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Ethiopia, even though there are great achievements in decreasing infant and child
mortality from year 2000 to 2011, still children are suffering from diarrheal
diseases, respiratory problems and malnutrition. This study was done to
determine the prevalence of illnesses among under-five children and mothers’/caregivers’
care seeking behavior for childhood illnesses in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was done on a sample of 415
mothers/caregivers from April 15 to May 15, 2011. Three kebeles (the smallest
administrative unit) from Bahir Dar were selected randomly. The sample was proportionally distributed to the selected kebeles according to their population
size. To be eligible to participate in the study, mothers had to live in
households that had children under five years of age. These households were
selected by systematic sampling method. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed
in their homes using a structured questionnaire that had been pre-tested. The
collected data were analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.0. Result
and Conclusions: The overall two weeks prevalence of childhood illness that had
one or more symptoms of disease was 110 (26.5%). The prevalence of the most
commonly reported symptoms were diarrhea, fever, acute respiratory infection
(ARI) and others 11.3%, 10%, 6.3% and 4.6% among children of under five years respectively. Eighty (72.7%) of mothers sought treatment
from health care facilities for sick children. The main reasons for not
seeking treatment from health care facilities as reported by mothers/caregivers
were, 53.3% Illness was not serious, 26.7% lack of money and 13.3% did not see
any benefit for such childhood illness. Hence there is a need for designing a
tailored health message for mother/ caregivers about preventable childhood
illness and treatment seeking by the local health extension workers and program
The paper is based on a 5-year follow-up study (2007 to 2012) of a random sample of 349 small business enterprises that operate in and around the city of Pretoria in South Africa. Data weregathered from each of the businesses on socio economic factors that were known to affect the long-term survival of small businesses. The objective of the study was to identify and quantify key predictors of viability and long-term survival. Pearson’s chi-square tests of associations, binary logistic regression analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model were used for screening of variables, and for estimating odds ratios and hazard ratios of key predictors of viability and long-term survival. The study found that 188 of the 349 businesses that took part in the study (54%) were not viable, and that the long-term survival and viability of small businesses were adversely affected by lack of entrepreneurial skills, lack of supervisory support to newly established businesses, and inability to operators running newly established businesses to acquire relevant vocational skills.
Challenges of teenage pregnancy and adverse outcomes of pregnancy constitute a major public health problem in South African women of the childbearing age of 15 to 49 years. This is a 6-year long study that was conducted in Pretoria, South Africa in order to identify factors that affect utilization of modern contraceptives and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women of the childbearing age of 15 to 49 years. Data analysis was conducted by using two-by-two Pearson’s chisquare tests of associations, binary logistic regression analysis, survival analysis, and multilevel analysis. The study showed that the percentage of women who regularly used modern family planning methods such as condoms, pills, injections, intra-uterine devices and sterilization was 41.74%. The average ages of women at first sex and pregnancy were 18.72 and 19.36 years respectively. Adverse outcomes of pregnancy occurred in 12.19% of women. Based on Odds Ratios (OR) estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, utilization of contraceptives was significantly influenced by easy access to family planning services, level of support from sexual partner, and young age at first pregnancy. Based on Hazard Ratios (HR) estimated from the Cox Proportional Hazards Model, the occurrence of adverse outcomes of pregnancy was significantly influenced by easy access to family planning services, unwanted pregnancy, and young age at first pregnancy. Women who experienced adverse outcomes of pregnancy were characterized by poor utilization of reproductive health and modern family planning services. There was a significant difference among the 20 health service delivery wards and 11 health service facilities in which reproductive health services were delivered to women with regards to the quality of service delivery.
This study was aimed at examining land cover changes for
the last 35 years and its causative factors in Gilgel Abbay watershed by using
GIS and remote sensing, survey and population data. The land use and
cover changes study will help to apply the appropriate land use. The land
cover/use status for the years 1973, 1986, 1995 and 2008 were examined using
land sat images. The changes in different land cover units such as forest, wood
and bush lands, grass, wetlands and water bodies, and farm and settlements were
analyzed. Population change, tenure, poverty and lack of market and credit
facilities in the watershed area were analyzed as causes of land cover changes.
The results of the study have shown that during the last 35 years forest, grass
lands, wetlands and lake areas were converted to farm and settlement areas.
There was rapid increase of population with growth rates of 4.9% and 3.5%
(1984-1994 and 1994-2007), respectively per annum which caused more land cover