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Analysis of Adaptive Response of Maize (Zea mays) Varieties from DR-Congo to Water Stress  [PDF]
Jean Pierre Kabongo Tshiabukole, Amand Mbuya Kankolongo, Gertrude Pongi Khonde, Antoine Mumba Djamba, Roger Kizungu Vumilia, Kabwe Nkongolo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.89153
Abstract: Maize production in tropical Africa is often negatively affected by drought. The main objectives of the present study were to 1) analyze the impact of water stress on the agro-morphological performance of two varieties of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) compared to two normal maize varieties and 2) assess their adaptive response in contrasting water environments. Agro-morphological responses to water deficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) were assessed in controlled experiments using four maize varieties, two normal maize (Zm725 and Mus1) and two quality protein maize (Mudishi1 and Mudishi3) varieties. They were subjected to three water regimes (100%, 60%, 30% water retention capacity) at the beginning of the bloom stage, using a Fischer block design with four replications. Significant differences (p < 0.05) among varieties, water regimes and their interactions for plant growth and production parameters were observed. Reduction of water supply to plants caused changes in aerial and underground plant growth. Plant stem height, foliar expansion, and root system development characterizing vegetative growth showed variation in varietal response to water regimes. Mus1 (normal maize variety) was the best adapted to variations in water regimes because they developed an important root volume to adapt to the effects of water deficit while maintaining their morphological and productive characteristics.
Decrease in Lysine and Tryptophan Content in S2 Inbred Lines from a Quality Protein Maize (QPM) Variety in a Breeding Program  [PDF]
Kabwe Nkongolo, Kankolongo Mbuya
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61021
Abstract: Several countries in Africa, Latin America along with China have incorporated QPM in their Agricultural development plan. A new quality protein maize variety (QPM) was developed by breeders and farmers using the participatory breeding approach in the DR-Congo. It is adapted to all the maize growing regions in the country. Inbred lines from this new variety were produced for further development of maize synthetic populations. The main objective of the present study is to determine the level of amino acid changes in early generations of inbred lines. The results of the study revealed a significant decrease of 33% and 38% of tryptophan in S1 and S2 inbred lines compared to the original parental MUDISHI 3 population, respectively. There was a decrease of 15% of lysine in S2 inbred lines compared to the parental MUDISHI 3. Actually, S2 inbred lines of MUDISHI 3 contain similar level of lysine compared to the genetically improved normal maize (Salongo 2) that is currently released. The development of composite lines is recommended over synthetic populations to maintain the high levels of lysine and tryptophan along with other desirable agronomic characteristics since they involve the intercrossing of open pollinated varieties.
Simulation of Growth and Leaf Area Index of Quality Protein Maize Varieties in the Southwestern Savannah Region of the DR-Congo  [PDF]
Jean Pierre Kabongo Tshiabukole, Roger Kizungu Vumilia, Gertrude Pongi Khonde, Jean Claude Lukombo Lukeba, Amand Mbuya Kankolongo, Antoine Mumba Djamba, Kabwe K. C. Nkongolo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.106070
Abstract: Logistic and exponential approaches have been used to simulate plant growth and leaf area index (LAI) in different growing conditions. The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate an approach to simulate maize LAI that expresses key physiological and phonological processes using a minimum entry requirement for Quality Protein maize (QPM) varieties grown in the southwestern region of the DR-Congo. Data for the development and testing of the model were collected manually in experimental plots using a non-destructive method. Simulation results revealed measurable variations between crop seasons (long season A and short season B) and between the two varieties (Mudishi-1 and Mudishi-3) for height, number of visible leaves, and LAI. For both seasons, Mudishi-3, a short stature variety was associated with expected stable yield based on simulation data. In general, the model simulated reliably all the parameters including the LAI. The LAI value for mudishi-1 was higher than that of Mudishi-3. There were significant differences among the model parameters (K, Ti, a, b, Tf) and between the two varieties. In all crop conditions studied and for the two varieties, the senescence rate (a) was higher, while the growth rate (b) was lower compared to the estimates based on the STICS model.
