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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 147083 matches for " Amanda B. Maliphol "
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Diet-Induced Obesity Reduces the Responsiveness of the Peripheral Taste Receptor Cells
Amanda B. Maliphol, Deborah J. Garth, Kathryn F. Medler
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079403
Abstract: Introduction Obesity is a growing epidemic that causes many serious health related complications. While the causes of obesity are complex, there is conclusive evidence that overconsumption coupled with a sedentary lifestyle is the primary cause of this medical condition. Dietary consumption is controlled by appetite which is in turn regulated by multiple neuronal systems, including the taste system. However, the relationship between taste and obesity has not been well defined. Growing evidence suggests that taste perception in the brain is altered in obese animals and humans, however no studies have determined if there are altered taste responses in the peripheral taste receptor cells, which is the initiation site for the detection and perception of taste stimuli. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used C57Bl/6 mice which readily become obese when placed on a high fat diet. After ten weeks on the high fat diet, we used calcium imaging to measure how taste-evoked calcium signals were affected in the obese mice. We found that significantly fewer taste receptor cells were responsive to some appetitive taste stimuli while the numbers of taste cells that were sensitive to aversive taste stimuli did not change. Properties of the taste-evoked calcium signals were also significantly altered in the obese mice. Behavioral analyses found that mice on the high fat diet had reduced ability to detect some taste stimuli compared to their littermate controls. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that diet-induced obesity significantly influences peripheral taste receptor cell signals which likely leads to changes in the central taste system and may cause altered taste perception.
Ryanodine Receptors Selectively Interact with L Type Calcium Channels in Mouse Taste Cells
Michelle R. Rebello, Amanda B. Maliphol, Kathryn F. Medler
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068174
Abstract: Introduction We reported that ryanodine receptors are expressed in two different types of mammalian peripheral taste receptor cells: Type II and Type III cells. Type II cells lack voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and chemical synapses. In these cells, ryanodine receptors contribute to the taste-evoked calcium signals that are initiated by opening inositol trisphosphate receptors located on internal calcium stores. In Type III cells that do have VGCCs and chemical synapses, ryanodine receptors contribute to the depolarization-dependent calcium influx. Methodology/Principal Findings The goal of this study was to establish if there was selectivity in the type of VGCC that is associated with the ryanodine receptor in the Type III taste cells or if the ryanodine receptor opens irrespective of the calcium channels involved. We also wished to determine if the ryanodine receptors and VGCCs require a physical linkage to interact or are simply functionally associated with each other. Using calcium imaging and pharmacological inhibitors, we found that ryanodine receptors are selectively associated with L type VGCCs but likely not through a physical linkage. Conclusions/Significance Taste cells are able to undergo calcium induced calcium release through ryanodine receptors to increase the initial calcium influx signal and provide a larger calcium response than would otherwise occur when L type channels are activated in Type III taste cells.
The association of the FMRFamide-related peptide family with the heart of the stick insect, Baculum extradentatum
Amanda Calvin, Angela B Lange
Open Access Insect Physiology , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAIP.S7112
Abstract: ssociation of the FMRFamide-related peptide family with the heart of the stick insect, Baculum extradentatum Original Research (3532) Total Article Views Authors: Amanda Calvin, Angela B Lange Published Date March 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 1 - 10 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAIP.S7112 Amanda Calvin, Angela B Lange Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON, Canada Abstract: The neural anatomy of the heart of the Vietnamese stick insect, Baculum extradentatum consists of a dorsal vessel with lateral cardiac nerves containing cardiac neurons. It also has nerve projections from the segmental nerves. Some of the nerve processes pass over the alary muscles. Multiple pairs of bipolar neurons with axons in the segmental nerve lie on the dorsal diaphragm either side of the heart. FMRFamide-like immunoreactive staining is present in the peripheral nervous system, including the nerve branches from the segmental nerve that project to the heart. Immunoreactive processes are present over the incurrent and excurrent ostia of the heart and in the lateral cardiac nerves, cardiac neurons and in the paired bipolar neurons. SchistoFLRFamide, a myosuppressin, has a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on dorsal vessel contraction. The minimum sequence required for inhibition was examined using truncated peptides, and found to be HVFLRFamide. The truncated peptide VFLRFamide showed activity reversal, being slightly stimulatory. The nonpeptide, benzethonium chloride, mimicked the effects of SchistoFLRFamide. The localization of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity within the innervation to the heart, coupled with the cardioinhibitory effect of SchistoFLRFamide, suggests a possible role for this family of peptides as neuromodulators in the cardiac musculature in B. extradentatum.
