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Paid Work & Decision Making Power of Married Women Cross Sectional Survey of Muzaffarabad Azad State of Jammu & Kashmir  [PDF]
Sheeba Arooj, Wafa Hussain, Amber Arooj, Asif Iqbal, Saqib Hameed, Atif Abbasi
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.33022

Background: Current research focuses primarily on women’s autonomy in decision making while little attention is paid to their freedom of expression. Socioeconomic & socio demographic factors affect women’s autonomy in decision making. In the developing countries, particularly in Pakistan, although women are making significant financial contributions but they are still under collective decisions of husband and other family members while sometimes they are blindly relying on husband’s decision. Objective of study was to find out association of women’s autonomy in decision making & socioeconomic factors. Method: Cross sectional survey was conducted in Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir on married working women (N = 500). The data consist of women’s three decisions: birth control decision, financial decision and freedom of expression. A number of socio-demographic variables were used in chi-square analysis to examine the association of these variables with the said decisions. Results: Age, residence, education, professional differences, job nature, monthly income of married women are positively associated with autonomy in decision making. 59% women of above 30 years age exercise independence in birth control decisions (p value 0.02). Urban women

The Role of Leadership in Strategy Formulation and Implementation
Arooj Azhar
International Journal of Management and Organizational Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Leadership has significant impact on strategic management process. Especially it helps to determine the vision and mission of the organization. Further, it facilitates the organization to execute effective strategies to achieve that vision. The purpose of this paper is to find out the role of leadership in strategy formulation and implementation by reviewing the existing literature. The study reveals that leadership serves as a link between the soul and the body of an organization. For the successful implementation of strategies, the challenge of leadership is to be strong but not rude, be kind but not weak, be bold but not bully, be thoughtful but not lazy, be humble but not timid, be proud but not arrogant, have humor but without folly. (Jim Rohm). During the strategic management process leadership performs the various roles such as innovator, strategist, care taker, analyst, guide, organizer, motivator, developer, change enabler or change driver, decision maker, collaborator, risk manager, debtor, and evaluator. In the recipe of strategic management process the most important ingredients are leader’s responsibility, loyalty, power, motivation, awareness, articulacy (clarity), consistency and reliability.
Size Biased Lindley Distribution and Its Properties a Special Case of Weighted Distribution  [PDF]
Arooj Ayesha
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.86063
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to introduce a size biased Lindley distribution which is a special case of weighted distributions. Weighted distributions have practical significance where some types of biased occur in a density function, i.e. probability is proportional to the size of the variate, that’s why the proposed version of size biased Lindley is designed for such situations more reasonably and more precisely. Principle properties of the density function are also discussed in this paper such as moments, measure of skewness, kurtosis, moment generating function, characteristics generating function, coefficient of variation, survival function and hazard function which are derived for understanding the structure of the proposed distribution more briefly.
Socioeconomic factors effecting polio vaccination in Pakistan  [PDF]
Sheeba Arooj, Sitwat Ali, Nimra Baber, Atif Abbasi, Midhat Ali
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.55117

Background: Child vaccinations are one of most cost effective health programs that have weakened a number of child morbidity and mortality rate all over the world. Pakistan is considered one of the major country of the world, where people especially children are bound by many harmful infectious diseases like polio, hepatitis, viral infections etc. The effectiveness of routine childhood immunization programs relies on multiple factors. Socio-economic determinants have the potential to affect immunization programs. The purpose of the present study was to determine the association between socio-economic factors and polio vaccination coverage among children inPakistan. Methods: The study used data from the Pakistandemographic health survey (PDHS 2006-07 N 10023). The study focused on respondents who had births in last five years. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the association between variables. Spss version 20 was used for data analysis. A number of socioeconomic variables were used in chi square & binary logistic regression model to check out their association with polio vaccination coverage. Results: Study shows that most dominant factors associated with polio vaccination coverage were region that is NWFP OR 3.48 (odd ratio) with 95% confidence interval (C-I 2.06 & 3.13) & Punjab OR 2.54 (C-I 2.062 & 3.131), residence urban OR 1.626 (C-I 1.451 & 1.822), sex of child male OR 1.125 (C-I 1.008 & 1.256), age of mother 25 - 34 years OR 1.11 (C-I 0.978 & 1.276), wealth index rich OR 2.98 (C-I 2.55 & 3.48), age of child 4 - 5 years OR 1.17 (C-I 0.899 & 1.538),

