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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 300310 matches for " Amanda J Cox "
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Genetic analysis of haptoglobin polymorphisms with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in the diabetes heart study
Jeremy N Adams, Amanda J Cox, Barry I Freedman, Carl D Langefeld, J Jeffrey Carr, Donald W Bowden
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-31
Abstract: This study examined the association of HP genotypes with subclinical CVD, T2DM risk, and associated risk factors in a T2DM-enriched sample. Haptoglobin genotypes were determined in 1208 European Americans (EA) from 473 Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) families via PCR. Three promoter SNPs (rs5467, rs5470, and rs5471) were also genotyped.Analyses revealed association between HP2-2 duplication and increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT; p?=?0.001). No association between HP and measures of calcified arterial plaque were observed, but the HP polymorphism was associated with triglyceride concentrations (p?=?0.005) and CVD mortality (p?=?0.04). We found that the HP2-2 genotype was associated with increased T2DM risk with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.49 (95% CI 1.18-1.86, p?=?6.59x10-4). Promoter SNPs were not associated with any traits.This study suggests association between the HP duplication and IMT, triglycerides, CVD mortality, and T2DM in an EA population enriched for T2DM. Lack of association with atherosclerotic calcified plaque likely reflect differences in the pathogenesis of these CVD phenotypes. HP variation may contribute to the heritable risk for CVD complications in T2DM.Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the major complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As of 2011, 25.8 million Americans had diagnosed T2DM [1]. More than 50% of individuals with T2DM had coronary heart disease, stroke, or cardiac disease [2]. T2DM is an independent risk factor for development of CVD with the relative risk of CVD mortality of 2.1 in men and 4.9 in women, relative to non-T2DM affected individuals [3,4]. There is increasing evidence that genetic and environmental factors contribute to this risk.Haptoglobin (HP) is a 54 kDa protein, found abundantly in the serum [5,6]. The HP gene has two major alleles: HP1, (containing five exons) and HP2, (containing seven exons) which likely arose from a duplication event involving exons 3 and 4, producing a 61 kDa pro
Pouched Rats’ Detection of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison to Culturing and Polymerase Chain Reaction
Amanda Mahoney,Bart J. Weetjens,Christophe Cox,Negussie Beyene,Klaus Reither,George Makingi,Maureen Jubitana,Rudovick Kazwala,Godfrey S. Mfinanga,Amos Kahwa,Amy Durgin,Alan Poling
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/716989
Abstract: Setting. Tanzania. Objective. To compare microscopy as conducted in direct observation of treatment, short course centers to pouched rats as detectors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Design. Ten pouched rats were trained to detect tuberculosis in sputum using operant conditioning techniques. The rats evaluated 910 samples previously evaluated by smear microscopy. All samples were also evaluated through culturing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed on culture growths to classify the bacteria. Results. The patientwise sensitivity of microscopy was 58.0%, and the patient-wise specificity was 97.3%. Used as a group of 10 with a cutoff (defined as the number of rat indications to classify a sample as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis) of 1, the rats increased new case detection by 46.8% relative to microscopy alone. The average samplewise sensitivity of the individual rats was 68.4% (range 61.1–73.8%), and the mean specificity was 87.3% (range 84.7–90.3%). Conclusion. These results suggest that pouched rats are a valuable adjunct to, and may be a viable substitute for, sputum smear microscopy as a tuberculosis diagnostic in resource-poor countries. 1. Introduction A major hurdle in combating tuberculosis (TB) is diagnosing the disease in resource-poor countries.Sputum smear microscopy, the technique typically used, is relatively slow and characteristically has high specificity but low sensitivity [1, 2]; therefore, the international medical community has prioritized developing a quick, accurate, and affordable alternative diagnostic. In an attempt to develop one, researchers recently have investigated the use of scent-detecting pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as a TB diagnostic.An initial proof of principle investigation [3] revealed that pouched rats trained through operant conditioning procedures could detect TB in human sputum, and three subsequent studies, involving a total of over 20,000 patients, showed that using the rats in second-line screening of sputum samples initially screened by smear microscopy at direct observation of treatment—short course (DOTS) centers in Tanzania increased new case detections by 31.4% [4], 44% [5], and 42.8% [6]. These results are promising, but the accuracy of Cricetomys in detecting TB has not been extensively evaluated relative to an established reference standard. Culturing is considered the “gold standard” for TB detection [2], and Weetjens et al. [3] reported the results of a study in which two rats, Mandela and Kingston, evaluated 817 sputum samples also evaluated by culturing, which
Bivariate Daubechies Scaling Functions (Wavelets)
Edward Aboufadel,Amanda Cox,Amy Vander Zee
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: Using the Daubechies conditions of compact support, orthogonal, and regularity, we were able to derive bivariate scaling functions with which to reproduce linear functions (planes). We describe how to create all possible masks of refinement coefficients that satisfy those conditions.
Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed; How the Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus Responds to Oxidative Stress
Walid S. Maaty, Blake Wiedenheft, Pavel Tarlykov, Nathan Schaff, Joshua Heinemann, Jim Robison-Cox, Jacob Valenzuela, Amanda Dougherty, Paul Blum, C. Martin Lawrence, Trevor Douglas, Mark J. Young, Brian Bothner
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006964
Abstract: To avoid molecular damage of biomolecules due to oxidation, all cells have evolved constitutive and responsive systems to mitigate and repair chemical modifications. Archaea have adapted to some of the most extreme environments known to support life, including highly oxidizing conditions. However, in comparison to bacteria and eukaryotes, relatively little is known about the biology and biochemistry of archaea in response to changing conditions and repair of oxidative damage. In this study transcriptome, proteome, and chemical reactivity analyses of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress in Sulfolobus solfataricus (P2) were conducted. Microarray analysis of mRNA expression showed that 102 transcripts were regulated by at least 1.5 fold, 30 minutes after exposure to 30 μM H2O2. Parallel proteomic analyses using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), monitored more than 800 proteins 30 and 105 minutes after exposure and found that 18 had significant changes in abundance. A recently characterized ferritin-like antioxidant protein, DPSL, was the most highly regulated species of mRNA and protein, in addition to being post-translationally modified. As expected, a number of antioxidant related mRNAs and proteins were differentially regulated. Three of these, DPSL, superoxide dismutase, and peroxiredoxin were shown to interact and likely form a novel supramolecular complex for mitigating oxidative damage. A scheme for the ability of this complex to perform multi-step reactions is presented. Despite the central role played by DPSL, cells maintained a lower level of protection after disruption of the dpsl gene, indicating a level of redundancy in the oxidative stress pathways of S. solfataricus. This work provides the first “omics” scale assessment of the oxidative stress response for an archeal organism and together with a network analysis using data from previous studies on bacteria and eukaryotes reveals evolutionarily conserved pathways where complex and overlapping defense mechanisms protect against oxygen toxicity.
Prevalence of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Antibodies, Tampa Bay Florida — November–December, 2009
Chad M. Cox, Kate Goodin, Emily Fisher, Fatimah S. Dawood, Janet J. Hamilton, German F. Leparc, Monica Gray, Linda Nelson, Rebekah H. Borse, James A. Singleton, Carrie Reed, Amanda L. Balish, Jacqueline M. Katz, Richard S. Hopkins, Alicia M. Fry
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029301
Abstract: Background In 2009, a novel influenza virus (2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1)) caused significant disease in the United States. Most states, including Florida, experienced a large fall wave of disease from September through November, after which disease activity decreased substantially. We determined the prevalence of antibodies due to the pH1N1 virus in Florida after influenza activity had peaked and estimated the proportion of the population infected with pH1N1 virus during the pandemic. Methods During November-December 2009, we collected leftover serum from a blood bank, a pediatric children's hospital and a pediatric outpatient clinic in Tampa Bay Florida. Serum was tested for pH1N1 virus antibodies using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. HI titers ≥40 were considered seropositive. We adjusted seroprevalence results to account for previously established HI assay specificity and sensitivity and employed a simple statistical model to estimate the proportion of seropositivity due to pH1N1 virus infection and vaccination. Results During the study time period, the overall seroprevalence in Tampa Bay, Florida was 25%, increasing to 30% after adjusting for HI assay sensitivity and specificity. We estimated that 5.9% of the population had vaccine-induced seropositivity while 25% had seropositivity secondary to pH1N1 virus infection. The highest cumulative incidence of pH1N1 virus infection was among children aged 5–17 years (53%) and young adults aged 18–24 years (47%), while adults aged ≥50 years had the lowest cumulative incidence (11–13%) of pH1N1 virus infection. Conclusions After the peak of the fall wave of the pandemic, an estimated one quarter of the Tampa Bay population had been infected with the pH1N1 virus. Consistent with epidemiologic trends observed during the pandemic, the highest burdens of disease were among school-aged children and young adults.
One-year follow-up after primary coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction in diabetic patients: a substudy of the STENT PAMI trial
Mattos, Luiz Alberto;Grines, Cindy L.;Sousa, J. Eduardo de;Sousa, Amanda G. M. R.;Stone, Gregg W.;Cox, David;Garcia, Eulogio;Morice, Marie-Claude;O'Neill, William;Grines, Lorelei;Boura, Judith;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2001001200006
Abstract: objective - this analysis was undertaken to determine the composite incidence of cumulative adverse events (death, reinfarction, disabling stroke, and target vessel revascularization) at the end of the first year after acute myocardial infarction, in diabetic patients who underwent coronary stenting or primary coronary balloon angioplasty. methods - from the stent pami trial, we analyzed the 6-month angiographic and 1-year clinical outcomes of 135 diabetic (112, noninsulin dependent) patients who underwent the randomization process of the trial and compared them with 758 nondiabetic patients. results - coronary stenting did not significantly reduce the primary composite clinical end point when compared with ptca (20 vs. 30%, p=0.2). a significant benefit from stenting was observed in patients with noninsulin dependent diabetes, with a trend toward a lesser need for new revascularization procedures (10 vs. 21%, p<.001), with a significant reduction in the primary composite clinical end point at 1 year (12 vs. 28%, p=. 04). at 6 months, the restenosis rate were significantly reduced only in nondiabetic patients (18 vs. 33%, p<. 001). diabetic patients had the same restenosis rate (38%) either with stenting or balloon ptca. conclusions - coronary stenting in diabetics noninsulin dependent offered a significant reduction in the composite incidence of major clinical adverse events compared with balloon ptca.