Influence of Climate Variability on Seasonal Rainfall Patterns in South-Western DR Congo  [PDF]
Kabongo Tshiabukole, Pongi Khonde, Muliele Muku, Kizungu Vumilia, Kiasala Lunekua, Mbuya Kankolongo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102952
Climate variability in DR Congo in general and in the Kongo Central Province in particular is well established. However, rains related to variables such as frequency of rainy days and duration of the rainy seasons was generally very little studied. This study aims to investigate the influence of the climate event on rainfall patterns in the south-western of the DRC. This is firstly to characterize the climate event from the analysis of the air temperature, the frequency of rainy days and duration of the rainy seasons. Furthermore compare the normal monthly rainfall over the period 1962- 2012 to clear the behavior of seasonal rainfall patterns. Climate variability is manifested by temporal dynamic regressive temperatures, annual rainfall and a decrease in the number of rainy days. A temperature increase of around 1 was observed from 1992 and the thermal peak was recorded in 1994 (>28℃). The highest rainfall was recorded in 2006 (>2400 mm). These variabilities cause short periods of intense rainfall leading to early droughts of the end of season.
Suitable Hybrids and Synthetics Provitamin A Maize Selected for Release in the Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Kabongo Tshiabukole, Pongi Khonde, Mbuya Kankolongo, Tshimbombo Jadika, Kaboko Kasongo, Mulumba Badibanga, Tshibanda Kasongo, Kizungu Vumilia
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103446
Six new provitamin A hybrids (LY1001-14, LY1001-22 and LY1001-23,) and synthetic maize varieties (PVASYN13, PVASYN9 and PVASYN7) were tested for their agronomic performance and compared to a locally adapted improved open pollinated variety (SAMARU) in the central and western conditions of DRC. A randomized complete block experiment with four replications was used. Following data were collected: 50% male and female flowering, plant and ear aspect, diseases incidence, plant height, ear aspect, ear rot and yield. The results showed non-significant differences (p > 0.05) in disease incidence and ears rot. Significant differences were observed (p < 0.05) for number of days to 50% of male and female flowering, anthesis-silking interval, plant height, plant aspect, ear aspect, and yield. For yield, two hybrids (LY100-14 and LY1001-22) respectively out-yielded local check by 71% and 56% while one synthetic (PVASYN 9) out-yielded the local check by 31% and the two others were comparable to the local check. Thus the hybrids (LY100-14 and LY1001-22) and synthetic varieties (PVASYN 9 and PVASYN13) are ready to be recommended for release to contribute to better production and nutrition for vulnerable people.
Evaluation of Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Eight Maize Varieties, Soybean and Cowpea in the Zone of Savanna of South-West RD Congo  [PDF]
Pongi Khonde, Kabongo Tshiabukole, Mbuya Kankolongo, Stefan Hauser, Mumba Djamba, Kizungu Vumilia, Kabwe Nkongolo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103746
In order to enhance the legumes potential advantages on the cereal yield in intercropping system by nitrogen direct transfer from legume to cereal, an intercropping experiment was conducted between eight maize varieties (07SADVE, 08SADVE 1, 09SADVE F2, Mudishi 1, Mudishi 3, VP0523, ZM538 and Samaru), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var. H4) and soybean (Glycine max var. Vuangi) during November 2011-February 2012 season at INERA/Mvuazi in the south-western country of DR Congo. The experimental design was a Split plot with four replications, twenty six treatments were applied between maize varieties monocrops (40.000 plant·ha﹣1) and legumes in monoculture (360.000 plant·ha﹣1) and both of sole planting were combined. Evaluation of these soles planting was performed on basis of several intercropping indices (MYE, LER, ATER, RCC, A and CR), the monetary advantage index (MAI), Actual Yield Loss index (AYL) and intercropping index (IA). After data analysis, competitivity indices indicated the higher yields advantages of maize varieties in intercropping, especially Mudishi 3-soybean (MYE = 2836.300 kg·ha﹣1). The equivalent land ratio (LER) varied with 08SADVE 1variety between 0.70 and 1.66 in cowpea and soybean intercrops respectively, the Relative crowding coefficient (RCC) showed yield advantage of all intercrops except with 09SADVE F2, Mudishi 1 and 07SADVE. Aggressivity (A) showed dominance of maize in all intercrops, against the Competitive ratio (CR) showed that the competitivity was stronger on cowpea (from 16.42 to 98.63) than soybean (from 16.12 to 25.70). Actual yield loss (AYL) was negative in all intercrops with cowpea and soybean. Thus, the index of association (IA) informed that the negative values of the different intercrops were due to the maize price (1000 CDF·kg﹣1) and legumes price (1500 CDF·kg﹣1). Finally, the monetary advantage index (MAI = 922.92) and PCA had determined that intercrop with Mudishi 3-soybean as an economic efficiency intercrop than others mixtures.
