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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 210689 matches for " Amanda L. Balish "
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Prevalence of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Antibodies, Tampa Bay Florida — November–December, 2009
Chad M. Cox, Kate Goodin, Emily Fisher, Fatimah S. Dawood, Janet J. Hamilton, German F. Leparc, Monica Gray, Linda Nelson, Rebekah H. Borse, James A. Singleton, Carrie Reed, Amanda L. Balish, Jacqueline M. Katz, Richard S. Hopkins, Alicia M. Fry
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029301
Abstract: Background In 2009, a novel influenza virus (2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1)) caused significant disease in the United States. Most states, including Florida, experienced a large fall wave of disease from September through November, after which disease activity decreased substantially. We determined the prevalence of antibodies due to the pH1N1 virus in Florida after influenza activity had peaked and estimated the proportion of the population infected with pH1N1 virus during the pandemic. Methods During November-December 2009, we collected leftover serum from a blood bank, a pediatric children's hospital and a pediatric outpatient clinic in Tampa Bay Florida. Serum was tested for pH1N1 virus antibodies using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. HI titers ≥40 were considered seropositive. We adjusted seroprevalence results to account for previously established HI assay specificity and sensitivity and employed a simple statistical model to estimate the proportion of seropositivity due to pH1N1 virus infection and vaccination. Results During the study time period, the overall seroprevalence in Tampa Bay, Florida was 25%, increasing to 30% after adjusting for HI assay sensitivity and specificity. We estimated that 5.9% of the population had vaccine-induced seropositivity while 25% had seropositivity secondary to pH1N1 virus infection. The highest cumulative incidence of pH1N1 virus infection was among children aged 5–17 years (53%) and young adults aged 18–24 years (47%), while adults aged ≥50 years had the lowest cumulative incidence (11–13%) of pH1N1 virus infection. Conclusions After the peak of the fall wave of the pandemic, an estimated one quarter of the Tampa Bay population had been infected with the pH1N1 virus. Consistent with epidemiologic trends observed during the pandemic, the highest burdens of disease were among school-aged children and young adults.
Structural and Antigenic Variation among Diverse Clade 2 H5N1 Viruses
David A. Shore, Hua Yang, Amanda L. Balish, Samuel S. Shepard, Paul J. Carney, Jessie C. Chang, Charles T. Davis, Ruben O. Donis, Julie M. Villanueva, Alexander I. Klimov, James Stevens
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075209
Abstract: Antigenic variation among circulating H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses mandates the continuous production of strain-specific pre-pandemic vaccine candidates and represents a significant challenge for pandemic preparedness. Here we assessed the structural, antigenic and receptor-binding properties of three H5N1 HPAI virus hemagglutinins, which were recently selected by the WHO as vaccine candidates [A/Egypt/N03072/2010 (Egypt10, clade 2.2.1), A/Hubei/1/2010 (Hubei10, clade and A/Anhui/1/2005 (Anhui05, clade 2.3.4)]. These analyses revealed that antigenic diversity among these three isolates was restricted to changes in the size and charge of amino acid side chains at a handful of positions, spatially equivalent to the antigenic sites identified in H1 subtype viruses circulating among humans. All three of the H5N1 viruses analyzed in this study were responsible for fatal human infections, with the most recently-isolated strains, Hubei10 and Egypt10, containing multiple residues in the receptor-binding site of the HA, which were suspected to enhance mammalian transmission. However, glycan-binding analyses demonstrated a lack of binding to human α2-6-linked sialic acid receptor analogs for all three HAs, reinforcing the notion that receptor-binding specificity contributes only partially to transmissibility and pathogenesis of HPAI viruses and suggesting that changes in host specificity must be interpreted in the context of the host and environmental factors, as well as the virus as a whole. Together, our data reveal structural linkages with phylogenetic and antigenic analyses of recently emerged H5N1 virus clades and should assist in interpreting the significance of future changes in antigenic and receptor-binding properties.
Prevalence of Seropositivity to Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 Virus in the United States following the 2009 Pandemic
Carrie Reed, Jacqueline M. Katz, Kathy Hancock, Amanda Balish, Alicia M. Fry, H1N1 Serosurvey Working Group
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048187
Abstract: Background 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) was first detected in the United States in April 2009 and resulted in a global pandemic. We conducted a serologic survey to estimate the cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 through the end of 2009 when pandemic activity had waned in the United States. Methods We conducted a pair of cross sectional serologic surveys before and after the spring/fall waves of the pandemic for evidence of seropositivity (titer ≥40) using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. We tested a baseline sample of 1,142 serum specimens from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and 2,759 serum specimens submitted for routine screening to clinical diagnostic laboratories from ten representative sites. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of seropositivity to A(H1N1)pdm09 by year-end 2009 was 36.9% (95%CI: 31.7–42.2%). After adjusting for baseline cross-reactive antibody, pandemic vaccination coverage and the sensitivity/specificity of the HI assay, we estimate that 20.2% (95%CI: 10.1–28.3%) of the population was infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 by December 2009, including 53.3% (95%CI: 39.0–67.1%) of children aged 5–17 years. Conclusions By December 2009, approximately one-fifth of the US population, or 61.9 million persons, may have been infected with A(H1N1)pdm09, including around half of school-aged children.
Effects of Neurokinin-1 Receptor Inhibition on Anxiety Behavior in Neonatal Rats Selectively Bred for an Infantile Affective Trait  [PDF]
Amanda L. Schott, Betty Zimmerberg
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.59096

Interest in understanding the etiology and developing new treatments for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents has led to recent studies of neurotransmitters not traditionally associated with neural pathways for fear and anxiety. The binding of the neurotransmitter substance P (SP) to its neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor may be a crucial component in mediating the anxiety response. While previous studies using rodent models have documented the anxiolytic effects of SP antagonists, the role of individual differences in affective temperament has not yet been examined in studies of drug response. This study used intracerebroventricular injections of the NK1 antagonist Spantide II at concentrations of 10 and 100 pmol to examine the consequences of blocking the SP-NK1 pathway in high and low line rats selectively bred for high or low levels of ultrasonic distress calls after a brief maternal separation. Affective temperament was a significant factor in determining drug response. Spantide II resulted in a significant reduction of distress calls in subjects in the high anxiety line, while low line subjects with low anxiety were resistant to the drug. These data indicate that the SP-NK1 pathway could be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of various stress disorders, but drug response might be influenced by the individual’s state anxiety or history of chronic stress.