Growth Rates of Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and Giant Reed (Arundo donax) in a Low-Input System in Arkansas, USA  [PDF]
Mohan Acharya, David M. Burner, Amanda J. Ashworth, Felix B. Fritschi, Taylor C. Adams
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.912172
Abstract: The US Department of Energy is currently building strategies for the expansion of clean and renewable energy sources, and tall, rapidly-growing grasses such as giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and giant reed (Arundo donax) are two of the many of species that could fill this renewable energy niche. The objective was to compare stalk growth components of giant miscanthus and giant reed, in a low-input system (no irrigation and no fertilizer use) in Arkansas, USA. Due to the potential invasiveness of giant reed, our study was conducted on an upland site to minimize escape. Plant height and dry weight per stalk were measured every week for two consecutive growing seasons in 2012 and 2013. Leaf area index (LAI) was measured every two weeks from May to September in 2012. A significant species × day interaction occurred for plant height and
Accumulation of Mineral Nutrients and Phytochemicals in Lettuce and Tomato Grown in High Tunnel and Open Field  [PDF]
Amanda Woolley, Samuel Sumpter, Myungjin Lee, Jingwen Xu, Shannon Barry, Weiqun Wang, C. B. Rajashekar
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.101011
Abstract: High tunnel production of horticultural food crops is becoming increasingly popular and has a significant impact on their growth, productivity and nutritional quality. The present study examines the effect of high tunnel production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. “Two Star” and “New Red Fire”) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. “Celebrity” and “Mountain Fresh”) on their nutritional quality relating to major nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals. High tunnel environment increased the concentration of N (protein) in both lettuce and tomato relative to the open field cultivation. The accumulation pattern of mineral nutrients in high tunnel was similar in green-leaf and red-leaf lettuce varieties. Lettuce varieties grown in high tunnel had higher accumulation of C, S and Zn relative to those grown in open field. However, high tunnel environment suppressed the accumulation of many micronutrients such as Mg, Fe, Cu and Mn in both lettuce varieties but not in tomato. For example, accumulation of Fe was reduced by more than 80% in “Two Star and by more than 55% in “New Red Fire” under high tunnel. It also suppressed the levels of many health-promoting phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid, rutin and kaempferol in green-leaf lettuce and gallic acid in red-leaf lettuce. High tunnel environment improved the soil nutrient status but reduced the radiation levels (PAR, UV-A and UV-B) received by the crops. The results show that the high tunnel production has a significant impact on the nutritional quality relating to protein and mineral nutrients in both crops and health-promoting phytochemicals in lettuce.
Inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis on raw poultry using microwave heating
Pucciarelli, Amanda B.;Benassi, Fernando O.;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132005000800010
Abstract: the effect of microwave heating on salmonella enteritidis inoculated on fresh chicken was investigated using a microwave oven (800 w) to determine the destruction of salmonella enteritidis isolated from chicken carcasses, in relation to the time of heating at two power settings: high (power level 10) and medium (power level 6); the relationship between heating time and temperature was also been studied. the destruction was 6.4 log cycles at time 95 sec for the high power level, and 5 log cycles at time 140 sec for medium power setting. after 110 sec for higher power level, no survival of salmonella enteritidis was detected in samples (100g), but at 140 sec for medium power level, these food pathogens were still present.