Perspectives of Nuclear Physics
Amand Faessler
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics willdevelop quite fast: A. Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region; B. Nuclear structure at the limits; C. High energy heavy ion collisions; D. Nuclear astrophysics; E. Neutrino physics; F. Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: 1. The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon $\Sigma$-term, 2. VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance, 3. Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak, 4. The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.
The Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay, Physics beyond the Standard Model and the Neutrino Mass
Amand Faessler
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The Neutrinoless double beta Decay allows to determine the effectice Majorana electron neutrino mass. For this the following conditions have to be satisfied: (i) The neutrino must be a Majorana particle, i. e. identical to the antiparticle. (ii) The half life has to be measured. (iii)The transition matrix element must be reliably calculated. (iv) The leading mechanism must be the light Majorana neutrino exchange. The present contribution studies the accuracy with which one can calculate by different methods: (1) Quasi-Particle Random Phase Approach (QRPA), (2) the Shell Model (SM), (3) the (before the variation) angular momentum projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method (PHFB)and the (4) Interacting Boson Approach (IBA). In the second part we investigate how to determine experimentally the leading mechanism for the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay. Is it (a) the light Majorana neutrino exchange as one assumes to determine the effective Majorana neutrino mass, ist it the heavy left (b) or right handed (c) Majorana neutrino exchange allowed by left-right symmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUT's). Is it a mechanism due to Supersymmetry e.g. with gluino exchange and R-parity and lepton number violating terms. At the end we assume, that Klapdor et al. have indeed measured the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay(, although contested,)and that the light Majorana neutrino exchange is the leading mechanism. With our matrix elements we obtain then an effective Majorana neutrino mass of: = 0.24 [eV], exp (pm) 0.02; theor. (pm) 0.01 [eV]
Double Beta Decay, Nuclear Structure and Physics beyond the Standard Model
Amand Faessler
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/337/1/012065
Abstract: Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay ($0\nu\beta\beta$) is presently the only known experiment to distinguisch between Dirac neutrinos, different from their antiparticles, and Majorana neutrinos, identical with their antiparticles. In addition $0\nu\beta\beta$ allows to determine the absolute scale of the neutrino masses. This is not possible with neutrino oscillations. To determine the neutrino masses one must assume, that the light Majorana neutrino exchange is the leading mechanism for $0\nu\beta\beta$ and that the matrix element of this transition can ba calculated reliably. The experimental $0\nu\beta\beta$ transition amplitude in this mechanism is a product of the light left handed effective Majorana neutrino mass and of this transition matrix element. The different methods, Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA), Shell Model (SM), Projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (PHFB) and Interacting Boson Model (IBM2) used in the literature and the reliability of the matrix elements in these approaches are reviewed. In the second part it is investigated how one can determine the leading mechanism or mechanisms from the data of the $0\nu\beta\beta$ decay in different nuclei. Explicite expressions are given for the transition matrix elements. is shown, that possible interference terms allow to test CP (Charge and Parity conjugation) violation.
La distinction
Denis Saint-Amand
COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature , 2008,
Abstract: Depuis quelques années, le nom de Nathalie Heinich s’impose comme une sorte d’antonomase personnifiant cette veine de la sociologie contemporaine désireuse de réinventer la discipline et de rompre définitivement avec certains de ses ma tres traditionnels. Depuis La Gloire de Van Gogh (1991) – premier ouvrage remarquable et remarqué explorant, à travers la figure du peintre hollandais, le phénomène de consécration a posteriori – jusqu’à L’élite artiste (2005) – qui tente notamment de mettre a...
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