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Conservation Challenges of Gibe Sheleko National Park, Southwestern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Alemneh Amare
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.64025
Abstract: An effective management practice of protected areas is one of the best methods to harmonize nature conservation in a given ecosystem. However, the implementation of conservation management plan of protected areas through community approaches is the major conservation challenge in Ethiopia. This paper described the major conservation challenge of Gibe Sheleko National Park, southwestern Ethiopia. Data were organized during training workshops and panel discussions with participants held at Wolkite University, Ethiopia. Stakeholders included park managers, scouts, community and local administrative representatives, farmers, district and zonal administrations, conservationists and researchers. The participants reported that livestock grazing, encroachment, logging, expansion of agricultural investors and settlements in and around were the major challenges of the park. Moreover, limited community awareness and little conservation attention by the government officials also affected the protected area. As means to overcome these conservation challenges, innovative and develop new interdisciplinary approaches to support the practices aiming to solve current conservation challenges. Therefore, to introduce community- based conservation approaches, enhance public awareness of the locals, pay better conservation attention by the government and develop conservation bylaws are the best mechanisms to preserve Gibe Sheleko National Park.
Wildlife Resources of Ethiopia: Opportunities, Challenges and Future Directions: From Ecotourism Perspective: A Review Paper  [PDF]
Alemneh Amare
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.66039
Abstract: The economy of Ethiopia has prospered for many years on agricultural products but currently, the country expands to industrialization and service providing for additional incomes. However, the wildlife tourism and conservation practices are still at low attention. Therefore, this review paper identifies potential opportunities and wildlife diversity to promote wildlife tourism practices in Ethiopia. Furthermore, it also identifies the challenges and future directions to put into practice for future wildlife tourism industry. Wildlife tourism is one of the best potential economies to the country due to the presence of magnificent diversity of wildlife with high endemism and expansion of protected areas. The main intentions of tourists are to visit large mammals and birds with their natural habitats. The country earns million dollars per year only from protected areas through nature based tourism. The Montane and Afroalpine, Rift Valley and Transboundary ecosystem, a world class icon for wildlife tourism which attracts various tourists, and potential tourism destination for Ethiopia due to its high mammalian diversity and scenic area. The expansion of protected areas, peaceful and friendly people, and endemism promote tourism industry in Ethiopia. Even though, Ethiopia is the third country next to Tanzania and Uganda in terms of land surface of protected area; human-wildlife conflict, loss of biodiversity, and limited tourism and conservation attention with poor infrastructure are some of the major challenges. To scale up wildlife tourism industry, better promotion with practical conservation practices, community based tourism approaches and infrastructures should be implemented throughout the whole area of tourist destination.
Child Rights Protection in Ethiopia: Critical Analysis of the Statutory Rape Provisions of the Criminal Code and Their Application  [PDF]
Amare Tesfaye
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2017.84028
Abstract: Children, due to their mental and physical immaturity, are among the vulnerable section of the society. States are thus required to provide special protection and care for children by making necessary legal and institutional arrangements. To this effect, Ethiopia has ratified international and regional human rights instruments meant to provide protection for children. It also included provisions protecting child rights in its constitution. These constitutional provisions have also found expression in the subsequent legislative reform that, among others, resulted in the adoption of a New Criminal Code in 2004. This Criminal Code replaces the provisions of the earlier 1957 Penal Code on statutory rape providing better protection for children against sexual abuse. Yet, gaps still persist both in the law and practice in terms of fully realizing the rights of children in Ethiopia. This article aims to examine the legal and practical protection of children by the statutory rape provisions of the Criminal Code in the Ethiopian legal system. In doing so, it attempts to evaluate the current statutory rape provisions of the Criminal Code against child rights standards as well as evaluating the practical application of the laws by courts and prosecutors.
Prevalence of childhood illness and mothers’/caregivers’ care seeking behavior in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia: A descriptive community based cross sectional study  [PDF]
Worku Awoke
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.32020