Thermalization of Quantum Fields from Time-Reversal Invariant Evolution Equations
J. Berges,J. Cox
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(01)01004-8
Abstract: We study the time evolution of correlation functions in closed quantum systems for nonequilibrium ensembles of initial conditions. For a scalar quantum field theory we show that generic time-reversal invariant evolutions approach equilibrium at large times. The calculation provides a first principles justification of Boltzmann's conjecture that the large-time behavior of isolated macroscopic systems can be described by thermal ensemble averages.
Providers' perspectives on the vaginal birth after cesarean guidelines in Florida, United States: a qualitative study
Kim J Cox
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-72
Abstract: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 obstetricians, 12 midwives, and a hospital administrator (n = 24). Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis informed the findings.Fear of liability was a central reason for obstetricians and midwives to avoid attending VBACs. Providers who continued to offer a trial of labor attempted to minimize their legal risks by being highly selective in choosing potential candidates. Definitions of "immediately available" varied widely among hospitals, and providers in solo or small practices often favored the convenience of a repeat cesarean delivery rather than having to remain in-house during a trial of labor. Midwives were often marginalized due to restrictive hospital policies and by their consulting physicians, even though women with previous cesareans were actively seeking their care.The current ACOG VBAC guidelines limit US obstetricians' and midwives' ability to provide care for women with a previous cesarean, particularly in community and rural hospitals. Although ACOG has proposed that women be allowed to accept "higher levels of risk" in order to be able to attempt a trial of labor in some settings, access to VBAC is unlikely to increase in Florida as long as systemic barriers and liability risks remain high.In the United States and other developed countries, the vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) rate has been steadily declining for more than a decade [1,2]. Only 8.2% of US women with a previous cesarean delivery attempted a vaginal birth in 2007, compared with 35.3% in 1997, despite evidence that 60% to 80% of VBACs are successful [1]. A similar trend is apparent in Australia, where VBAC rates declined from 31% in 1998 to 19% in 2006 [2]. Although VBAC has been extensively validated as a safe option for most women with a previous cesarean [1], non-medical factors are thought to be driving the decline in rates since medical factors have changed little over the years [3].Prior to the
Comparing coding between interventional radiologists and hospital coding departments
J Cox, N Koutroumanos
Clinical Audit , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CA.S9634
Abstract: mparing coding between interventional radiologists and hospital coding departments Other (3841) Total Article Views Authors: J Cox, N Koutroumanos Published Date May 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 33 - 36 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CA.S9634 J Cox1, N Koutroumanos1 1Department of Radiology, University Hospital North Durham, Durham, UK Purpose: The purpose of this audit was to assess whether there was a difference in the health care resource groups coding and subsequent reimbursement of interventional radiology cases, depending on whether the coding was carried out by a clinician or an administrator in the coding department Methodology: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 137 consecutive patients who had therapeutic endovascular procedures in our Trust from 2005–2007. Six patients were excluded due to lack of data. The audit was carried out at a single center. A single clinician, under the supervision of a consultant interventional radiologist, proceeded to code the procedure after referring to the patient’s radiology report and notes. Findings: The error rate by part of the coding department in terms of assessing nonelective versus elective procedures was 7%. This had lead to a £2,352 excess charge on the part of the coding department. Additionally, there were errors in a further 19 procedures (15%), in which vascular stents had been inserted during the procedure but had not been coded for. The stent usage had not been recognised by the coding administrators in their evaluation, and this equipment-based undercoding resulted in underpayment by the patient’s primary care trust of £11,153. Originality/value: This is the first published audit of coding in interventional radiology in the UK. Coding in complex subspecialties like vascular interventional radiology requires more clinical input and engagement to ensure the case complexity is accurately reflected in the codes assigned and in the subsequent reimbursement.
Meron-cluster algorithms and chiral symmetry breaking in a (2+1)-d staggered fermion model
J. Cox,K. Holland
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0550-3213(00)00299-6
Abstract: The recently developed Meron-Cluster algorithm completely solves the exponentially difficult sign problem for a number of models previously inaccessible to numerical simulation. We use this algorithm in a high-precision study of a model of N=1 flavor of staggered fermions in (2+1)-dimensions with a four-fermion interaction. This model cannot be explored using standard algorithms. We find that the Z(2) chiral symmetry of this model is spontaneously broken at low temperatures and that the finite-temperature chiral phase transition is in the universality class of the 2-d Ising model, as expected.
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