The Negatively Charged Regions of Lactoferrin Binding Protein B, an Adaptation against Anti-Microbial Peptides
Ari Morgenthau, Amanda Beddek, Anthony B. Schryvers
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086243
Abstract: Lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB) is a bi-lobed membrane bound lipoprotein that is part of the lactoferrin receptor complex in a variety of Gram-negative pathogens. Despite high sequence diversity among LbpBs from various strains and species, a cluster of negatively charged amino acids is invariably present in the protein’s C-terminal lobe in all species except Moraxella bovis. The function of LbpB in iron acquisition has yet to be experimentally demonstrated, whereas in vitro studies have shown that LbpB confers protection against lactoferricin, a short cationic antimicrobial peptide released from the N- terminus of lactoferrin. In this study we demonstrate that the negatively charged regions can be removed from the Neisseria meningitidis LbpB without compromising stability, and this results in the inability of LbpB to protect against the bactericidal effects of lactoferricin. The release of LbpB from the cell surface by the autotransporter NalP reduces the protection against lactoferricin in the in vitro killing assay, attributed to removal of LbpB during washing steps, but is unlikely to have a similar impact in vivo. The protective effect of the negatively charged polysaccharide capsule in the killing assay was less than the protection conferred by LbpB, suggesting that LbpB plays a major role in protection against cationic antimicrobial peptides in vivo. The selective release of LbpB by NalP has been proposed to be a mechanism for evading the adaptive immune response, by reducing the antibody binding to the cell surface, but may also provide insights into the primary function of LbpB in vivo. Although TbpB and LbpB have been shown to be major targets of the human immune response, the selective release of LbpB suggests that unlike TbpB, LbpB may not be essential for iron acquisition, but important for protection against cationic antimicrobial peptides.
The Role of Maternalism in Contemporary Paid Domestic Work  [PDF]
Amanda Moras
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.33033

Various studies of domestic work have identified close personal relationships between domestic workers and employers as a key instrument in the exploitation of domestic workers, allowing employers to solicit unpaid services as well as a sense of superiority (Rollins, 1985; Romero, 2002; Glenn, 1992; Hondagneu-Sotelo, 2001). Likewise, other scholars have pointed out that close employee-employer relationships may actually empower domestic workers, increasing job leverage (Thorton-Dill, 1994). Ultimately, these lines are blurry and ever changing as employers continuously redefine employee expectations. Drawing from a larger study involving thirty interviews with white upper middle class women who currently employ domestic workers (mostly housecleaners) this paper explores employers’ interactions with domestic workers. Through these interviews this research elaborates on how employers and employees interact, how employers feel about these interactions, and explores to what extent these interactions are informed by the widely reported maternalistic tendencies of the past, while also considering the consequences of this.

Epistemological Limits to Scientific Prediction: The Problem of Uncertainty  [PDF]
Amanda Guillan
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.44053
Abstract: A key issue regarding the reliability of scientific prediction is uncertainty, which also affects its possibility as scientific knowledge. Thus, uncertainty is directly related to the epistemological limits of prediction in science. Within this context, this paper considers the obstacles to scientific predictions that are related to uncertainty. The analysis is made according to the twofold character of the limits of science, which is characterized in terms of the “barriers” and the “confines.” In addition, the study takes into account the presence of internal and external factors related to the epistemological limits of science. Following these lines of research, the analysis is focused on two steps. First, there is a characterization of the coordinates of Nicholas Rescher’s approach, which is particularly important regarding the epistemological limits to scientific prediction. Second, there is a study of uncertainty as an epistemological obstacle to predictability. Thereafter, the consequences for the future are pointed out.
Artful Deception, Languaging, and Learning—The Brain on Seeing Itself  [PDF]
Amanda Preston
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.57049

Despite having named ourselves Homo sapiens—a designation contingent on word/reason (logos) as our chosen identifier—recent evidence suggests language is only a small fraction of the story. Human beings would be more aptly named Homo videns—seeing man—if percentage of cortex area per modality determined the labeling of an organism. Instead, the sentential ontology of language philosophers and linguists persists in spite of the growing body of cognitive research challenging the language instinct as our most defining characteristic. What is becoming clearer is that language is palimpsestic. It is like a marked transparency over visuospatial maps, which are wired to sensorimotor maps. The left lateralized interpreter uses language to communicably narrativize an apparent unity, but people are not the only fictionalizing animals. This examination looks to cognitive and psychological studies to suggest that a prelinguistic instinct to make sense of unrelated information is a biological consequence of intersections among pattern matching, symbolic thinking, aesthetics, and emotive tagging, which is accessible by language, but not a product thereof. Language, rather, is just an outer surface. Rather than thinking man, playing man, or tool-making man, we would be better described as storytelling animals (narrativism). Like other social mammals, we run simulation heuristics to predict causal chains, object/event frequency, value association, and problem solving. The post hoc product is episodic fiction. Language merely serves to magnify what Friederich Nietzsche is rightfully identified as an art of dissimulation—lying. In short, the moral of the story is that we are making it all up as we go along.

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