Introduction: In Ethiopia, even though there are great achievements in decreasing infant and child mortality from year 2000 to 2011, still children are suffering from diarrheal diseases, respiratory problems and malnutrition. This study was done to determine the prevalence of illnesses among under-five children and mothers’/caregivers’ care seeking behavior for childhood illnesses in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was done on a sample of 415 mothers/caregivers from April 15 to May 15, 2011. Three kebeles (the smallest administrative unit) from Bahir Dar were selected randomly. The sample was proportionally distributed to the selected kebeles according to their population size. To be eligible to participate in the study, mothers had to live in households that had children under five years of age. These households were selected by systematic sampling method. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed in their homes using a structured questionnaire that had been pre-tested. The collected data were analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.0. Result and Conclusions: The overall two weeks prevalence of childhood illness that had one or more symptoms of disease was 110 (26.5%). The prevalence of the most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhea, fever, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and others 11.3%, 10%, 6.3% and 4.6% among children of under five years respectively. Eighty (72.7%) of mothers sought treatment from health care facilities for sick children. The main reasons for not seeking treatment from health care facilities as reported by mothers/caregivers were, 53.3% Illness was not serious, 26.7% lack of money and 13.3% did not see any benefit for such childhood illness. Hence there is a need for designing a tailored health message for mother/ caregivers about preventable childhood illness and treatment seeking by the local health extension workers and program planners.

Analysis of Factors That Affect the Long-Term Survival of Small Businesses in Pretoria, South Africa  [PDF]
Zeleke Worku
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2013.14008

The paper is based on a 5-year follow-up study (2007 to 2012) of a random sample of 349 small business enterprises that operate in and around the city of Pretoria in South Africa. Data weregathered from each of the businesses on socio economic factors that were known to affect the long-term survival of small businesses. The objective of the study was to identify and quantify key predictors of viability and long-term survival. Pearson’s chi-square tests of associations, binary logistic regression analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model were used for screening of variables, and for estimating odds ratios and hazard ratios of key predictors of viability and long-term survival. The study found that 188 of the 349 businesses that took part in the study (54%) were not viable, and that the long-term survival and viability of small businesses were adversely affected by lack of entrepreneurial skills, lack of supervisory support to newly established businesses, and inability to operators running newly established businesses to acquire relevant vocational skills.

Differential Factors of Contraceptive Use and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy in Women with Ages 15 to 49 in Pretoria, South Africa  [PDF]
Zeleke Worku
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2014.21004

Challenges of teenage pregnancy and adverse outcomes of pregnancy constitute a major public health problem in South African women of the childbearing age of 15 to 49 years. This is a 6-year long study that was conducted in Pretoria, South Africa in order to identify factors that affect utilization of modern contraceptives and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women of the childbearing age of 15 to 49 years. Data analysis was conducted by using two-by-two Pearson’s chisquare tests of associations, binary logistic regression analysis, survival analysis, and multilevel analysis. The study showed that the percentage of women who regularly used modern family planning methods such as condoms, pills, injections, intra-uterine devices and sterilization was 41.74%. The average ages of women at first sex and pregnancy were 18.72 and 19.36 years respectively. Adverse outcomes of pregnancy occurred in 12.19% of women. Based on Odds Ratios (OR) estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, utilization of contraceptives was significantly influenced by easy access to family planning services, level of support from sexual partner, and young age at first pregnancy. Based on Hazard Ratios (HR) estimated from the Cox Proportional Hazards Model, the occurrence of adverse outcomes of pregnancy was significantly influenced by easy access to family planning services, unwanted pregnancy, and young age at first pregnancy. Women who experienced adverse outcomes of pregnancy were characterized by poor utilization of reproductive health and modern family planning services. There was a significant difference among the 20 health service delivery wards and 11 health service facilities in which reproductive health services were delivered to women with regards to the quality of service delivery.

Children Who Received PCV-10 Vaccine from a Two-Dose Vial without Preservative Are Not More Likely to Develop Injection Site Abscess Compared with Those Who Received Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) Vaccine: A Longitudinal Multi-Site Study
Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku, Meaza Demissie, Neghist Tesfaye, Nega Asefa, Worku Aniemaw, Berhe Weldearegawi, Yigzaw Kebede, Tigist Shiferaw, Amare Worku, Lemessa Olijira, Behailu Merdekios, Yemane Ashebir, Takele Tadesse, Yadeta Dessie, Solomon Meseret, Gestane Ayele
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097376
Abstract: Background The single dose pneumonia ten-valent vaccine has been widely used and is highly efficacious against selected strains Streptococcus pneumonia. A two-dose vial without preservative is being introduced in developing countries to reduce the cost of the vaccine. In routine settings improper immunization practice could result in microbial contamination leading to adverse events following immunization. Objective To monitor adverse events following immunization recommended for routine administration during infancy by comparing the rate of injection-site abscess between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and children who received the Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccine. Methods A longitudinal population-based multi-site observational study was conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The study was conducted in four existing Health and Demographic Surveillance sites run by public universities of Abraminch, Haramaya, Gondar and Mekelle. Adverse events following Immunization were monitored by trained data collectors. Children were identified at the time of vaccination and followed at home at 48 hour and 7 day following immunization. Incidence of abscess and relative risk with the corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated to examine the risk difference in the comparison groups. Results A total of 55, 268 PCV and 37, 480 Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccinations were observed. A total of 19 adverse events following immunization, 10 abscesses and 9 deaths, were observed during the one year study period. The risk of developing abscess was not statistically different between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and those received Pentavalent (RR = 2.7, 95% CI 0.576–12.770), and between children who received the first aliquot of PCV and those received the second aliquot of PCV (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.485–6.091). Conclusion No significant increase in the risk of injection site abscess was observed between the injection sites of PCV-10 vaccine from a two-dose vial without preservative and pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccine in the first 7 days following vaccination.
Retrospective Analysis of Land Cover and Use Dynamics in Gilgel Abbay Watershed by Using GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques, Northwestern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Amare Sewnet Minale
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.47093

