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How are mental health problems perceivedby a community in Agaro town?
Amare Deribew, Yonas Shiferaw Tamirat
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2005,
Factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS care in South Wollo ZoneEthiopia: a case-control study
Yeshewas Abaynew, Amare Deribew, Kebede Deribe
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-8-8
Abstract: A case-control study was conducted in Dessie referral and Borumeda district hospitals from March 1 to 31, 2010, northern Ethiopia. A total of 320 study participants (160 cases and 160 controls) were included in the study. Cases were people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) who had a WHO clinical stage of III or IV or a CD4 lymphocyte count of less than 200/uL at the time of the first presentation to antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinics. Controls were PLHA who had WHO stage I or II or a CD4 lymphocyte count of 200/uL or more irrespective of clinical staging at the time of first presentation to the ART clinics of the hospitals cases and controls were interviewed by trained nurses using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten health workers and eight PLHA.PLHA who live with their families [OR = 3.29, 95%CI: 1.28-8.45)], lived in a rented house [OR = 2.52, 95%CI: 1.09-5.79], non-pregnant women [OR = 9.3, 95% CI: 1.93-44.82], who perceived ART have many side effects [OR = 6.23, 95%CI:1.63,23.82)], who perceived HIV as stigmatizing disease [OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.09-8.76], who tested with sickness/symptoms [OR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.26-5.44], who did not disclose their HIV status for their partner [OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.02-7.56], frequent alcohol users [OR = 3.55, 95% CI: 1.63-7.71] and who spent more than 120 months with partner at HIV diagnosis[OR = 5.86, 95% CI: 1.35-25.41] were significantly associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS care. The qualitative finding revealed low awareness, non-disclosure, perceived ART side effects and HIV stigma were the major barriers for late presentation to HIV/AIDS care.Efforts to increase early initiation of HIV/AIDS care should focus on addressing patient's concerns such as stigma, drug side effects and disclosure.Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most affected region in the global AIDS epidemic; with an estimated 22.5 million people living with HIV [1]. The health status of HIV positive individua
Predictors of defaulting from completion of child immunization in south Ethiopia, May 2008 – A case control study
Henoke Tadesse, Amare Deribew, Mirkuzie Woldie
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-150
Abstract: Unmatched case control study was conducted in eight Kebeles (lowest administrative unit) of Wonago district in south Ethiopia. Census was done to identify all cases and controls. A total of 266 samples (133 cases and 133 controls) were selected by simple random sampling technique. Cases were children in the age group of 9 to 23 months who did not complete the recommended immunization schedule. Pre-tested structured questionnaire were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS 15.0 statistical software.Four hundred eighteen (41.7%) of the children were fully vaccinated and four hundred twelve (41.2%) of the children were partially vaccinated. The BCG: measles defaulter rate was 76.2%. Knowledge of the mothers about child immunization, monthly family income, postponing child immunization and perceived health institution support were the best predictors of defaulting from completion of child immunization.Mothers should be educated about the benefits of vaccination and the timely administration of vaccines.Worldwide about 29,000 children under the age of five die every day, mainly from preventable causes. An Ethiopian child is 30 times more likely to die by his or her fifth birthday than a child in Western Europe [1]. Some of the deaths occur from illnesses like measles, malaria or tetanus. According to the demographic health survey (DHS, 2005) of Ethiopia, child mortality rate of the country was 132 per 1000 live births, which is one of the highest in the world. The child mortality rate in south Ethiopia was 142 per 1000 live births [2,3]. Immunization offered the greatest benefits for health, well being and survival of children than any other interventions [4]. From 1960–2002, a fifty percent reduction in under-five mortality was observed. Immunization programmes has saved the lives of nearly 4 million children [1-3]. Study showed that the cost to treat a vaccine preventable disease is 30 times more than the cost of the vaccine [5].Epidemiological investig
Cigarette smokers' intention to quit smoking in Dire Dawa town Ethiopia: an assessment using the Transtheoretical Model
Eshetu Girma, Tsion Assefa, Amare Deribew
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-320
Abstract: From February 15 to 19, 2009, we conducted a community based cross-sectional study among 384 current cigarette smokers in Dire Dawa town east Ethiopia. Data was collected by trained personnel using a pretested structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0.Two hundred and nineteen (57%) smokers in the study area had the intention to quit cigarette smoking within the next six months and all the process of change had an increasing trend across the stages. Based on the Fragestrom test of nicotine dependence of cigarette, 35 (9.1%), 69 (18%) and 48(12.5%) were very high, high and medium dependent on nicotine respectively. For the majority 247(64.3%) of the respondents, the mean score of cons of smoking outweighs the pros score (negative decisional balance). Only 66(17.2%) had high self efficacy not to smoke in places and situations that can aggravate smoking.Majority of the smokers had