Climate Change Associated with Global Teleconnections, Volcanic Eruptions, and the Arctic’s Snow-Ice Albedo in Godthab, Greenland  [PDF]
Amber Penner, Jacqueline Binyamin
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.31005

To study the impact of climate change on Godthab(Greenland), temperature and precipitation gathered from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) were analyzed for patterns within 1866-2011. Both temperature and precipitation have experienced an overall increase throughout the past 146 years. Precipitation, however, has experienced a declining trend since 1985. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) indices showed strong correlations with average annual temperature (R = ?0.6) and smaller correlations with annual total precipitation (R = ?0.2). There are moderate correlations between temperature, precipitation, and Southern-Oscillation Index (SOI). The positive phases of Pacific-North American (PNA) led to increased winter and spring precipitation. The climate mode’s influential strength on Godthab’s temperature and precipitation, vary seasonally. In contrast with global average temperatures, Greenland has not experienced a continual warming trend since the 1950s; 30- and 10-year trends show a cooling period between 1965 and 1995. From 1866 to 2011, Godthab’s average annual temperature has increased by 1.9?C, and is anticipated to continue to warm in accordance with the global warming trend and the Arctic’s associated feedback mechanisms.

Use of instantaneous energy of ABR signals for fast detection of wave V  [PDF]
Adeela Arooj, Mohd Rushaidin Muhamed, Sheikh Hussain Shaikh Salleh, Mohd Hafizi Omar
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.38109
Abstract: Brainstem evoked response audiometry is a powerful diagnostic technique in audiology, otology and neurology. ABR(Auditory Brainstem Response) machine has been very useful and popular in past two decades for detection of hearing defects and pathologies in newborns and children. In ABR, wave V is the most prominent and robust wave that has been used as indicator of hearing loss. However, a fast detection of the wave V is necessary in order to implement newborn hearing screening. Researchers have introduced different kind of signal processing technique in order to achieve this target and one of this is Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Wavelet Transform. In this study, the instantaneous energy of ABR signal had been introduced as a marker to identify the ABR waves. Study showed that the instantaneous energy of auditory brainstem response can be used as a marker to identify the ABR waves. This study had proposed a platform for fast hearing screening system.
Causes of anemia in pregnant women of the state of azad kashmir: A cross-sectional survey  [PDF]
Atif Abbasi, Sheeba Arooj, Wafa Hussain, Asif Iqbal Mughal, Nazneen Habib, Wajid Aziz, Muhammad Rafique
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.51006

Background: Epidemic of anemia is considered to be a significant threat to pregnant women or women in child bearing age. Anemia is one of the major nutritional health disorders affecting significant proportion of population not only in developing countries but also in developed countries. This threat is more alarming in developing countries where poverty, illiteracy may contribute to high risk for causes of anemia. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the main causes of anemia in pregnant women in the State of Azad Kashmir, Muzaffarabad and to investigate the relationship between education and anemia. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted over a sample of 433 pregnant women. The Chi- square test has been used to assess the statistical significance of different risk factors with Hb% (Heamoglobin) of the respondent. The multiple logistic regression model was used to get the most significant risk factors of anemia. Results: The study shows that the most dominant risk factors of the anemia were age at the time of marriage at different age categories that are 16 - 20 (OR = 3.945) (OR Odds ratios) with 95% C-I (confidence interval) (0.294 to 52.985), 21 - 25 (OR = 2.316) with 95% C-I (0.192 to 27.932) and 26 - 30 (OR = 4.179) with 95% C-I (0.347 to 50.320). Education at different education levels that is illiterate (OR = 1.191) with 95% C-I (0.005 to 87.279) and primary (OR = 1.179) with 95% C-I (0.009 to 156.200). Hb% at different levels 3 - 4 g/dl (OR = 1.220) with 95% C-I (0.299 to 4.984), 5 - 6 g/dl (OR = 2.221) with 95% C-I (0.679 to7.263) and 7 - 10 g/dl (OR = 1.384) with 95% C-I (0.408 to

