with iron and vitamins as well as consuming iron rich foods was not a protective factor against the development of anemia of pregnancy. Tea consumption near the meal was not a factor exposing to anemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anemia is a public health problem in Morocco. Evidence from our study emphasizes the need to implement educational programs to improve the nutritional knowledge and sensitization of women.
Influence of Mode of Delivery on the Stress Response in Infants  [PDF]
M. A. Radouani, N. Chahid, A. Kharbach, M. Mrabet, A. Hassani, H. Aguenaou, Amina Barkat
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.614183
Abstract: Objective: Analysis of stress response of newborns born vaginally assisted compared to those born by caesarean section scheduled at birth and then 15 days to 2 months of life. The methodology is based on: 1) The neonatal period, the analysis of cortisol levels in the blood of the umbilical artery by Radio-Immuno-Assay, 2) At the age of 15 days and two months, evaluation of the intensity of the pain response to vaccine act using DAN scores. The results of the first part of the study showed that both groups were comparable regarding maternal and neonatal characteristics except for gestational age and BMI with values of 39.9 SA respectively for channels bass, SA for 38.6 and 28.03 cesareans for low tract and 29.1 cesareans. The average values of cortisol were 403.4 nmol/L ± 260.90 for bass tracks and 117.1 ± 63.90 for caesarean sections. The difference is statistically significant with a p < 0.00001. The results of the second part showed that there are significant differences by comparing post-vaccination pain scores as well after BCG to 15 days of life, after Infanrix HIB polio at two months of life. p is respectively 0.0016 at 15 days of life and 0.0001 at two months. In conclusion, newborns’ extracts assisted vagina to live such stress at birth; their immediate response to stress is much higher than those born by high way before the beginning of work, and their pain response is more intense in 15 days and two months of life.
Red Blood Cell Transfusion in a Neonatal Tertiary Care Center: A Moroccan Study  [PDF]
Laila Essabar, Houria Knouni, Amina Barkat
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.49006
Abstract: Background: Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is a common therapy in neonatal practice and data from different international neonatal centers are available, however, there is paucity of Moroccan data regarding blood components usage. We aim to study trends and outcomes of RBC transfusions in our department and emphasize the need for transfusion guidelines. Material and method: This retrospective study was performed in a Moroccan tertiary neonatal intensive care center. The records of all neonates admitted from January 2015 to March 2016 were screened for RBC usage and indications. The data were statistically analyzed by using Microsoft ExcelTM software. Results: A total of 60 neonates received 77 RBC transfusions. Postnatal age at transfusion ranged from 1 to 30 days with an average of 13 days, and 30% of our patients were aged ≥21 days. RBC Transfusion was given once in 48 patients (80%), twice in 8 patients (13.3%) and ≥ thrice in 4 patients (6.7%). More than one type of blood components was needed in 23 (38%) neonates. 70% of patients were critically ill, 60% were born before 37 weeks’ gestation and 57% were small for gestational age. Mean hemoglobin at the time of transfusion of RBC was 8.59 g/dl (2 - 11.6 g/dl). Sepsis and anemia with mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory illness were the commonest indications. All gestational ages were considered, and mortality was noted in 66% of our cases and worsening in 13%; 21% of the infants showed improvement. Conclusion: Judicious implementation of guidelines for RBC transfusions would decrease their inappropriate use.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among Adolescents Schooled in Public Schools  [PDF]
Khalid Astitene, Laila Lahlou, Amina Barkat
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105019
Abstract:
Objective: A traumatic event has a negative impact on the psychological well-being of adolescents, the purpose of our study is to assess the post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD in adolescents in public schools of the prefecture of Salé in Morocco, to evaluate comorbid disorders and thus to study the effect of PTSD on their social and academic life. Method and measures: 871 school adolescents who completed the objectives of the study, their age varied between 12 and 17 years and they completed by themselves the questionnaires concerning socio-demographic data, a list of life events, the CPTS-RI (Children’s Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Index) for assessing the symptoms of PTSD, STAIY (State Trait Inventory Anxiety) and CDI (Children Depression Inventory). Results: A large proportion of post-traumatic stress disorder was found in students with 63.9% but with different levels (19.5% PTSD low, 25.1% PTSD moderate, 18.1% PTSD severe and only 1.2% PTSD very severe). 84.4% of students are anxious and 55.2% of students have depression. Adolescents who have been exposed to at least one traumatic event in their lifetime have 88.69%. In the event, the main traumatic condition that caused the post-traumatic stress disorder was the sudden and unexpected death of a loved one with 27.7%. PTSD, anxiety and depression have a negative effect on students’ school life; therefore, 72.5% of students have poor grades. Conclusion: A traumatic event can develop at a PTSD. There is a high rate of post-traumatic stress disorder and students are in school deficit. There are practical implications for the support and care provided to these adolescents.
Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in the university medical center of Rabat, Morocco
Razine Rachid,Azzouzi Abderrahim,Barkat Amina,Khoudri Ibtissam
International Archives of Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1755-7682-5-26
Abstract: Background The aims of this study were to determine the hospital-acquired infections (HAI) prevalence in all institutions of Rabat University Medical Center, to ascertain risk factors, to describe the pathogens associated with HAI and their susceptibility profile to antibiotics. Materials and methods Point-prevalence survey in January 2010 concerning all patients who had been in the hospital for at least 48 hours. At bedside, 27 investigators filled a standardized questionnaire from medical records, temperature charts, radiographs, laboratory reports and by consultation with the ward’s collaborating health professionals. Risk factors were determined using logistic regression. Results 1195 patients involved, occupancy rate was 51%. The prevalence of HAI was 10.3%. Intensive care units were the most affected wards (34.5%). Urinary tract infection was the most common infected site (35%). Microbiological documentation was available in 61% of HAI. Staphylococcus was the organism most commonly isolated (18.7%) and was methicillin-resistant in 50% of cases. In multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with HAI were advanced age, longer length of hospital stay, presence of comorbidity, invasive devices and use of antibiotic use. Conclusion HAI prevalence was high in this study. Future prevention program should focus on patients with longer length of stay, invasive devices, and overprescribing antibiotics.
Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Obstetric Complications in Moroccan Population
Latifa Mochhoury,Rachid Razine,Jalal Kasouati,Mariam Kabiri,Amina Barkat
Journal of Pregnancy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/379461
Abstract: Objectives. To evaluate the impact of the body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and the weight gain during pregnancy, on the occurrence of maternal and neonatal morbidity in the Moroccan population, as well as to analyze the quality of the weight gain depending on the BMI. Methods. A study was carried out over a period of one year from October 1, 2010 to October 1, 2011, using data collected from a descriptive-transversal study. We recruited nondiabetic women without several HTAs, delivering singletons from 37 completed weeks up to 42 weeks gestation. Results. Total of 1408 were analyzed. The risks of moderate hypertension, macrosomia, dystocia, and resort to cesarean section were higher among overweight or obese women, as well as among women whose weight gain was >16?kg. The differences were significant <0.05. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that overweight women before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy are associated with higher risks of maternal and neonatal complications. These data provide ideas on prevention opportunities. 1. Introduction Nowadays obesity is no longer the prerogative of just the rich and those with substantial incomes in developed countries. New eating habits and sedentary lifestyle are major causes of excess of weight among the Moroccan population regardless of social class, with women are more affected than men. According to figures released by the High Commission for Planning (A Moroccan government institution responsible for statistical analysis, planning, and forecasts) around 33.7% of adult population aged 20 and over are affected by overweight (preobese), while 17.5% are classified to be suffering from severe obesity. Furthermore, it is known that maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy has a significant influence on the fetal development, the health of the newborn, and its development. Complications related to maternal obesity are classified into two groups: on the one hand, those that affect the mother, and which result in gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, and wound infections; on the other hand, complications that affect the fetus, newborn, and child development, which includes macrosomia [1], prematurity, and fetal death in utero. Surveys in this field have often been based on body mass index before pregnancy (BMI). The influence of gestational weight gain in reference to the different classes of the BMI of the same parturient is rarely studied. Several suggestions for maternal optimal weight gain have been proposed to lead to an appropriate
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