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This article adopts the concept of development as freedom and the relationship between income and capabilities to analyze and compare macroeconomic, demographic and poverty trends and inequalities in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and the responses from governments to promote the inclusion of the poorest and marginalized population groups in development and policies. Differences in population structures indicate that poverty and gender, generational and race inequalities fragment societies. Policies oriented to reduce poverty have been implemented with a set of combined programs such as cash transfers articulated with actions in nutrition, health, education, day-care programs for poor children, civil registration and other programs to promote poverty reduction and the conciliation of domestic and work life for poor women and social protection. Some good practices are discussed, particularly in Brazil and Mexico. During the last 15 years, the Conditioned Cash Transfers programs raised public support and political consensus, guaranteeing continuity in their implementation, development and integration with other social protection programs. Currently there are 18 countries implementing such programs, covering approximately 25 million households and over 133 million people, representing 19% of the Latin American and Caribbean. Policies to reduce poverty, in combination with income distribution and social protection in nutrition, health, education, civil registration and day-care for children, have contributed to human development, and also promoted internal market of consumers, even in rural areas, mobilizing local economies and promoting the return of investments to development. Despite the economic crisis in 2008-2009, Latin America had a relatively good performance in the world economy, demonstrating that social and economic
This paper presents the results of a study of 709 undergraduates in Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chile, and Spain, countries with different developmental levels that held the first free elections following their respective dictatorships within a thirteen year span. The paper analyzes the electoral participation of undergraduates in relation to different factors. Results show a high electoral participation among Salvadoran, Nicaraguan, and Spanish undergraduates, while low turnout is observed among Chileans. The best predictors of electoral participation of undergraduates are related to their nationality, economic status, interest in politics, gender or living away from home.
Grassland cover and composition respond to climate and
have undoubtedly changed during the Holocene, but quantitative
reconstructions from fossil pollen have been vague about spatial scale and
taxon-specific cover. Here, we estimate
the relevant source area of pollen for sedimentary basins approximately 50 m in
radius, and we report pollen productivity estimates for 12 plant taxa in the
tallgrass prairies of central North America. Both relevant source area of pollen
and pollen productivity estimates were calculated via the Extended R-Value
Model. To obtain these estimates, we collected and quantified the pollen found
in surface sediment samples from 24 ponds across the study area. Vegetation was
surveyed in the field in a 100 m radius around each pond, and vegetation
maps from the Kansas Gap Analysis Project (GAP) were used to a radius of 2 km.
Pollen fall speeds were calculated according to Stoke’s Law. Pollen assemblages
from basins approximately 50 m in radius have a relevant source area of 1060 m
in this grassland landscape. Pollen productivity estimates range from 0.02 to over
30 among the 12 taxa: Artemisia, Ambrosia, Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cornus, Fabaceae, Juniperus, Maclura, Poaceae, Populus, Quercus, and Salix.
Woody taxa generally have higher pollen productivity than herbaceous taxa
(except for Chenopodiaceae and Ambrosia