Knight’s Tours on 3 x n Chessboards with a Single Square Removed  [PDF]
Amanda M. Miller, David L. Farnsworth
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2013.31012
Abstract: The following theorem is proved: A knights tour exists on all 3 x n chessboards with one square removed unless: n is even, the removed square is (i, j) with i + j odd, n = 3 when any square other than the center square is removed, n = 5, n = 7 when any square other than square (2, 2) or (2, 6) is removed, n = 9 when square (1, 3), (3, 3), (1, 7), (3, 7), (2, 4), (2, 6), (2, 2), or (2, 8) is removed, or when square (1, 3), (2, 4), (3, 3), (1, n – 2), (2, n – 3), or (3, n – 2) is removed.
Counting the Number of Squares Reachable in k Knight’s Moves  [PDF]
Amanda M. Miller, David L. Farnsworth
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2013.33027

Using geometric techniques, formulas for the number of squares that require k moves in order to be reached by a sole knight from its initial position on an infinite chessboard are derived. The number of squares reachable in exactly k moves are 1, 8, 32, 68, and 96 for k = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and 28k – 20 for k ≥ 5. The cumulative number of squares reachable in k or fever moves are 1, 9, 41, and 109 for k = 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and 14k2 6k + 5 for k ≥ 4. Although these formulas are known, the proofs that are presented are new and more mathematically accessible then preceding proofs.

Using Community-Based Social Marketing Techniques to Enhance Environmental Regulation
Amanda L. Kennedy
Sustainability , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/su2041138
Abstract: This article explores how environmental regulation may be improved through the use of community-based social marketing techniques. While regulation is an important tool of sustainability policy, it works upon a limited range of behavioural ‘triggers’. It focuses upon fear of penalty or desires for compliance, but individual behaviour is also affected by beliefs and values, and by perceived opportunities for greater satisfaction. It is argued that more effective environmental laws may be achieved using strategies that integrate regulation with community-based social marketing. Case studies where community-based social marketing techniques have been successfully used are examined, and methods for employing community-based social marketing tools to support environmental regulation are proposed.
Meditasie: Bybelgefundeerd of ’n vermenging van gelowe? ’n Pastorale ondersoek
Amanda L. du Plessis
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2013,
Abstract: Meditation: Bible based or a mix of religion? A Pastoral investigation. The influence of other religions on the Christian community was a perceptible trend that cannot be ignored in the realm of spirituality. Meditation was one such example and consequently requires thoughtful investigation. Some Christians found meditation a valuable spiritual discipline that aids their spiritual growth but, in my opinion, also opened up the door for them to become victims of a subtle spiritual deception. The question posed was: how can Christians distinguish between the many and often-conflicting views on meditation found in easily accessible literature? A need therefore exists to define meditation as a possible Christian spiritual expression by distinguishing its uniqueness from the influences of other non-Christian religions and popular opinion.
Praktiese raad vir ‘n vervulde lewe
Amanda L. du Plessis
In die Skriflig , 2013, DOI: 10.4102/ids.v47i1.684
The covenant as fundamental building block of marriage
Amanda L. Du Plessis
Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif , 2012, DOI: 10.5952/53-1-113
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Marriage is an institution of God, a social institution, a multidimensional experience, as well as an intimate personal relationship between a man and a woman. In the Bible the marital relationship is used to describe the covenant relationship between God and human beings. The covenant relationship between God and human beings gives man a secure and safe space where he/she can grow to spiritual and emotional maturity in God, through Jesus Christ. When spouses understand and accept the covenant as a fundamental building block in their marriage, and live accordingly, it creates a profound union and intimacy. Marriage then becomes a safe haven in which spouses can grow to spiritual and emotional wholeness. The question this article explores is how the covenant as the pastoral point of departure may contribute to marriage pastorate. The empirical research has shown that marriage counselling is currently executed reactively, rather than pro-actively. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: DIE VERBOND AS FUNDAMENTELE BOUSTEEN VIR DIE HUWELIK Die huwelik is ’n instelling van God, ’n sosiale instelling, multidimensionele ervaring, asook ’n intieme persoonlike verhouding tussen ’n man en ’n vrou. In die Bybel word die huweliksverhouding gebruik om die verbondsverhouding tussen God en die mens te beskryf. Die verbondsverhouding tussen God en die mens gee aan die mens sekuriteit en veilige ruimte waarbinne die mens tot volwassenheid in God deur Jesus kan groei. Wanneer huweliksgenote die aspekte van die verbond as fundamentele bousteen in hulle huwelik begryp en daarvolgens leef, ontstaan ’n diepe eenwording en intimiteit. Die huwelik word dan ’n veilige ruimte waarbinne beide huweliksgenote geestelik en emosioneel kan groei tot heelheid. Die vraag wat in hierdie artikel ondersoek word, is op watter manier die verbond as pastorale vertrekpunt kan bydra tot die huwelikspastoraat. Die empiriese ondersoek het aangedui dat die huwelikspastoraat tans eerder reaktief as pro-aktief geskied.
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