4.689). Monthly income < 10,000 (OR = 2.296) 95% C-I (0.385 to 13.677), 11,000 - 15,000 (OR = 3.623) 95% C-I (0.678 to 19.31) and 16,000 to 20,000 (OR = 2.158) 95% C-I (0.441 to 10.563). Age of last child born 1 year (OR = 1.711) 95% C-I (0.399 to 7.341), 2 year (OR = 1.284) 95% C-I (0.304 to 5.421) and <1 year (OR = 2.224) 95% C-I (0.552 to 8.952). Daily eating habits, just like previous (OR = 2.415) 95% C-I (0.652 to 8.948), less than previous (OR = 3.671) 95% C-I (0.868 to 15.522). Previous history of miscarriage (OR = 1.258) 95% C-I (0.103 to 0.647), suffered in any hemorrhagic disease (OR = 1.529) 95% C-I (0.592 to 3.949). Nature of the work Exhaustive (OR = 1.961) 95% C-I (0.805 to 4.779).

Chungará (Arica) , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562011000100012
Abstract: recent research indicates that urban reciprocity, a survival strategy used by the urban poor to self-insure against economic risks, has been eroded by deepening poverty and economic insecurity. this paper examines how the urban poor maintain reciprocal relationships in villa israel, a periurban settlement located on the outskirts of the city of cochabamba, bolivia. the results indicate that, while some reciprocal relationships do appear to be in decline, others have been transformed in ways that enhance security for participants. in particular, there appears to have been a shift away from reciprocal relationships formed on the basis of compadrazgo (ritual godparenthood) and "paisanidad" (shared origin) and toward those formed around commerce and evangélico (protestant or evangelical) churches.
“AZTECS”, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 16th November 2002 - 11th April 2003. A Comment on Communicative Shortcomings
Amber Standifer
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2003, DOI: 10.5334/pia.195
Personality at Work: A Study of Type A-B
Amber Raza
Market Forces , 2007,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the impact of stressors on personality types in Call Centers. Based on literature survey five potential workplace stressors were identified, namely (1) Task Demands, (2) Role Demands, (3) Interpersonal Demands, (4) Organizational Structure and (5) Organizational Leadership. Based on the literature survey, a relationship model was developed that was inclusive of the above stressors, and three personality types, which were Type A, Type AB and Type B.The sample size for the study was 100. The subjects were supervisors and agents drawn non-randomly from various Call Centers of Karachi. All the subjects completed a questionnaire comprised of 27 questions based on occupational stress index (Srivasta and Singh 1981) and AB Personality Continuum (National Institute of Safety and Health 1975). The three personality types A, B & AB all go through stress, however it is the Type A, which thrives on stress. The sources of stress measured in the study were Task Demand, Role Demand, Interpersonal Demands, Organizational Structure and Organizational Leadership.The stressor that most contributed to the Personality type A’s stress in the study was Interpersonal Demand (0.38), which is justified by the literature review as Personality type A are not team players and prefer to work alone.Whereas Personality type B was stressed because of Role Demand (0.38) which is also proved by the literature review as personality type B are laid back and do not take there roles seriously. Hence it can be concluded that it type A tends to cope well with stress as compared to type AB and type B. The performance of the respondents can be made better if the supervisors are aware of the personality types and thereby motivate them according.
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