the intention to quit smoking. All the process of change had an increasing trend across the stages. Those who had no intention to quit smoking had high level of dependence on nicotine and low self efficacy. The pros of smoking were decreasing while the cons were increasing across the stages. Stage based interventions should be done to move the smokers from their current stage to an advanced stages of quitting cigarette smoking.There are more than 4,000 different compounds in tobacco smoke. More than 40 of the chemicals in tobacco are known to cause cancer [1]. Nicotine is the drug in tobacco that makes smoking a powerful addiction. Experts rank nicotine ahead of alcohol, cocaine and heroin with regard to the severity of dependence resulting from its use. Tobacco dependence is also recognized as a disease in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) [2,3]. In developed countries a large proportion of smokers want to stop smoking and many try
Glaucoma awareness among people attending ophthalmic outreach services in Southwestern Ethiopia
Addis Tenkir, Berhan Solomon, Amare Deribew
BMC Ophthalmology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-10-17
Abstract: The main aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness of glaucoma among people attending outreach ophthalmic services.We conducted a cross-sectional survey in April 2009 of all people 40 years of age or older who presented during a two-week outreach service period in Agaro town, southwestern Ethiopia. Data on demographics and awareness of glaucoma were collected through face to face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire.340 people participated in the study. Their mean age was 54.5 (SD 10.6) years. About 43% were illiterates and 37.6% were farmers. Only eight people (2.4%) were aware of glaucoma. The association between awareness and attaining high school or better education was statistically significant (p < 0.0001).Awareness of glaucoma in this population is very low. An efficient information, education and communication (IEC) strategy needs to be designed to increase knowledge of the community about glaucoma so that early diagnosis and treatment of individuals with this condition may be possible.Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide [1]. Up to 50% of glaucoma patients are already blind in one eye at presentation in Africa including Ethiopia [2]. Eye health education that influences people to participate in regular ophthalmologic care may be an important step to detect glaucoma early, thereby preventing needless blindness. Not only can education and preventive eye care save needless suffering, it can also reduce the economic burden of the disease [3]. Subgroups of the population who are at highest risk both for developing the disease and having insufficient knowledge about it need to be identified and targeted in order to most effectively use resources for public education.The Department of Ophthalmology of Jimma University provides outreach ophthalmic activities in addition to regular services at its tertiary eye unit. The outreach activities include general eye health evaluation, refraction, trichiasis surgery and ca
Determinants of delay in malaria treatment-seeking behaviour for under-five children in south-west Ethiopia: a case control study
Alemayehu Getahun, Kebede Deribe, Amare Deribew
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-320
Abstract: A case control study was conducted from March 15 to April 20, 2010. Cases were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment after 24 hours of developing sign and symptom, and controls were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment within 24 hours of developing sign and symptom of malaria. Data were collected by trained enumerators using structured questionnaire. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. To identify determinants, multiple logistic regression was done.A total of 155 mothers of cases and 155 mothers of controls were interviewed. Mothers of children who were in a monogamous marriage (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.39, 8.34), who complained about the side effects of anti-malarial drugs (OR = 4.96, 95% CI: 1.21, 20.36), who had no history of child death (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.82, 6.42) and who complained about the higher cost of transportation to reach the health institutions (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.45) were more likely to be late for the treatment of malaria in under-five children.Effective malaria control programmes should address reducing delayed presentation of children for treatment. Efforts to reduce delay should address transport cost, decentralization of services and increasing awareness of the community on early diagnosis and treatment.By the mid-20th century, malaria was eliminated as a major health problem in many part of the world. In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, it is still the largest contributor to the burden of disease and premature death [1-3].During the past decades, numerous large-scale initiatives have been undertaken with the goal of reducing or eradicating the burden of malaria in the developing world. However, the ambitious goals set by these programmes for reducing the burden of malaria in the near future appear unlikely to be met [4]. Mortality from malaria is the major burden in under-five children. Most deaths occur at the community level, outsi
Predictors of HIV Testing among Patients with Tuberculosis in North West Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study
Animut Ayenew,Abenet Leykun,Robert Colebunders,Amare Deribew
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009702
Abstract: The acceptance of HIV testing among patients with tuberculosis (TB) is low in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of acceptance of HIV testing among patients with TB in North Ethiopia.