This study was aimed at examining land cover changes for the last 35 years and its causative factors in Gilgel Abbay watershed by using GIS and remote sensing, survey and population data. The land use and cover changes study will help to apply the appropriate land use. The land cover/use status for the years 1973, 1986, 1995 and 2008 were examined using land sat images. The changes in different land cover units such as forest, wood and bush lands, grass, wetlands and water bodies, and farm and settlements were analyzed. Population change, tenure, poverty and lack of market and credit facilities in the watershed area were analyzed as causes of land cover changes. The results of the study have shown that during the last 35 years forest, grass lands, wetlands and lake areas were converted to farm and settlement areas. There was rapid increase of population with growth rates of 4.9% and 3.5% (1984-1994 and 1994-2007), respectively per annum which caused more land cover changes.

Geological and Geochemical Investigation of Low Grade Basement Rocks: Implication to Human Health in and around Asgeda Tsimbla, Western Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Jemal Ahmed, Kassa Amare
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.48006
Abstract: The increase in the number of liver related disease patients from north western region of Ethiopia has been an environmental health issue of national concern. As the disease is restricted to a specific geographical terrain, particularly to Shire area, northwestern dry zone of the country, detail research studies are required to identify possible etiology and risk factors. The aim of the study is to determine the level of trace element and heavy metal concentrations and distributions in water and stream sediments of the area and identify the possible sources in relation to human health. During the study, geochemical sampling (20 water, 20 stream sediment and 6 rock samples) was carried out in March 2011. The collected samples were analyzed for their major and trace element contents using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, Ion Chromatography (IC), and XRF. Analytical data were organized and treated using Excel, SPSS, ArcGIS and Aquachem softwares. Analytical data results with respect to trace element contents in surface and ground waters are compared with the Maximum Acceptable Concentration or Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) of World Health Organization (WHO) and Ethiopian standards for drinking water. The comparison reveals that there are problematic elements that pass over the quality standards set for drinking water. One of these is: Bromine (Br), for which 100% all samples have value above 0.01 mg/l and up to 1.475 mg/l. Other problematic elements including aluminum (Al)—30%, fluorine (F)—20%, arsenic (As)—10%, and nitrate (NO3)—10% are examples of elements which have above WHO-MAC for drinking water. Selenium (Se) deficiency may be the other problematic element in the area for its deficiency is associated with liver damage and heart muscle disorder. The metal contaminations (i.e. heavy metals) were also evaluated by world geochemical background value in average shale and sediment quality guideline proposed by US EPA. The concentration of Co and Cr exceeded average shale value at most sample stations indicated that these stations ware in potential risk. Geochemical factors are mostly considered to explain the etiology of this liver related disease.
The Protection of Linguistic Minorities: An Appraisal on the Role of Multination Federalism  [PDF]
Amare Tesfaye, Zelalem Kebu
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2016.74028
Abstract: This article mainly focuses on the role of multination federalism in protecting linguistic minorities from assimilation or crumbling to/from the majority in a multination federacy like Ethiopia. In doing so, it has attempted to reflect the concerns raised by some other scholars in relation to territorial integrity of the state in a multination federal state structure and a conclusion as to the inappropriateness of such concern has been reached exhaustively. Resultantly, this article argues that multination federalism is highly potent to maintain integrity of the state, resolving the void by filling it against the possible tensions that may exist between the linguistic minorities and majorities. It has subtle fortitude for the protection of linguistic minorities among others through exactitude of the schemes like conferring them distinctive autonomy within a multination state, igniting them to employ their language without any encroachment and epithet, ensuring them to deserve their distinct identity and paving the way to ensure their participation in different fields meant for the public concerns. It also attracts the linguistic minorities’ right to education in their own mother tongue.
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