Investigation Outcomes of Tuberculosis Suspects in the Health Centers of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Amare Deribew,Nebiyu Negussu,Zenebe Melaku,Kebede Deribe
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018614
Abstract: Little is known about the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV among TB suspects in primary health care units in Ethiopia.
Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy and its correlates among HIV infected pediatric patients in Ethiopia
Sibhatu Biadgilign, Amare Deribew, Alemayehu Amberbir, Kebede Deribe
BMC Pediatrics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-8-53
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five hospitals in Addis Ababa from February 18 – April 28, 2008. The study population entailed parents/caretaker and index children who were following ART in the health facilities. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection.A total of 390 children respondents were included in the study with a response rate of 91%. The majority, equaling 205 (52.6%) of the children, were greater than 9 years of age. Fifty five percent of the children were girls. A total of 339 children (86.9%) as reported by caregivers were adherent to antiretroviral drugs for the past 7 days before the interview. Numerous variables were found to be significantly associated with adherence: children whose parents did not pay a fee for treatment [OR = 0.39 (95%CI: 0.16, 0.92)], children who had ever received any nutritional support from the clinic [OR = 0.34 (95%CI: 0.14, 0.79)] were less likely to adhere. Whereas children who took co-trimoxazole medication/syrup besides ARVs [OR = 3.65 (95%CI: 1.24, 10.74)], children who did not know their sero-status [OR = 2.53 (95%CI: 1.24, 5.19)] and children who were not aware of their caregiver's health problem [OR = 2.45 (95%CI: 1.25, 4.81)] were more likely to adhere than their counterparts.Adherence to HAART in children in Addis Ababa was higher than other similar setups. However, there are still significant numbers of children who are non-adherent to HAART.HIV/AIDS is one of the most destructive epidemics the world has ever witnessed. In 2007 an estimated 33.2 million people were living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide, while 2.5 million of these people were children under 15 years old. Furthermore, 420,000 Children under 15 years were newly infected with HIV in 2007. Nearly 90% of all HIV-positive children live in sub-Saharan Africa [1]. About 780,000 were estimated to be in need of antiretroviral therapy [2]. The most efficient and cost effective way to tackle pediatric HIV globally is to reduce Mother to Chil
Predictors of adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy among HIV positive adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Mesele Mindachew, Amare Deribew, Fasil Tessema, Sibhatu Biadgilign
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-916
Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted in four hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was done to identify predictors of IPT.A total of 319 (97.5%) individual participated in this study. Within seven days recall period, self-reported dose adherence rate was 86.5%. Individual who received explanation about IPT from health care providers (OR = 7.74; 95%CI: 3.144, 19.058); who had good feeling/comfortable to take IPT in front of other people [OR = 5.981, 95%CI (2.308, 15.502)] and who attended clinical appointment regularly (OR = 4.0; 95%CI: 1.062, 15.073) were more likely to adhere to IPT. Participants who developed IPT related adverse effect were 93% less likely to adhere to the prescribed doses (OR = 0.065; 95%CI: 0.024, 0.179).The prevalence of self reported dose adherence over the past 7 days was higher. Non-adherence was observed among respondent who were not provided with sufficient information about IPT. The health care providers need to strengthen their educational and counseling efforts to convince the patient before putting them on IPT. To enhance adherence, health education efforts should focus on the importance of IPT, the details of the regimen and adverse effects.Tuberculosis is among the top ten causes of global mortality and morbidity. Recently, 32% of the world's population is infected with TB. Over 95% of new tuberculosis cases and deaths occur in developing countries where the highest incidence and number of deaths occur in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa [1]. HIV/AIDS is the greatest risk factors for the development of TB. The risk of reactivation of latent infection of TB is greatly increased in Africa as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic [2-5].The World Health Organization (WHO) had proposed a framework of TB/HIV/AIDS collaborative activities to prevent the occurrence of TB-HIV disease. IPT, intensified TB case finding, and infection preven
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